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Find details about every creative writing competition—including poetry contests, short story competitions, essay contests, awards for novels, grants for translators, and more—that we’ve published in the Grants & Awards section of Poets & Writers Magazine during the past year. We carefully review the practices and policies of each contest before including it in the Writing Contests database, the most trusted resource for legitimate writing contests available anywhere.

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Jobs for Writers

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Wilton Library

The cornerstone writer-in-residence program.

Wilton Library (CT) is pleased to announce the inaugural year of The Cornerstone Writer-in-Residence Program. The program provides an emerging or mid-career writer with financial support and office space to complete one manuscript within a 12-month period. The selected writer will receive a $30,000 stipend, generously provided by the Wilton Library Endowment Fund. In addition to completing their manuscript, the Writer-in-Residence will lead a series of library programs for all ages and offer outreach visits to Wilton schools during their residency.

The University of British Columbia

Lecturer in writing for video games.

The UBC School of Creative Writing invites applications for a 0.5FTE part-time Lecturer position in Writing for Video Games, with a likely start date of July 1, 2024. 

This is a part-time without review (i.e., non-tenure track) position for a term of up to three years, renewable for successive terms, subject to availability of funds and demonstration of excellence in teaching and service, in accordance with the Collective Agreement between UBC and the UBC Faculty Association. This position will entail a probationary first year. 

Diversion Publishing

Royalties admin assistant.

Do you like working with numbers and tracking data but want to learn more about the book publishing industry? Are you a motivated self-starter who thinks no job is too small? Well, keep reading because Diversion Publishing is seeking a Royalties/Bookkeeping Assistant to join our growing book publishing team. This unique role combines the responsibilities of a Royalties Assistant along with bookkeeping responsibilities. Our ideal candidate should be an excellent communicator who is extremely organized and able to manage multiple tasks simultaneously.

AmeriCorps Writers’ Room High School Program Specialist

826 Boston seeks mission-driven change-makers to join the 826 Boston AmeriCorps Fellowship for the 2024-2025 school year. This is an exciting opportunity to join a cohort of 12 AmeriCorps members and play a key role in driving impact to serve more students in the Boston Public Schools through 826 Boston’s innovative Writers’ Room Programs. The priority application deadline for this position is March 15, 2024. After that date, applications will be considered on a rolling basis. It is in your best interest to apply as soon as possible.

Amplify Publishing Group

Marketing and publicity manager.

Amplify Publishing Group (APG) is a leader in the hybrid publishing space with more than twenty years of experience acquiring, producing, marketing, and distributing books. Passionate about ideas and voices that need to be heard, APG is known for launching nonfiction titles that start engaging and timely conversations. 

We’re seeking a marketing and publicity expert to join our energetic and forward-thinking team. Candidates should be passionate about publishing and prepared to think creatively in order to successfully launch and publicize new books.

Content Writer

Use your expertise in storytelling, ghostwriting, marketing, and message development to help Bellwether’s experts share the impact of our work. 

Bellwether is looking for a Content Writer to join our External Relations (XR) team and work cross-functionally with Bellwether’s Strategic Advising (SA) practice area as well as its Policy and Evaluation (PE) practice area to write materials for a variety of external audiences and clients with brand fidelity. 

The Feminist Press

Senior editor.

The Feminist Press is seeking a full-time Senior Editor to work closely with the Executive Director and Publisher and other editorial staff to shape the list of this 54-year-old independent nonprofit intersectional feminist book publisher. The ideal candidate is passionate and knowledgeable about feminist writing and independent publishing. The Senior Editor will be responsible for acquiring and editing fiction and nonfiction books, overseeing the editorial and production department, and leading the Press’s rights program.

The Poetry Foundation

Business and circulation manager.

Role Description

College Transitions

College essay coach (remote).

College Transitions is an independent consulting firm committed to guiding students to and through higher education. We believe that the college admissions process is not an end, but a means to self-discovery, growth, and fulfillment. We aim to bring perspective (and some sanity) to college planning and we strive to provide our students with the comprehensive, data-driven advice they need to enroll and succeed at good-fit colleges and universities.

Fine Arts Center

Instructor of creative writing.

Job Description: Instructor of Creative Writing at the Fine Arts Center in Greenville, SC.

Applications Open: January 9, 2024

Applications Close: March 1, 2024 

Fine Arts Center:

Looking for new clients? Meet them on Reedsy

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Last updated on Jan 10, 2022

Book Publishing Jobs: The 15 Best Places to Find Vacancies

If you’re hunting for a job in publishing, you’re probably well aware that it’s a super competitive field. You need to be on the ball to catch the best listings as and when they come up. To help you out on this quest, we’ve compiled a list of 15 places to hunt for book publishing jobs, including freelancing sites, traditional publishers, and everything in between.

What types of jobs are there in book publishing?

The publishing industry is a huge and varied one, and there are a lot of different career paths available. Other than the usual accountant or IT jobs that exist in every business, careers in book publishing fall within these broad fields:

  • 👋 Acquisition : Acquisition editors identify potentially successful book projects and sign authors on to a contract with a publisher.
  • ✏️ Editing : Book editors work closely with authors to polish the manuscript until it’s ready to be published. The editing department encompasses developmental editors, copy editors , and proofreaders . Learn more in this guide on how to become an editor .
  • 🎨 Illustrations and design : Illustrators, look alive! The design department is in charge of a book's presentation, from the cover jacket to the interior design of a book. Learn more about how to become a book cover designer in this guide .
  • 📁 Production : Production managers keep track of everything and ensure that the book is actually printed before the appropriate deadline.
  • 📢 Marketing and publicity : This department is responsible for marketing and promoting a book , which can include anything from setting up blog tours to writing press releases and sourcing author interviews.
  • 💰 Sales : Salespeople in publishing directly communicate with distributors like bookstores, libraries, online retailers, and schools to advertise new books.

types of book publishing jobs and their positions

These roles are available both in trade and educational publishers, though the job requirements may differ depending on each imprint. (A medical proofreader and a fantasy proofreader will approach their job differently from one another!) 

Some of these occupations, i.e. proofreading or book illustrating , are available as remote publishing jobs. Publishers tend to outsource these tasks to freelancing professionals to minimize costs. Indie authors are also likely to hire editors and designers to prepare their books for releases. With this in mind, we’ve divided our list of places to look for publishing jobs into remote marketplaces and in-house job boards.

Where to find remote publishing jobs

If you're a freelancing publishing professional, or if you are seeking remote part-time work outside of your in-house position, here are some sites to check out. 

📍 Location: Worldwide. 💻 Browse jobs here . ✨Top tip for jobseekers: Check out Reedsy’s selection criteria to get a head start on your application and see if you’re a good fit. 

If you don’t already know, Reedsy is a marketplace that connects authors with publishing professionals who can help them bring their book to readers. For the most part, you’ll be working with self-publishing authors who are looking for editorial , design , and marketing services (which includes web design as well).

reedsy marketplace with publishing jobs

When an author searches for a service, the marketplace brings profiles of suitable professionals to them. After that, the author can send requests to a maximum of five professionals, with details about their book’s genre, word count, description, etc. If you, the professional, are interested, you can respond with a freelance quote . With this mechanism, you get to be in control of your rates and are under no pressure to propose a price lower than you are worth. 

You will have to go through a selection process — the curation team only accepts the best of the best into the Marketplace — but once you’re in, that Reedsy seal of approval will help attract high-calibre remote publishing jobs. Sign up for free right here!



Find exciting new projects

We connect publishing professionals with our community of 1,500,000 authors.

2. Editing and publishing associations

📍 Location: Worldwide. 💻 Browse jobs by becoming a member of the organisation. ✨Top tip for jobseekers: Proactively build and nurture professional connections. 

Another good resource to check out for freelance work is publishing organizations. These often have professional directories that authors or publishers can browse to find their desirable collaborator. They also organize networking events that can bring you closer to your clients, or to other professionals who can refer their clients to you. 

This route is usually more time consuming and requires more effort to actively build connections than if you were to use a curated marketplace. That said, it can pay off in the long term once you’ve created a network of recurring clients. 

Some organizations you may want to join as an editor include the EFA and the CIEP . If you specialize in children’s books, the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators is a good place to go. 

📍 Location: Worldwide. ✨Top tip for jobseekers: Only use Upwork at the beginning of your career. 

Upwork is a well-known name in the freelance world — it’s a marketplace that hosts just about any kind of remote worker. You will be able to find book editing , web designing, illustrating, and marketing gigs on this site, but because it's not a specialized hub, the quality and pay of projects on Upwork won't be high.  

If you’re new to the publishing industry and you haven’t got the experience needed to list your service in a curated marketplace, Upwork provides an accessible solution. However, be aware that there is a lot of competition on Upwork — many freelancers without any publishing experience can bid alongside you, and they're ready to offer a lower price for less specialized services. That's why once you have the necessary experience, we advise you to move on to curated marketplaces. 

4. Twitter 

📍 Location: Worldwide. ✨Top tip for jobseekers: Keep your eyes out for freelance and in-house publishing jobs. 

While social media is not for everyone, it can be highly beneficial to maintain a professional account on Twitter if you want to work in publishing. For freelancers, it’s a great way to get in touch with writers (many of whom can be found on Twitter) in a more friendly manner. All you have to do is to search the hashtag #WritingCommunity and start interacting with potential clients. 

There are also a lot of managing editors on Twitter who will share news about vacancies in their publishing house with followers, so you can always keep an eye out for vacancies.

This is a high maintenance option — it asks for a lot of proactivity on your part. But if you are already on social media, why not use your account as a lookout for book publishing jobs as well?

Where to find in-house publishing jobs

For those hoping to work in a publishing house, here are the sites you can bookmark. We’ll go from publishing-specific job boards to more general hubs. 

5. Publishers Weekly Jobzone

📍 Location: USA. 💻 Browse jobs here . ✨Top tip for jobseekers: To keep abreast of industry news which might prove useful in your job hunt, keep an eye on the rest of the PW site for updates.

Brought to you by Publishers Weekly magazine, the PW Jobzone is a firm favorite among industry professionals for finding jobs. They have listings for all of the major cogs in the production process, from editing to design to marketing .

Book publishing jobs - screenshot of PW Jobzone listings

The main drawback? It’s not a massive pool of listings — it’s certainly nowhere near the size of generalist job sites. In fact, as of January 2022, they only have around 40 vacancies. But what PW lacks in size, they make up for in reputation — you can put your faith in this established name to curate legitimate opportunities for book publishing professionals.

6. Publishers Marketplace

📍 Location: USA. 💻 Browse jobs here . ✨Top tip for jobseekers: They update their job board several times a day, so check back regularly to see new listings as they come in.

Their user interface might be a little, ahem, dated , but Publishers Marketplace is another industry go-to. You can expect to find listings from Big 5 publishers, as well as indie and audiobook publishers. 

Note that Publishers Marketplace is selective in what they post — meaning, like PW Jobzone, you won’t exactly be spoiled for choice. But they do advertise a lot of senior positions, so experienced professionals are likely to find the book publishing jobs that fit their bill here. 

7. Bookjobs.com

📍 Location: USA. 💻 Browse jobs here . ✨Top tip for jobseekers: Bookjobs has a whole page dedicated to internships; it’s a good place to look if you’re just starting out.

Bookjobs.com is a site sponsored by the Association of American Publishers, created to help college graduates from around the USA find jobs within the publishing industry. They also pride themselves on their commitment to encouraging diversity in the industry (the AAP formed the Recruit and Retain task force in 2000 to support just that).

Book publishing jobs - screenshot of bookjobs.com

The cherry on top? It’s one of the bigger publishing job boards out there. 

8. The Bookseller

📍 Location: UK. 💻 Browse jobs here . ✨ Top tip for jobseekers: Sign up for their newsletter if you’d like a weekly update on the latest jobs sent straight to your inbox.

If you’re based in the UK, check out The Bookseller job board. They post listings from Big 5 and trade publishers, but also commit to a good line of academic and educational publishing listings, too, if that’s what you’re looking for.

While you’re there, the Bookseller’s “My Job in 5” series is well worth checking out: they ask a bunch of industry professionals the same 5 questions about their role and advice for industry newbies. Handy stuff!

9. Association of University Presses

📍 Location: USA. 💻 Browse jobs here . ✨ Top tip for jobseekers: Check the “closing” date on listings, which helpfully lets you know the deadline for sending in your application.

If your specialty is academic publishing, look no further than the Association of University Presses job list. It’s a small board, but some of the most prestigious journals and university presses advertise there. If you’re looking for a job in this field, here’s the best place to start.

10. Shelf Awareness

📍 Location: USA. 💻 Browse jobs here . ✨ Top tip for jobseekers: Posting a listing on Shelf Awareness costs $200, so you can expect to only see serious recruiters here.

Shelf Awareness is one of the tiniest job boards you’ll ever come across. However, don’t underestimate its worth: it costs $200 for a recruiter to post a job listing here, so you can be sure that its job board is active and legitimate. 

Book publishing jobs | shelf awareness screenshot

11. Big 5 publishers

📍 Locations: USA and UK, with more offices internationally. 💻 Browse jobs on their individual job boards. ✨Top tip for jobseekers: Networking is often the key to securing a job at a big publishing house, and the baseline requirement is usually a Masters degree minimum.

Of course, the option is always on the table to go straight to the source. This is perhaps the most targeted (but time-intensive) approach to finding a book publishing job, as it involves seeking out the specific publishers you’re interested in and checking out their in-house listings. 

Most publishing houses list their available career opportunities on their websites. Big companies even have their own job boards, like Bertelsmann's board for Penguin Random House imprints. Other Big 5 publishers other than PRH include Hachette, Harper Collins, Simon & Schuster, and Macmillan, which are so named because they’re just that — big . (In fact, you may already know that one of them is about to get even bigger, what with PRH’s acquisition of S&S.)

Book publishing jobs - logos of the Big 5 publishers

Their clout and reputation can be a double-edged sword. On the one hand, they’re so big that they tend to always be hiring, but, on the other, they are hugely competitive. Like, Hunger Games competitive.

As well as brushing up on your networking skills, you’re going to want to do some hardcore research into the different imprints of each company (which may focus on different kinds of books) if you want to ensure you’re a good fit. While some of the Big 5 like Harper Collins do accept CVs for general consideration, we recommend identifying particular openings that you’re suitable for.  

Bear in mind that the standard Big 5 publishers have for their employees is very high and competition is intense, so there’s no guarantee that applying to an open listing will generate any leads. Make sure to do your research, manage your expectations, and be open-minded about applying to smaller, more specialized publishers instead.

12. Other publishers

📍 Location: Worldwide. 💻 Browse jobs on their individual sites. ✨Top tip for jobseekers: Brush up on a smaller publisher’s back catalogue and new releases before applying. 

This is a pretty big umbrella, we know, but the range of small publishers also translates to a variety of opportunities! From Christian publishers to LGBTQ publishers to cookbook experts — if you can think of it, there’s probably a publisher for it.

So if you have a particular literary passion, it’s well worth researching for publishers that specialize in that area — not least because it’s easier to get your foot in the door of a boutique publisher than in one of the Big 5 folks. You’re also more likely to get one-on-one time with colleagues in other departments or with senior colleagues once you get the job. So rather than putting on blinders, be open-minded to opportunities that are a little more off the beaten path! And you can get a headstart by checking out this directory of 30+ independent publishers .

📍 Location: Worldwide, but be sure to visit your local version. ✨Top tip for jobseekers: While Indeed’s “Easy Apply” feature lets you send out a ton of applications quickly, consider editing your CV to suit your potential employer to increase your chances of success.

If the smaller, industry-specific sites aren’t turning up anything for you, consider dipping into more general job aggregators like this site and the ones below. 

Indeed is one of the household names when it comes to job sites, and there’s a huge number of book publishing jobs advertised. They’re global, and they feature listings from some of the biggest players in the industry (think Big 5 publishers).

Indeed is well established, and well trusted. Just be prepared to sift through some less-than-relevant results for your searches, and bear in mind that smaller companies (like boutique publishers) seem to be at a disadvantage and don’t appear very high in the search results, and so they’re unlikely to list there.

14. SimplyHired

📍 Location: Worldwide, but be sure to visit your local version. ✨Top tip for jobseekers: Better suited to finding managerial roles than hands-on creative ones.

SimplyHired is Indeed’s younger, smaller sibling — both fulfill a similar role as a job aggregator. One perk of SimplyHired, however, is that their listings are a little more transparent in terms of pay and requirements, making the job search that bit quicker if you know what you’re looking for.

book composition jobs

A potential downside is that SimplyHired tends to list more administrative or managerial roles than creative positions, so it’s not the best fit when looking for book publishing jobs like designing or copy editing.

15. ZipRecruiter

📍 Location: Worldwide, but be sure to visit your local version. ✨ Top tip for jobseekers: You can set up notifications for new listings that match your skill set (provided you don’t mind them sending you a lot of emails).

ZipRecruiter is the new kid on the job listing block. What sets them apart is that employers have to pay to list a job on the site. While this means that the employers you can find here are pretty serious about hiring, it also puts off some of the smaller employers.

On the flip side, the pro of ZipRecruiter is that its job-suggestion algorithm is pretty good at matching candidates with suitable listings. But like the other general job aggregators, they lean more towards managerial positions than hands-on ones.

As you can see, it’s a jungle out there, but we hope that this list will provide you with a useful starting point for your search. Good luck with the hunt for a book publishing job!

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  • Job Descriptions
  • Manufacturing, Transport, and Logistics Job Descriptions

Bookbinder Job Description

Bookbinders are responsible for finishing and binding books, magazines, brochures, and calendars. Once the product comes off the printer, bookbinders cut, assemble, glue, and stitch the papers together according to desired specifications.

Bookbinder Job Description Template

We are looking for a skilled bookbinder to join our production team. As a bookbinder, you will be responsible for cutting and assembling printed components to form finished book products. You may also be required to stamp covers and pack books into shipment boxes.

To ensure success as a Bookbinder, you should have excellent fine-motor skills, a talent for artistic design, and a keen eye for detail. A top-class bookbinder expertly translates the ideas of the book designer into an attractive and functional product.

Bookbinder Responsibilities:

  • Meeting with the book designers to discuss final product specifications.
  • Cutting papers to size using hand and machine cutting tools.
  • Gluing and stitching components into the cover using manually operated machines.
  • Attaching endpapers to the body of the book.
  • Trimming book edges to size.
  • Applying color to signatures and edges.
  • Cutting and attaching outside cover material to the board cover.
  • Gluing outside endpapers to the final cover.
  • Placing finished books into press until drying is complete.
  • Weighing and stacking books for shipment.

Bookbinder Requirements:

  • High school diploma or GED.
  • Previous work experience as a Bookbinder.
  • Creative design skills.
  • Excellent communication skills.
  • Excellent fine-motor skills.
  • Detailed knowledge of book composition materials.
  • Ability to operate hand and machine cutting tools.
  • Detail-oriented.
  • Ability to operate presses and manipulating tools.
  • Ability to work to a strict deadline.

Related Articles:

Assembler job description, machine operator job description, bookbinder interview questions, assembler interview questions, machine operator interview questions.

BrightRay Publishing Logo

Book Composition

We write, edit, produce, publish, distribute, and market your book, let's get your book written and published.

You have a great book that you just can’t get done. We have a team of writers, editors, and other industry experts who will do it for you. Our all-inclusive service will write, edit, publish and distribute a book that puts your name and story out to the world.

How we do it, and what we'll need from you

Our all-inclusive process.

Our team speaks with you to gain an understanding of who you are, what your book is about, and your goals for writing it. We use these initial interviews  to learn how you speak and map it to your writing style. 

We’ll reach a mutual understanding of the central thesis of your book that incorporates who your audience is. 

Once we establish the book’s theme we begin to weave the overall story. A series of interviews are conducted to understand your background and business, hear your wisdom and what makes you unique.  Our writers use your words to create the manuscript, and revise it along the way based on your feedback, anecdotes, and style.

Once the initial draft is completed, together we determine if more content is needed to present the full story. The process  of picking a title is begun as is designing the cover.

Our editors will review the final manuscript and correct any issues with grammar, syntax, and typos. Our graphic designer will format each page and complete the layout of any pictures and illustrations and ensure that the design meets the requirements  for the various editions (eBook, paperback and hardcover).


We go through a wide range of styles and designers until we get a cover that you absolutely love.

People really do judge a book by its cover, and that’s exactly why we’ll present you with several different design concepts from the very start. From there, we’ll work with you to narrow down on what you like and provide feedback to our designers until we get the perfect cover.


How we get your book out into the world.

We’ll create your author’s account on Amazon’s Kindle Direct Publishing platform and set up the eBook, paperback, and hardback formats.

We’ll find a narrator and produce the audiobook format through Audiobook Creation Exchange.

All versions of your book becomes available for purchase on Amazon. We implement various promotion strategies to get your book ranked in its categories and to as many readers as possible.

book composition jobs

John Mark Hicks

  • Serial Index

Job: Authorship, Date, and Composition

There are many uncertainties about the origin and composition of the book of Job. The author is anonymous. There are no clear indications of date.  Nevertheless, I here offer my own summation of what I think is the best understanding.  Following my summation, I provide a bullet point list of some of the significant data which is subject to a variety of interpretations.

I suggest that Job is a literary unity which arose either in the late pre-exilic or early post-exilic period of Israel’s history (anywhere from 700-400 BCE).  As part of the wisdom culture of Israel, it is at least post-Solomonic and, it seems to me, that the prominence of the Edomite setting suggests (slightly) a pre-exilic date. But a post-exilic date is also quite possible (maybe even likely if we think the theology of Job is intended to help Israel deal with the implications of the exile for their nation).

However, the setting of the book is more suited to the patriarchial period (Abraham to Jacob). Further, Job and his friends are most likely Edomites or at least Transjordanian. Also, the Hebrew wisdom author creatively situates the participants poetic sections in the past. The author creates the impression that while the narrative arises out Hebrew wisdom and language, the dialogue bears the marks of internationalization through the use of Aramaisms and ancient names for God.

Our author, in short, provides a wisdom lesson through the experience of Edomite wise men a millennium previous to his own time much like we might teach a contemporary lesson through the use of medieval characters. He seeks to teach his own culture (Israel) a wisdom lesson about God, suffering and faith that he thought they needed to hear. Perhaps if we gain a more precise understanding of the “lesson,” we might be able to situate the author more specifically in his own history.

Bottom line….we don’t know much. But we do have a piece of literature that is regarded as world-class literature and functions as Scripture for both Jews and Christians.

Date and Authorship

Who knows? Who can tell? How can anyone tell?

  • The book is anonymous—no author claims it.
  • The book is undated—it is not located in any particular history.
  • The fact that authorities propose dates and authors spanning a millennium indicates that the evidence is inconclusive (Pope, Job [Anchor Bible], xl).

What do we know?

  • It is part of the Hebrew canon with the Hebrew name of God.
  • Targum of Job from Qumran Cave XI dates from around 100 BCE
  • Names, places and particulars are consistent with ANE.
  • Story is located outside of Israelite culture (internationalization). Situated in Transjordan (Arabia, Edom), the milieu is patriarchal (e.g., monetary unit in Job 42:11 is only found in Genesis 33:19 and Joshua 24:32).
  •  Sirach (Ecc 49:9) and Testament of Job mention Job dating it before 200 BCE.

What are the proclivities?

  • Evidence of inner-Biblical discourse: dialogue with the Hebrew canon (e.g., Psalm 8?).
  • The final edition assumes a Hebrew metanarrative as a hermeneutical lens.
  • Placement in the “Writings” may indicate later date (perhaps exilic or postexilic).
  • There is nothing in Israel’s history or literature that suggests that such a wisdom document could have appeared before the emergence of wisdom conventions in Israel during the Solomonic era at the earliest.
  • Job is mentioned in Ezekiel 14:14, 20—but is it oral or written tradition?
  • The theme may fit exilic or postexilic Judah best, and there appear to be close connections between Job and Jeremiah’s laments as well as Second Isaiah (40-55).
  • Job has many Aramaisms which may indicate a late date (Persian period) but for others it reflects the author’s intentional internationalization of the work (Aramaisms appear in the poems but not in the narrative). [1]
  • The Hebrew of Job is elegant and intricate; indeed, it is “richer than that of any other biblical text” (Greenstein, 652). It is not a work of translation from another ancient language. This is a Hebrew original.
  • Persian characteristics may include nomenclature of officials, development of “satan” (like Zechariah 3), but choice of Edomite wisdom may not suit Israel after 587 BCE. (Edomite names dominate; cf. Genesis 36:4, 11 and Uz is identified with Edom in Lamentations 4:21; Edom was known for its wisdom, Jeremiah 49:7; Obadiah 8.)
  • The names of God define the narrator as Hebrew but the dialogue as deliberately set in a  non-Hebrew or more ancient setting. [2]
  • Options include:  Dramatic Lament (Westermann), Lawsuit (Sutherland), Controversy Dialogue (Crenshaw), Epic (Sarna), Greek Tragedy (Kallen), or Parable (Maimonides).
  • The Most Significant ANE Parallels:  “Babylonian Theodicy” (1000 BCE; a poetic dialogue of a questioning sufferer with a friend with traditional views and concluding that traditional views are inadequate) and the Akkadian “I Will Praise the Lord of Wisdom” [ Ludlul Bel Nemeqi ] (600-1150 BCE; a monologue lamenting suffering which is perceived as punishment from the gods). [3]   There are other texts that parallel in different ways from Egypt and Mesopotamia (see Pope’s introduction to Job in the Anchor Bible series).
  • But Job is unique in length, variety of genre, theology, , etc. But it does share a common ANE wisdom concern with some similar strategies: the justice of God and human suffering.


Some suggest this process (critics have different orders but these are the components):

Stage 1:  The Dialogues As Original (chapters 3-31, excluding chapter 28)

Stage 2:  The Prologue/Epilogue Added (chapters 1-2, 42:7-17)

Stage 3:  The Yahweh Speeches Added (chapters 38-42:6)

Stage 4:  The Elihu Speeches Added (chapters 32-37)

Stage 5:  The Wisdom Poem Added (chapter 28).


  • International vs. Hebrew (e.g., Yahwehist) sections (intentional or two works?)
  • Prologue/Epilogue may have been adapted from an oral, ancient folktale.
  • Strong contrast between Narrative and Dialogues (intentional or clumsy?)
  • ANE literature has Dialogues without Prose (but some with both, eg., Egypt).
  • Elihu is not mentioned in the Prologue/Epilogue or Dialogue (potential rationale?)
  • Wisdom Poem as Final Compiler’s resolution (or as part of Job’s speech?)

Where Are We?

  • Uncertainty about literary development (no textual history to suggest it).
  • The possibility of reading the text as a whole (a final editor at least read it that way).
  • The possibility that the text is from a single person, lacks literary growth and is the work of a skilled poet who plays with dissonance within the text.
  • Developmental theories are primarily rooted in hermeneutical moves (e.g., “this does not make sense unless we suppose that “X” was added later, as in “Satan” is not mention in the Dialogues or Elihu is not mentioned in the Epilogue).  Hermeneutics will then judge.
  • The final editor (however that happened) thought the work was coherent, and the community of faith embraced it as a way of serving faith.

Canonical Theology

As part of the canon—both Hebrew and Christian—we embrace the conviction that Job is “word of God” to us. This is a theological commitment linked to community, tradition, and the existential power of the text.

Consequently, we read in hope that God will use this ancient book to transform us and shape us into a people who serve as a light to the nations.

[1] Edward L. Greenstein, “The Language of Job and Its Poetic Function,” JBL 122 (2003) 651-666.

[2] The chart is adapted from http://epreacher.org/sermons/b-jobintro.pdf .

[3] “Babylonian Theodicy” is available at http://www.etana.org/node/582 and “I will Praise” is available at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/1700ludlul.asp .

This entry was posted on September 6, 2011 at 9:20 am and is filed under Biblical Texts . Tagged: Bible-Job , Job Introduction . You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response , or trackback from your own site.

7 Responses to “Job: Authorship, Date, and Composition”

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John mark: ANE? ? please. RIcH.

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ANE means “Ancient Near East” Sorry for the abbreviation unexplained.

Thanks, John mark.

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hi there, First of all, thanks for sharing! Not sure if you have read this, but Gary Rendsburg, perhaps predictably, considers the Aramaisms in Job as indicative of a Transjordan setting, but suggests that Y-W-‘s speech is Judean.

See “Monophthongization of aw/ay>a in Eblaite and in Northwest Semitic -” Gary A. Rendsburg (esp. p104ff)

Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language, Volume 2 Edited by Cyrus H. Gordon and Gary A. Rendsburg Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and the Eblaite Language – EEEAEL 2 Eisenbrauns, 1990

Daniel Oden

Thanks. I appreciate the bibliographic reference.

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JMH, Thanks for sharing this. I am enjoying it and look forward to the rest of the series. I missed your posts while you were away over the summer and am happy you’re back.

Additionally, I appreciate your humble spirit in your posts and especially in your dealing with all those that comment here. I spent most of a 37 year career conducting interrogations. I had a natural talent to be confrontational and aggressive when the situation called for it and then that attribute of my personality was “developed” to a significant degree at work. Thus, I have had a propensity to be aggressive and confrontational even when it is inappropriate. Your humble spirit provides a model for me. I am reminded of Paul’s exhortation to imitate him as he imitates Christ. Hesed, Randall

Randall. I fore one after all these years of reading your interactions,find that difficult to belive… 🙂 Blessings to you

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Composition Writing: A Step-by-Step Guide

Lindsay Kramer

As a student, you’ve likely done composition writing, even if the assignments weren’t specifically labeled as compositions. 

The truth is, it can be challenging to answer the question, What is composition writing? Here is the concise definition of “composition”: the way a writer crafts words, sentences, and paragraphs to create a coherent work. More broadly, composition writing covers all the kinds of writing you’ll encounter as a student and the strategies you use to write each type capably.  Give your writing extra polish Grammarly helps you communicate confidently Write with Grammarly

What is composition writing?

Composition can mean two things. It can mean a piece of writing, or it can mean the art and process of writing. Composition isn’t a specific type of writing like an essay or a blog post. Instead, it’s a broad term that can refer to any (usually nonfiction) work and how a piece is written. Under the first definition, you might be asked to write a composition for class. Using the second definition, somebody might refer to “the essay’s composition” to discuss the format and word choice its author used. A composition is not the same as an essay. Here’s one area where the definition of composition writing can be confusing—an essay is a kind of composition, but the terms aren’t interchangeable. Every essay is a composition, but not every composition is an essay. A composition can also be a book report, a presentation, a short response to a reading assignment, or a research paper. 

The four modes of composition

There are four types of composition:

  • Description
  • Argumentation

Do these sound familiar?

They’re the four types of writing. Essentially, the definition of “composition writing” is the tone and structure a writer uses to express their position . When a composition is a work of fiction, its author typically chooses the composition mode that best expresses the work’s theme. Think of each of these as a composition writing format. You might use more than one of these composition modes in a single piece of writing. 

A description is a piece of writing that makes a clear statement about its subject. Here is an example of a description: 

Water, chemical symbol H2O, is a clear, colorless liquid that has a freezing point of 0 degrees Celsius and a boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius. Water is the most abundant atom in our atmosphere. All life-forms on Earth need water.

A description doesn’t speculate or offer up opinions or interpretations. It simply states the facts. 

Exposition is an interpretation of the facts. It expands on a description by introducing additional facts that shed light on how the subject fits into a larger discussion. It might explore related facts and what they imply and/or pivot to related topics through thoughtful transition sentences and extrapolation. It’s still grounded in fact; an exposition doesn’t include its author’s opinions on the subject. Take a look at this example: 

Although water is the most abundant atom in our atmosphere, entire regions are devastated by yearly droughts. These droughts can lead to mass starvation due to crop loss. Switching to more sustainable agricultural practices can reduce the impact of droughts, and doing this successfully requires cooperation between governments and corporations.  

Narration is the mode of writing that presents the author’s point of view. The writing is still about its subject rather than its author, but it discusses and explores the subject through the author’s description of their experience. Here is an example of narrative writing: 

I’ve always had a healthy respect for water, and I’d say that comes from an experience with it I had as a small child. It was a delightful summer day and my family decided to take the boat out. But then the sky suddenly turned gray, and our delightful summer day became a terrifying summer thunderstorm, with forceful winds pushing the boat as my brother and I tried to bail the pooling rainwater out with buckets. 

See how this example is about the author’s thoughts and feelings about water, whereas description and exposition stick to objective facts? Personal essays are perhaps the most common type of narration composition.

The last type, argumentation , isn’t really argumentative. Rather, it’s similar to a persuasive essay . In an argumentation composition, the writer presents two or more positions on an issue and, through a logical exploration of each, demonstrates why one position is the best choice. Take a look at this example: 

Researchers have identified multiple strategies we can use to prevent droughts. These include rainwater harvesting, desalination, switching to renewable energy sources, and combating deforestation. These strategies have different success rates . . . 

In this example, the writer would go on to compare these different drought prevention strategies and their recorded success rates. 

When do you write a composition?

You might be asked to write a composition as part of a composition writing course. It’s not uncommon for students to be required to take courses that focus solely on composition writing, often early on in their college careers, to prepare them for the writing they’ll do in other courses later. 

Your instructor might also assign you to write a composition when the assignment doesn’t quite fit the parameters of an essay or other established academic writing format. This might be because the assignment is primarily to give your opinion or perspective rather than support a specific position with evidence. You might also be asked to write a composition as a way to practice writing in one of the compositional modes we discussed above. 

How to write a composition in 5 steps

As we mentioned above, composition writing is a broad subject. There is no specific composition writing format, nor are you limited to any specific composition writing topics. 

If your composition is an essay—and often, this is the case—follow the standard essay format unless your instructor tells you to follow a different format. 

Composition writing follows the same writing process as every other kind of writing. Here are the steps: 

1 Brainstorm

Before you can start writing, you need to figure out what you’re going to write about! When you brainstorm, that’s exactly what you do. Take some time to think about your subject, the compositional mode you’re writing in, and the sources you’re using (if your assignment requires sources) to support your position. 

Jot down every idea, relevant fact, and connection you come across. You can also give freewriting a try as you brainstorm to see how your mind wanders through your subject and sources. Take your time with brainstorming because this is the stage where you might come across the perfect topic sentence and make connections among sources you might not have realized before. 

The next step in the writing process is creating an outline . This is a basic framework for your composition.  

An outline helps you organize your composition by giving you a visual overview of its flow. Depending on your assignment and instructor, you might be required to submit your outline and have it approved before moving forward with your composition. Even if you aren’t, it can be very helpful to create an outline so you have something to follow and refer to when writing and editing. 

3   First draft

Finally, it’s time to do some composition writing!

Using your brainstorming notes and outline, write your composition. Keep in mind that you don’t have to write it in order—in fact, it can be helpful to start with whichever part you find easiest to write, like the conclusion or one of the supporting paragraphs, and build it out from there.

Don’t worry too much about making grammatical mistakes at this stage. You’ll fix those when you edit your draft. Similarly, if a sentence or paragraph feels awkward, out of place, or otherwise not quite right, don’t dwell on it now. That, too, is something you’ll smooth out when you edit. When you’re writing your first draft, just focus on getting the words out of your brain and into your composition. 

If you didn’t come up with a title when you brainstormed or outlined, you might be able to write a clever one once you have a finished draft. 

With the first draft down, give yourself a break. You’re a better editor when you come back to your work with fresh eyes, so take a few hours—ideally, twenty-four hours or so—to work on other projects or spend some time relaxing. 

Once your break is over, read your draft again. Take note of all the grammatical mistakes and which words, sentences, and paragraphs feel off. Grammarly can help you catch mistakes at this stage.

Beyond any small edits like changing word choices, fixing grammatical mistakes, and smoothing out transitions between sentences and sections, look at the bigger picture. Try to see if there are any logical fallacies in your work or if there are areas where you can dive deeper into your subject. Editing is a holistic process, so pay attention to all the parts of your composition and how they work together. 

Through the editing process, you’ll end up with a second draft. At this stage, you’re almost ready to submit your work. 

5 Proofread

After editing your work, proofread it! This is the last look-over before you submit your composition to your instructor. 

At this stage, you’re primarily focused on catching any grammar , syntax, or spelling mistakes that can be fixed easily. When you edited your work, you did the heavy lifting of transforming a first draft into a second draft. Through that stage, you might have added new sentences or reworked existing ones. At this stage, check and see if you made any mistakes in those new sentences or if you overlooked any mistakes in lines you kept from the first draft.

Let Grammarly have another look at it too. Grammarly makes suggestions you can use to make your work stronger, like offering fixes to grammatical mistakes and ways you can make your work’s tone more cohesive. 

After proofreading your work and fixing any mistakes, you’ve got a finished, ready-to-submit second draft! The only thing left to do is turn it in to your instructor and wait for their feedback. 

Composition writing FAQs

Composition writing is the organization and process of creating a piece of writing. It broadly refers to all the kinds of writing a student may be assigned, which are typically types of writing like essays and reports. 

What are the different kinds of composition?

The four kinds of composition are: 

How is composition writing structured? 

There is no specific composition writing format. However, compositions typically follow a similar format as essays. Most compositions begin with an introduction that includes the work’s thesis, which is then followed by supporting paragraphs containing evidence from the sources the writer used in their research. After these supporting paragraphs, most compositions end with a conclusion that reiterates each point made and offers a new, final thought on the subject.

book composition jobs

Learning Music Skills

11 Best Books On Music Composition For Composers In 2024

Xander | Learning Music Skills

How can I get better at composing music ? Composing music is a never-ending learning process. Nevertheless, it is a skill that can be learned. With each composition and every minute spent composing music , you get better. Here are the best books on music composition that you can use to improve your music -writing skills.

Best Music Composition books

Best Books on Songwriting for Songwriters

Best Books on Music Production & Audio

Music Theory Books for Beginners & Professionals

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The free tutorials and articles from Learning Music Skills are supported by music lovers just like you. When you purchase through links on my website I may earn an affiliate commission while it doesn’t cost you more. For example, as an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.

Can music composition be learned? So you want to improve and get better at composing music , or maybe you just started learning music composition. There is nothing that can replace hard work and the actual hours spent writing music . But by doing proper research and reading good composition books, you can speed up the process significantly.

Why read books on music composition? Well, that’s an easy-to-answer question. These books give you a detailed look into the process of composing music . So let me ask you a question: why search for all the answers yourself if somebody else has already done the hard work for you? That’s right, these books give you an insight into all the tools you need for writing music .

The second reason is that you learn to apply music theory in a fun and organized way. The books that are lined up in this article are perfect for music students learning composition with a teacher or individual studies. They have great explanations and there are many exercises that you can do to apply the newly learned composition techniques. For keeping your work organised I would advise getting a composition notebook/journal .

Here are the best books on music composition lined up:

Music Composition Books

Music theory and composition: a practical approach by stephen c. stone.

  • Composing with Constraints by Jorge Variego

Composing Music by William Russo

Musical composition: craft and art by alan belkin, fundamentals of musical composition by arnold schoenberg, behind bars: the definitive guide to music notation by elaine gould, harmony books, harmony and voice leading by edward aldwell, carl schachter, allen cadwallader, modern harmony: its explanation and application by a eaglefield 1876-1928 hull, interesting books for music composers, the rest is noise: listening to the twentieth century by alex ross, writings on music by steve reich, music of the twentieth century: a study of its elements and structure by ton de leeuw, top music composing books from this list.

If you are more into songwriting , music production or music theory then check out the linked articles to learn more.

Music Theory and Composition: A Practical Approach

Music Theory and Composition: A Practical Approach

Composing with Constraints: 100 Practical Exercises in Music Composition

Composing with Constraints: 100 Practical Exercises in Music Composition

Harmony and Voice Leading

Harmony and Voice Leading

Behind Bars: The Definitive Guide to Music Notation (Faber Edition)

Behind Bars: The Definitive Guide to Music Notation (Faber Edition)

The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century

The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century

Here are the best and most practical books for learning to compose music .

When you think about music writing and composition this is the book that has it all if you ask me. I find it to be the most complete book on music theory and composing music so far. And the best thing is that it has a workbook integrated so you don’t have to spend money buying a textbook and a workbook. There are so many things that this book does right. At the beginning of each chapter, you have the learning objectives laid out. At the end, you have a summary and a terminology list. Followed by composition exercises that have clear objectives and additional useful information.

What I also like is that, unlike many other books, the importance of melody is not neglected. This theory book also takes on different styles of music . So if you are also interested in for example pop music , then this one is right for you. In short, you can’t go wrong with this book.

Composing with Constraints: 100 Practical Exercises in Music Composition by Jorge Variego

I love this composition book. As a professional composer or as a student you need to practice your skills every day. Even if it is just for a minute. ‘Composing with constraints’ is one of the best composition books out there. With these practical and challenging exercises, you can practice your craft. You can also use it to explore new techniques and boundaries in your music composition.

This book can be used for private use, in individual classes, or in a group with a music composition teacher. In any case, I cannot recommend this book enough! The composing exercises are challenging, fun and educational.

This is my favourite music composition book. Hands down. I love the fact that it is to the point and has many interesting exercises. This book will be a good fit for people who are just learning to compose music as well as more advanced composition students looking for a refresher. William Russo did an outstanding job making this book and it is highly recommended. I go back to it every once in a while just to look for new inspiration. Learning and applying the composing techniques from this book will improve your creativity and skillset.

Composing Music

Alan Belkin is well-known in the online composition, orchestration, and music theory community. He is an excellent teacher and creates high-class and information-rich videos on any music topic you like. I have been following his content on YouTube for many years now. It is a valuable resource for music composition.

What makes his book unique is that it is not baked into a certain style or genre. You could say that it is relatively style-neutral. Why is this important? When examples are in a certain style then the techniques might not work in a different style of music .

Musical Composition: Craft and Art

Arnold Schoenberg does not need an introduction I assume. His music and his writings on music composition and music theory are a staple of Western music history. His book the fundamentals of musical composition is a very interesting read and there is much to learn about music composition. I definitely recommend that you have this one on your bookshelf. Although the content might be somewhat outdated and less suitable for modern composers, nevertheless it is an invaluable resource.

Fundamentals of Musical Composition

This book is not about writing music as in music composition techniques, but it should be on any composer’s desk nevertheless. Why? Well because without proper music notation, your music might not be performed properly. But not only that. It can look amateur if your notation is incorrect or messy. The book Behind Bars by Elaine Gould is a masterpiece. It is the best book on music notation. You will never have any questions about how to write music down since this notation book is so elaborate.

Songwriting Tips and Music Theory For Composing Music

YouTube video

If you want to learn more creative composition and songwriting techniques and also hear them in action, then check out my video tutorial playlist called: Songwriting Tips & Music Theory for Composing Music . Or check out all the educational music videos and articles on this site.

As a composer, the topic of harmony is one that you probably have a strong interest in. And rightfully so. Harmony is an indispensable music theory topic that each composer should be able to master. Here are my main harmony books for music composers.

The mother of all harmony books if you ask me. I used this book extensively during my years at the faculty. And I still reference it frequently today. All the examples are laid out clearly and the chapters are organized logically. This book takes you from beginner to advanced level in such a way that it is fun to learn. Each chapter is like a summary of the Western common practice period.

Just keep in mind that the book “Harmony and Voice Leading” is more for classical music -oriented people but don’t let that discourage you. It’s interesting to apply these harmony techniques to different styles of music . This is a book that will last you a lifetime.

I think this is a relatively unknown book since I don’t see it on any lists online. But it is an amazing resource. Not only does this cover the topic of advanced harmony thoroughly, but it also touches the ground on music composition techniques. There are countless examples from musical scores to go along with each harmonic technique. Of course, keep in mind that this book is from the early 1900’s so the word modern seems a little outdated. Nevertheless, it is an inspirational read! You will be able to take some nuggets of wisdom out of it.

Modern Harmony: Its Explanation and Application

The Musical Modes: Melodies & Chord Progressions

YouTube video

If you want to learn more about modal harmony and modal melodies then check out my article about Musical Modes: Melodies & Chord Progressions . I guarantee that these videos will leave you with some new music composition ideas that you can try out while writing music .

Composing music is not only about learning music theory and doing exercises. It’s also about staying informed and inspired. Music history and the working process of other composers can be very inspiring and educational. Here is my list of inspirational and interesting books for composing music .

When I started reading this book I was overwhelmed, to say the least. This book has so much information in it. And it is written engagingly and entertainingly. This book never gets boring. From all the pieces mentioned in this book, you will have a music listening list that will last you for years.

The book ‘The Rest Is Noise’ is a detailed overview of modern music history. Alex Ross masterfully takes the listener by the hand to the different continents, musical styles and times. I cannot recommend this book enough. Educational and fun. That’s how I like it! And when you’re finished reading you can check out his other book which is called “ Listen To This “.

Steve Reich needs no further introduction I assume. His music is/was groundbreaking and has been part of the foundation of today’s classical music and film music . Many pop artists, songwriters, and producers are inspired by his works. During my first year studying music composition at the music faculty, I read his book ‘Writings On Music ‘. It was extremely educational and inspiring. He talks about how he composes music and gives all his ‘composing secrets’ away. I have not seen any composer sharing his techniques so generously with the public. It’s simply amazing.

If you are not into minimal music or the music of Steve Reich, then still this book is highly recommended. You can read and learn how to think as a composer and how to approach composing methodologically. He has a very clear and creative way of thinking. For me, this book was an eye-opener and inspiration.

Writings on Music, 1965-2000

Ton de Leeuw is a famous Dutch composer and pedagogue. He was a student of Olivier Messiaen and his music is a profound synthesis of Eastern and Western music . His book on music composition is a wealth of compositional techniques throughout modern music history. Even though this book is slightly dated it is highly recommended for any composer seeking more depth and advanced composition techniques.

Music of the Twentieth Century: A Study of Its Elements and Structure

What are the 4 basic elements of music composition?

There are many more elements to music composition but if I had to choose the 4 basics of music composition, they would be the following:

  • Melody : This is a group of notes that are organised and create a tune that you might recognize. Although the definition is far more broad than this. Usually, the melody is repeated throughout a composition or song. In general, the melody is what people often remember.
  • Harmony : When you play two or more notes at the same time, you can consider this as being harmony. With harmony, you can create different effects, such as tension, resolution, consonance, or dissonance. Also, you can use the underlying harmonies to either support a melody or give it extra colour, depth and richness.
  • Rhythm: Rhythm is the underlying pulse that drives a song forward. Rhythm can also create different patterns and accents that make the music more interesting and varied.
  • Form: This is the structure or shape of a song or composition. With musical form, we can organise the music into different parts or sections such as introduction, verse, chorus, bridge, etc. This helps the listener follow and understand the music better. You can also use it to make a piece of music more interesting.

How do I teach myself music composition?

You can teach yourself music composition in many different ways. But it will always be a mix of analysing and listening to music , reading books, working with musicians, following classes from an instructor or professor or attending courses and master classes. Just don’t forget that one of the most important things of all is to consistently write music . Maybe not every day, but every couple of days you need to write some music . I believe in the power of dedication and habit, not in divine inspiration.

Is it possible to learn music composition?

Yes, it is! Never let anybody tell you that it is not possible to learn music composition. There are many different ways that you can learn to compose music .

  • By yourself: You read a lot about music , watch tutorials on YouTube and buy some courses online. Find musicians in your circle of friends and ask them to perform any music that you write. This will be very useful and will be a great learning experience. Also, ask them what they think and how you could improve it. You don’t have to take all their advice, but feedback is always better than having none at all.
  • With a private teacher: when you study with a private teacher you will focus on writing music and doing composition exercises your teacher gives you. It is very important to write small exercises because they help you understand larger and more difficult topics.
  • At a music school or faculty of music : Here you will have an official composition professor who guides you in your creative journey. Apart from having music composition as a subject, you will also have different classes such as music theory, orchestration and solfeggio. A list of famous music faculties see the list below.

If you want to get a degree in music then here are some of the more well-known universities that you could apply to:

  • Northwestern University  in Evanston, Illinois, USA. This university has a renowned music school that offers a Bachelor of Music , a Master of Music , and a Doctor of Music in Composition.
  • University of Michigan  in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. This university has one of the oldest and most prestigious music programs in the country. It offers a Bachelor of Music , a Master of Music , and a Doctor of Musical Arts in Composition.
  • University of Southern California  in Los Angeles, California, USA. This university has a leading music school that offers a Bachelor of Music , a Master of Music , and a Doctor of Musical Arts in Composition.
  • Vanderbilt University  in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. This university has a top-ranked music school that offers a Bachelor of Music and a Master of Music in Composition.
  • Carnegie Mellon University  in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. This university has a distinguished music school that offers a Bachelor of Fine Arts and a Master of Music in Composition.
  • Oberlin College  in Oberlin, Ohio, USA. This college has a prestigious conservatory of music that offers a Bachelor of Music in Composition.
  • The Juilliard School  in New York City, New York, USA. This school is one of the most famous and selective music schools in the world. It offers a Bachelor of Music , a Master of Music , and a Doctor of Musical Arts in Composition.
  • The University of Texas at Austin  in Austin, Texas, USA. This university has an excellent music school that offers a Bachelor of Music , a Master of Music , and a Doctor of Musical Arts in Composition.

Is music composition a talent?

Yes and no. I firmly believe that anybody can create and write music . And I also believe that everybody is creative in their own way. So I definitely don’t like it when people talk about composing music as if you were born with this talent. Yes of course for some it comes more naturally than others, but without hard work and practice nothing will happen. So don’t ever think that it’s too late to start composing or studying music . Any time is the right time!

Xander | Learning Music Skills

Hi my name is Xander and I am a Composer, Songwriter and Music Educator with a degree in music composition. I teach many students all over the world via private music classes and via my YouTube channel, Learning Music Skills .

As a composer, educator and content creator, my goal is to share all aspects of the process of making music. I want to give everyone the tools necessary to be able to understand, enjoy and create music. No matter the genre or skill level. If you have any questions or when you want to work together, please contact me .

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The Strangest Job in the World

Edith Wilson may have been closer to running the country than being a kindly helpmate.

Woodrow and Edith Wilson

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The role of first lady couldn’t be stranger. You attain the position almost by accident, simply by virtue of being married to the president, but then it comes with punishingly high expectations. The moment’s prevailing ideas about womanhood and marriage—right now, very confused and fluctuating ones—are projected onto the plus-one, who must conform or find some way out from under this burden. Katie Rogers’s new book about our most recent first ladies, from Hillary Clinton to Jill Biden, looks at exactly this struggle to play a part for which there is no longer any clear script to follow.

“Every first lady in modern times has been a pathbreaker,” writes Helen Lewis in her essay on the book: Perhaps, she argues, none more so than … Melania Trump. Having largely ignored what a first lady is supposed to do—including not even living in the White House for a long stretch of time—Trump broke the mold, one that keeps being refashioned with each new partner who finds herself (or, hopefully one day, himself) in the role. Helen’s essay made me think about the memoirs by first ladies, which now seem almost like a genre unto themselves. One of the earliest entries, largely forgotten today, was by a woman who may have been closer to running the country than being a kindly helpmate: Edith Wilson.

First, here are three stories from The Atlantic ’s Books section:

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Helen Taft’s Recollections of Full Years , published in 1914, was the very first memoir by a presidential spouse (Julia Grant also recorded her memories, though they weren’t published until 1975). But My Memoir , by the second wife of Woodrow Wilson, Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, came out in 1939 and seems to have really set the trend in motion. Her story had high dramatic potential. After all, she and the president, both widowed, met and got married in 1915, while he was in the White House and not long after World War I had started. Then something even more consequential happened: Wilson had a stroke in October 1919 that left him almost completely incapacitated. “Madam, it is a grave situation but I think you can handle it,” Edith records the doctor saying to her in My Memoir . “Have everything come to you; weight the importance of each matter, and see if it is possible to solve them without the guidance of your husband.”

By most accounts, Edith then basically took over. No less than an official White House biography describes her as “functionally running the Executive branch of government for the remainder of Wilson’s second term.” If Melania matters because she took the liberty of checking out, Edith might be our most underrated first lady for actually taking on the job of president.

You wouldn’t learn much from My Memoir about the scale of her decision making in the year and a half in which she was effectively in charge. The book is filled with observations about the events and people Edith encountered at Wilson’s side, such as a dinner at Buckingham Palace and details about what she and the Queen both wore. The New York Times review characterized the memoir—with the era’s jaw-dropping but casual misogyny—as a “large, chatty, emphatically feminine book.” To the extent that Edith describes her role in the White House, it appears reserved to being simply a “steward” of her husband. The book, written 15 years after his death, was largely an effort to defend his legacy, not to bolster her own unexpected contribution to history. (The most recent issue of The Atlantic , coincidentally, has an essay from David Frum calling for the “uncancelling” of Wilson.)

How thrilling it would have been to read about what she actually experienced as a woman without any higher education, who had never run anything, suddenly inhabiting what was one of the most powerful positions in the world. The fact that she had had to censor her own story speaks to just how circumscribed the role of first lady was—but would not always be. Even as Edith Wilson was publishing her recollections, Eleanor Roosevelt was in the White House, offering a very different picture of the kind of independence and will a presidential spouse could exercise. She even wrote about it, in the not one but multiple memoirs that she published in her lifetime, whose titles tell their own tale: This Is My Story , This I Remember , and On My Own .

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This volume brings together every short story Welty wrote , the large majority of them set in small-town Mississippi. In the collection, women cluster together, opining, helping out at funerals, and fanning themselves waiting for rain; the men go off to drag the river for drowned bodies. The Natchez Trace, the historic trail that cuts through the state, crops up again and again, a wild, difficult, almost mythical road that looms large in the characters’ minds. Welty is famous for much-anthologized stories like the antic “Why I Live at the P.O.,” but her oeuvre is weird and dreamlike, with a pervading aura of secrecy: In one story, a deaf boy forms an attachment to Aaron Burr at the inn where Burr plans his conspiracy; in another, a girl is kept confined by a husband far too old for her in a plot straight out of a fairy tale. In each, Welty’s precise and lavish descriptions of the world abound—a night sky “transparent like grape flesh,” the “embroidering movements” of insects, the Mississippi River “reaching like a somnambulist driven to go in new places.” Every detail seems to hold meaning, to express some facet of the emotional revelations her characters are continually arriving at. Taken together, the stories feel like a glimpse into the humid, shadowed interior of the state itself. — Chelsea Leu

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book composition jobs

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics

Composition design and optimization of fe–c–mn–al steel based on machine learning †.

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* Corresponding authors

a School of Mechanical Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu, China E-mail: [email protected]

b Institute for Advanced Study, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China E-mail: [email protected]

The purpose of this study is to explore the composition space of Fe–C–Mn–Al steel using machine learning in order to identify materials with high-strength mechanical properties. A dataset of 580 steel samples was collected from the literature, each containing information on elemental composition, heat treatment processes, specimen dimensions, and mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength and total elongation). Eight common machine learning models were constructed to predict the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and total elongation (TE) of the steel. It was observed that the random forest regression (RFR) model, when trained, demonstrated superior overall performance in predicting UTS, with an average absolute error of approximately 90 MPa, and TE, with an average absolute error of about 7.9%. Validation of the model using eight sets of data that were not part of the dataset revealed that the predictions were in close agreement with experimental results, indicating the strong predictive capability of the RFR model. Subsequently, the trained RFR model was used to explore the composition space of Fe–C–Mn–Al steel, identifying the top fifty combinations of elemental compositions and heat treatment parameters, all of which manifest high ultimate tensile strength (UTS). This provides valuable research directions and methods to expedite the development of high-strength Fe–C–Mn–Al steel.

Graphical abstract: Composition design and optimization of Fe–C–Mn–Al steel based on machine learning

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Composition design and optimization of Fe–C–Mn–Al steel based on machine learning

H. Cheng, Z. He, M. Ge, L. Che, K. Zheng, T. Si and F. Zhao, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. , 2024, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D3CP05453E

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Dune: Part Two

Javier Bardem, Josh Brolin, Rebecca Ferguson, Dave Bautista, Austin Butler, Timothée Chalamet, Zendaya, and Florence Pugh in Dune: Part Two (2024)

Paul Atreides unites with Chani and the Fremen while seeking revenge against the conspirators who destroyed his family. Paul Atreides unites with Chani and the Fremen while seeking revenge against the conspirators who destroyed his family. Paul Atreides unites with Chani and the Fremen while seeking revenge against the conspirators who destroyed his family.

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  • Trivia Officially green lit on October 26th, 2021, four days after Dune: Part One's US release.

Paul Atreides : "May thy knife chip and shatter."

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