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Advertisements are becoming more and more common in everyday life Sample Essay

Courtney Miller

Updated On Dec 13, 2023

essay about disadvantages of advertising

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Advertisements are becoming more and more common in everyday life Sample Essay

IELTS Writing Prediction Questions for 2024

This article contains Advertisements are becoming more and more common in everyday life sample essays.

Given below is a real IELTS Writing Part 2 Essay question. We have provided sample essays as well as an essay outline so that you can practice writing your own!

Not sure how to approach IELTS Essay questions? Take a look at IELTS Writing Task 2 Preparation Tips and Tricks !

Learn how to write the perfect essay introduction with the guide below!

Read the sample essay for Advertisements are becoming more and more common in everyday life. Is this a positive or negative development?

IELTS Writing Task 2 Sample Essay

Advertising is gaining more popularity in the marketing of products or services. While advertisements are considered to be advantageous, they can have numerous negative influences.

It is unquestionable that there are several benefits of advertising. By dint o f the large-scale expansion of advertising in almost every kind of mass media and nearly all hoardings , this sector is likely to generate a diversity of employment opportunities . In other words, it provides occupations for artists, painters or copywriters in designing and preparing logos, contents or ideas for advertisements. Another advantage is that advertising may enable the messages involved in products and services to reach potential customers , followed by an increase in sales for businesses. Additionally, only thanks to advertisements, can customers be kept informed about newly-launched products . Therefore, they have more choices to make about their beloved products, contributing to the enhancement of their comforts and standard of living.

However, advertising could cause several disadvantages for customers. No sooner might companies or business exaggerate or even distort the facts related to their products for commercial purposes than the customers can experience feelings of confusion about these items, making them have troubles   selecting the products to their taste. Furthermore, the facts show that the more advertising expenses increase, the higher the product price is. The reason can be that the selling price of the advertised items covers the high cost of advertisements . As a result, the advertised products can cost more than they should. Finally, when customers cannot resist the temptation of products which are advertised beyond customers’ expectations , there is every likelihood of them purchasing products which may be unnecessary. This trend could be seen as a waste of money.

In conclusion, based on the aforementioned explanations, individuals may gain both considerable benefits and drawbacks through the growing prevalence of advertisements.

Band 9 Sample Essay

Today, as is rightly said by many, is a world of marketing and endorsements. In the competitive world that we have today, advertisements and commercials are a must. This essay shall advocate the development and constructive impact of advertising.

Early-stage or mid-age startups, organizations and companies, the more we see, the more we observe the encompassing pervasion of businesses these days. One niche has typically umpteen business models. With the rising era of entrepreneurs, solopreneurs and digital nomads, the vigour and strife amongst businesses have only been exacerbated. Therefore, advertisements are of greatest essence keeping in view the current times, thereby, resulting in the increasing usage of various adver

tising channels, be it, pamphlets, hoardings, flyers, newspaper commercials, or the entire digital marketing rigmarole. The more the marketing, the more is the awareness.

Many people might not even be acknowledged to the new product line a company launches or a new product that paves its way in the market. In such a scenario, making them aware is the only perspective initially thought of. Moreover, making a new customer be a stalwart, remarketing branding and endorsing are what businesses primarily and obviously look for. During today’s time when options are many, in the pursuit of customers, a recognition of a brand evanescing is not uncalled for, reminding them of one’s existence, in such a case, is majorly solicited.

Some may argue that advertising tactics today have been misguiding, well, that’s not the case amongst those who are prudential and wakeful of the multiple sources available.

Conclusively, it could be stated that advertisement has been progressive development, and not only should it be treated as an option to ponder upon, but also considered as one of the key constituents of a business model and the relevant campaign.

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Courtney Miller

Courtney Miller

Courtney is one of our star content writers as she plays multiple roles. She is a phenomenal researcher and provides extensive articles to students. She is also an IELTS Trainer and an extremely good content writer. Courtney completed her English Masters at Kings College London, and has been a part of our team for more than 3 years. She has worked with the British Council and knows the tricks and tips of IELTS.

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17 Biggest Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising

Advertising is the profession or activity of producing consumer marketing messages for commercial products or services. Although there are times when companies can advertise for free, this tactic typically involves paying another agency for space to promote something specific. The goal of this investment is to reach as many people as possible who are likely to pay for the items suggested in the ads.

When businesses start advertising, then it is essential for each firm to find their ideal customer. It is cheaper to create ads that work with a specific population group instead of working with generalized data. Companies can look at gender, age, education, income, and a person’s geographic location to determine if there is a strong likelihood that someone will become a customer.

Advertising can occur in a variety of ways. Outlets include television, radio, newspapers, and magazines. Some companies use billboards, the sides of buildings, or product packaging. Internet options continue to expand.

That’s why the advantages and disadvantages of advertising require a careful review. It could be a way to expand the influence of a brand, but this investment could also be a waste of money if not approached correctly.

List of the Advantages of Advertising

1. Advertising is what sets companies apart from each other. Advertising is the fastest way for an organization to prove the expertise it offers in its industry. This marketing approach allows a company to look at the specific pain points its goods or services address so that customers can independently decide if there is value available to consider. The free-market system allows consumers to make choices based on their needs for innovation, so the advantage here is that improved communication occurs from the business to the consumer.

2. Companies can reach multiple markets and population groups simultaneously. Advertising is one of the most straightforward ways to contact multiple demographics simultaneously. This investment helps a company to discover who their primary consumers are in better ways, along with the demographics to which they belong. Marketing through paid and unpaid platforms contributes to data that enables prospect duplication.

Advertising also allows a company to reach out to multiple new markets to judge how influential their marketing messages can be in the future.

3. Businesses can concentrate their advertising on a single population group. Advertising enables a company to target one population group specifically. We see this benefit daily through direct mail efforts, email marketing blasts, and television commercials. When you can time these messages to correspond with times or circumstances where a consumer feels a pain point, then a successful conversion is more likely to happen. It forms a natural networking opportunity that helps prospects engage with a brand message because they can acknowledge the created value proposition.

4. Advertising creates economic benefits at every level. The advertising economy in the United States is responsible for almost 20 million jobs. It is available in every market at each level, from ultra-local to international campaigns. This industry provides opportunities for almost every skill, ranging from sales-based approaches to creative careers like graphic design or writing. When successful outreach efforts occur, then businesses increase revenues. That creates even more jobs that support other companies at every level.

This cycle repeats itself every time a new advertising campaign occurs. Although there are no guarantees for success, a company must make itself known to its community for customers to become aware of its goods or services. That means there’s always a place for it.

5. The advertising industry creates a global culture. Every global event that involves participation, goods, or services requires advertising content to increase exposure. The budget for the Olympic Games in each cycle is several billion dollars. Companies use sponsorships, naming rights, and other strategies to increase brand awareness in a variety of ways. It gives us an opportunity to work together to support the common good at every level.

Even a group of businesses that support a youth soccer league get to take advantage of this benefit. Although the benefits are more localized with that support, it’s still creating a global culture within that community.

6. It gives an opportunity to create niche expertise presentations. The prevalence of PDF downloads, ebooks, whitepapers, and similar written content is a form of advertising that businesses use to prove their expertise. Advertising is moving toward a place where the value to the consumer is the priority instead of what the customer can do for the business. This benefit works for B2B and B2C firms because it shows people what can be done for them instead of telling them what can happen.

That’s why this form of advertising is so effective. It builds loyalty by focusing on relationships instead of relying on logo recognition or a tagline to stay at the top of the mind of possible consumers.

7. Advertising helps a customer make positive choices. Each customer has a different preference for specific products or services based on the pain points they encounter in life. Some choices are going to be more appealing than others, which is why businesses promote what they offer proactively. If someone can compare value propositions in real-time situations to determine what options provide the best value, then that ability increases the likelihood of a transaction taking place.

Businesses can provide specific or broad data about their goods or services to each demographic in unique ways to encourage this advantage. It is a benefit that can lead to tremendous growth opportunities when handled appropriate.

8. It is a straightforward way to support moral or social issues. Companies can support the public good by producing advertising campaigns that can bring more awareness to specific societal issues. Homelessness, cyberbullying, and similar concerns receive exposure in ways that wouldn’t be available to consumers without this marketing effort. Even though there are production costs to consider with this advantage, the value that occurs through increased revenues and economic activities from helping others more than makes up for the initial investment.

List of the Disadvantages of Advertising

1. Everyone is advertising. The average person gets exposed to over 2,000 brand messages every day because of advertising. That makes this marketing effort less effective unless there is a way for a company to rise above all of that noise. This disadvantage is the reason why you see businesses like Geico take unique approaches to this investment, using a mix of humor and character development to create something memorable.

Most people spend less than five seconds to determine if an advertisement is worth their attention. If that content fails, then the remainder of the ad gets forgotten.

2. Advertising cannot produce guaranteed results. Businesses take a gamble when they pay for advertising. This marketing effort doesn’t come with a guarantee. The companies that purchased TV spots during the 2020 Super Bowl were paying over $5 million for a segment. That’s a massive investment in something that may not produce additional revenues.

Although there is value in brand recognition, that outcome only translates to investment when it creates an eventual conversion. Having someone know that Flo represents Progressive isn’t beneficial if that person always uses public transportation. That’s why most small businesses focused on targeted, localized ads as a way to create results.

3. The cost of advertising can be a disadvantage to small businesses. The cost of TV advertising at local television stations is at least $5 for every 1,000 viewers during a 30-second commercial. Then you have the cost of creative development when taking this marketing approach to consider. By the time the first spot hits the air, a company has likely spent at least $10,000 to create the materials and purchase the airtime.

National spots are much more expensive. Businesses that purchase a 30-second television ad on a national broadcast spent an average of $115,000 per slot in 2019.

4. Potential customers may be on multiple platforms. If brand recognition is the goal of an advertising effort, then a business may need to invest in multiple platforms to gain the levels of familiarity they require. You can advertise in printed publications, online blogs, television, radio, Internet ad services, and all of the other traditional methods. A company might find over 100 different ways to reach their customers. When an advertising budget is financially limited, then finding out where most people are consistently becomes a top priority.

5. Advertising requires interesting materials to be useful. The best advertising efforts create memorable experiences for targeted consumers. If you’re a science-fiction fan, then you probably remember all of the exposure Taco Bell paid for itself in the movie Demolition Man. If you’re a fan of older superhero movies, then you may remember the giant Coca-Cola billboard blowing up in Superman. If a business can’t create such an experience, then the entire message gets forgotten.

This disadvantage means that every business must continuously invest in innovative marketing approaches to stay relevant. It’s also the reason why you see brands trying to copy the success that others find in this arena.

6. The “Fake News” movement tarnishes the reputation of advertisers. Politics in the United States has become a fractured, cantankerous space where anyone who doesn’t agree becomes an enemy. If a business advertises through a traditional media outlet that promotes a political agenda or news stories that someone finds to be disagreeable, then that company’s brand becomes directly tied to that experience. Although the people who agree will be more likely to purchase goods or services, those who don’t will boycott the agency indefinitely.

7. Advertising increases the risk of a brand message getting tarnished. Advertising can be memorable for all of the wrong reasons sometimes, leaving viewers to wonder what a business was thinking when putting a spot together. Qiaobi often receives credit for putting together one of the most racist commercials in history by having a Chinese woman forcing a black man into her washing machine after he whistles at her. Once the washing cycle is finished, a winking Asian man emerges.

Miracle Mattress put together a local advertising spot that mocked the events of 9/11, including having two stacks of mattresses fall on workers. Burger King unleashed a regional spot for their Texican Whopper that had the tagline of “The taste of Texas with a little spicy Mexican” – and the add featured a tall American cowboy and a short Mexican wrestler.

8. Most people consider advertising to be a nuisance. Extravagant advertising may have a positive effect on the economy. Still, it tends to harm consumers when the same promotions happen repetitively. This disadvantage occurs in the United States every two years during the election cycles when political ads take over the television and radio. It can also happen when spots frequently occur within the same broadcast or publication.

Hundreds of millions of dollars in advertising may get spent on a single election, exposing populations to competing messages that get monotonous and bothersome when they air several times per hour.

9. The targeted consumers may not see the marketing message from an advertising effort. New technologies make it easier than ever before for consumers to proactively opt-out of viewing advertisements. Popup blockers for Internet browsers can eliminate almost every ad that might display when users are online. Families can fast-forward through ads on broadcast networks when they record shows to watch. Some providers even offer tech that eliminates this marketing effort automatically.

Even if someone is watching live TV, an advertisement break creates an opportunity to walk away from the television. Companies can pay millions without ever knowing if their intended audience is available to watch what they’ve put together.

Advertising messages are an effort to persuade people to purchase specific goods or services. This outcome is also the goal of B2B transactions. A person must become convinced that one item is better over another. That’s why each ad offers a headline, subheading, body copy, image, and a call-to-action. It’s like a 30-second speech that shows how much value something has to a potential client.

Advertising isn’t the only way to get a message seen or heard. It can be more expensive to utilize than other marketing opportunities. That’s why it tends to be more popular with large corporations than sole proprietors and other small businesses.

The advantages and disadvantages of advertising balance cost with the opportunity to increase revenues and consumer awareness. Although there are no guarantees for success, this marketing option can produce immediate and memorable results.

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Advertising Makes Us Unhappy

  • Nicole Torres

essay about disadvantages of advertising

The more a country spends on ads, the less satisfied its citizens are.

The University of Warwick’s Andrew Oswald and his team compared survey data on the life satisfaction of more than 900,000 citizens of 27 European countries from 1980 to 2011 with data on annual advertising spending in those nations over the same period. The researchers found an inverse connection between the two. The higher a country’s ad spend was in one year, the less satisfied its citizens were a year or two later. Their conclusion: Advertising makes us unhappy.

  • Nicole Torres is a former senior editor at Harvard Business Review.

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Advertising Methods: Benefits and Drawbacks Essay

Introduction, benefits and drawbacks of types of advertising, the most effective type.

It is essential to mention that advertising surrounds people; it is an integral element of modern business. Advertising is a type of marketing activity, which is to disseminate information about the product to attract more customers. Large organizations understand the need for quality advertising, which is why they create departments where specialists are engaged in marketing. Accordingly, an effective advertising campaign makes the brand more recognizable and significantly increases the firm’s profit (Schneider, 2017). Therefore, it is crucial to identify and compare the advantages and shortcomings of different promotion types.

Media or banner advertising involves posting text or graphics on websites, forums, and portals. One of the main advantages of the banner is that it contains animation, which is usually an excellent eye-catcher for visitors (Schneider, 2017). In addition, the banner usually has a hyperlink to the resource being promoted, due to which it is actively attracting targeted traffic. Among other benefits, media advertising provides comprehensive coverage of the audience. Its use can quickly increase sales of well-known brands, as and promote new products and services. Currently, experts widely use banner ads during various promotions and brand promotions. The disadvantages of this type of advertising include that half of the clicks on banners happen by accident, at least on mobile devices (Deepak & Jeyakumar, 2019). Another shortcoming of banner advertising is that many users do not view it because they use programs that block such commercials.

The next type of marketing, contextual advertising, serves primarily to attract and increase the number of potential customers. It is a text-graphic or text block displayed with the advertising platform’s content (Deepak & Jeyakumar, 2019). Among the main advantages of contextual advertising can be called the demonstration of blocks already interested audience, the fee charged per click on the ad, and the loyalty of users who perceive such advertising as part of the information on the site (Deepak & Jeyakumar, 2019). The main disadvantages are the high cost, complicated configuration, the need for regular maintenance, and increased competition.

Moreover, the type of advertising is advertising in social networks; this method of advertising is currently developing rapidly. It can be organized by several methods: by placing banners and contextual ads on users’ pages. In this case, the payment is made only for the number of impressions of ads or the number of clicks on them (Deepak & Jeyakumar, 2019). Additionally, the creation of thematic communities with the active involvement of subscribers, that is, interested public potential customers. To attract visitors to social networks to any particular site, such advertising has the following advantages. This includes targeting the target audience, detailed analysis of the course of advertising, cheap cost, and involvement of a large audience (Deepak & Jeyakumar, 2019). Promotion in social networks also has disadvantages; for example, attracting a mass audience in highly specialized areas is impossible, and it is difficult to analyze the effectiveness of promotion in advance.

The most effective type is advertising in social networks because it is, first of all, a gathering of a live audience interested in communication and shopping. Furthermore, almost 50% of the world’s population uses social networks (Deepak & Jeyakumar, 2019). This is more than 3 billion users around the world. Statistics show that 93% of social media advertisers regularly use Facebook ads. In addition, 81% of companies prefer video marketing on Facebook (Deepak & Jeyakumar, 2019). Thus, an increasing number of companies use social networks because half of the world’s population is registered in them.

Hence, advertising is distributed in different ways, depending on the goal that the company is attempting to achieve or the target audience that the campaign is aimed at. However, one of the most effective types of advertising is social media promotion. This is because it does not require significant financial investments, but attracts a significant amount of audience. In addition, the types of advertising include media and contextual.

Deepak, R. K. A., & Jeyakumar, S. (2019). Marketing management . Educreation Publishing.

Schneider, G. (2017). Electronic commerce . Cengage Learning.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising

essay about disadvantages of advertising

Everything you need to know about advantages and disadvantages advertising. Advertising is defined as the paid, non-personal form of communication about products or ideas by an identified sponsor through the mass media so as to inform, persuade or influence the behaviour of the target audience.

Advertising is directed to a large number of people and not to one individual. That is why we call it non-personal. Advertising is communication about products or ideas. It may inform us about the features of iPod or new smart phone or spell out the need to have a cancer check-up.

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of advertising are:-

A. Advantages of Advertising – 1. Promotion of Sales 2. Expansion of Production 3. Enhances Goodwill 4. Large Turnover and Huge Profits 5. Information about Different Options and Comparative Prices 6. Creates Employment 7. Higher Standard of Living

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B. Disadvantages of Advertising – 1. Adds to the Cost of Production and Product 2. Leads to Price War 3. Deceptive Advertising 4. Leads to Unequal Competition 5. Creates a Monopolistic Market 6. Promotes Unnecessary Consumption 7. Decline in Moral Values.

Learn about the Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising

Advantages of advertising:.

The advantages of advertising are to be analyzed in terms of its advantages which are as follows:

(i) From Viewpoint of Manufacturers:

A well-advertised product is easier to be sold by the salesman in the market. If a brand is popular and well-known, people respond favourably to the salesman’s efforts. It provides a support to salesmanship, as the audience understands the product and its uses more clearly through the advertisement and the salesman’s effort is reduced to convince the buyers.

(a) Increase in Sales:

The main object of the manufacturer in advertising his products is to promote the sale of his products. Goods produced on a mass scale are marketed by the method of mass persuasion through advertising.

Repetition of advertisements, the manufacturers are not only able to retain existing markets but are also able to expand the markets both by attracting more people to their products and also by suggesting new uses for them. Advertising is a helping hand to selling.

(b) Supplementing Salesmanship:

It creates a ground for the efforts of the salesmen. When a salesman meets its prospect, they have just to canvass for a product with which the consumer may already have been familiarised, through advertisements. Therefore, the salesman’s efforts are supplemented and his task is made easier by advertising.

(c) Lower Costs:

Sales turnover and encourage mass production of goods are enhanced by advertising that results in large scale production, average cost of production reduces and results in higher profits. At the same time, when the cost of advertising and selling costs gets distributed over a larger volume of sales, the average cost of selling also lowers down.

(d) Greater Dealer Interest:

Advertising creates demand by which every retailer gets an opportunity to share with others. Hence, the retailers who deal in advertised goods are materially assisted by advertising in the performance of their functions. The retailers have not to bother much about pushing-up the sale of such products. Therefore, they evidence more interest in advertised products.

(e) Quick Turnover and Smaller Inventories:

A highly responsive market is created by well-organised advertisement campaign thereby facilitating quick turnover of the goods. Resulting, in lower inventories in relation to sales and being carried-on by the manufacturers.

(f) Steady Demand:

Seasonal fluctuations on demands for products are smoothened by advertising generally the manufacturers tries to discover and advertise new possible uses of which a seasonal product maybe put. The innovation of cold tea and cold coffee for the use during summer has helped in increasing the demand for these beverages even in that season. The same maybe said for refrigeration.

(ii) From Viewpoint of Consumers:

(a) Improvement in Quality:

Usually, goods are advertised under brand names. When a person is moved by the advertisement to use the product, they proceeds on the hope that the contents of the particular brand will be better than the other brands of the same goods.

When his experience confirms his expectation, a repeat order can be expected. Or else, the sales may rise very high once but may drop down very low subsequently when the consumer’s confidence in the quality of the product fails.

(b) Facility of Purchasing:

Purchasing becomes easy for the consumers after advertising. Generally, the re-sale prices (prices at which the goods are to be sold by the retailers) are fixed and advertised. Thus, advertising offers a definite and positive assurance to the consumer that they will not be overcharged for the advertised product. The consumer can make his purchases with utmost ease and confidence.

(c) Consumer’s Surplus:

The utility of given commodities is increased by advertising for many people. It points-out and pays even more for certain products which appear to have higher utility to them. If these products are available at the original lower prices, there will naturally be a certain amount of consumer’s surplus in terms of increased satisfaction or pleasure derived from these products.

(d) Education of Consumers:

Being an educational and dynamic principle, the prime objective of advertising is to inform and educate the customers about new products, their features, prices and uses. It also convinces them to adopt new ways of life, giving up their old habits and inertia and have a better standard of living.

(iii) From the Viewpoint of Middleman:

(a) Retail Price Maintenance becomes Possible:

The consumers are quite keen on getting quality products at stable prices over a period of time. Each consumer has his or her own family budget where he or she tries hard to match the expenditure to the disposable income for a socially acceptable decent living.

In case the prices go on changing abruptly, these individual budgets are likely to be distorted to such an extent that the consumers will have to think of substitutes for the products they are enjoying at present.

(b) Acts as a Salesman:

What a travelling salesman does for this organisation is done by the advertising at least cost. This is the reason that most of the retail organisations do not employ large army of travelling salesman, rather they are willing to spend on advertising which attracts consumers to the sores where the counter salesmen cater to their needs.

(c) Ensures Quick Sales:

Every retailer having the stock of different producers needs a quick turnover. By bringing the wide range of these products to the notice of the consumers, advertising boosts up of sales.

Faster sales imply the specific advantages such as reduced capital look-up, reduction in losses of holding stock over longer period, increased profits even by reducing the profit margin per unit. Further, advertising gives much leeway and freedom to better serve the needs of the consumers.

(iv) From the Viewpoint of Society:

(a) Change in Motivation:

Radically advertising has changed the basis of human motivation. While people of earlier generations lived and worked mainly for bare necessities of life, the modern generation works harder to supply itself with the luxuries and semi-luxuries of life.

(b) Sustaining the Press:

For support and sustenance the newspapers, periodicals, journals, looks for advertisers, press, look to advertisements. In the absence of income from advertising, the newspapers have to be produced at a higher cost and may not be able to keep themselves free from its competitors.

(c) Encouragement to Artists:

Designing artists, writers to do creative work. They earn their living from preparing advertisements.

(d) Encouragement to Research:

When manufacturers are assured of sufficient profits. They undertake research and discover new products or new uses for existing products. Advertising puts forward this assurance and thereby encouraging industrial research with all its advantages.

(e) Glimpse of National Life:

A glimpse of national life is provided by national life.

Disadvantages of Advertising:

Advertising too have its own limitations. In some case it’s being misused by few people over looking their business interests.

The main weaknesses of advertising are discussed below:

i. Deferred Revenue Expenditure:

It is a deferred revenue expenditure, as the results are not immediate. As advertising occupies a substantial portion of the total budget of the organisation. Hence, investing a large sum in it does not necessarily yield immediate results thus limiting its utility.

ii. Misrepresentation of Facts:

A major drawback of advertising is misrepresentation of facts regarding products and services. Advertisers usually misrepresent unreal/false benefits of a product and make tall claims to excite people to indulge in actions leading to their benefit, but opposed to consumer’s self-interest.

iii. Consumer’s Deficit:

Advertising creates desires as consumers have low purchasing power. It leads to discontentment. Such discontent is obviously not very desirable from the point of view of society, particularly if it affects a large majority of people. But it is important if it acts as a spur to social change.

iv. Barriers to Entry:

Advertisements promote industrial concentration to a greater or lesser degree. The extent of such concentration may vary with the character of the individual trade, the advertisability of the product and the technical conditions of its production. Although, studies on this subject are not conclusive. The evidence of positive association between advertising and concentration is weaker than can be expected.

v. Wastage of National Resources:

It is objected that advertisement is that it is used to destroy the utility of goods before the end of their normal period of usefulness. Now models of automobiles with nominal improvements are, for example, advertised at such high pressure that the old models have to be discarded long before they become useless, not that merely, the most-advertised products are delicate, fragile, and brittle.

vi. Increased Cost:

It is much debated whether advertising induces additional cost upon a product which the community has to pay. In a sense, it is true since expenses on it form a part of the total cost of the product. But at the same time, it would be unjust to infer that if the advertising costs were cut down the goods would necessarily be cheaper. Advertising is, one of the items of costs but it is a cost which brings savings in its wake on the distribution side.

vii. Product Proliferation:

Critics state that advertising encourages unnecessary product proliferation. As it leads to the multiplication of products that are almost identical, resulting in wastage of resources which could otherwise have been used to produce other products.

viii. Multiplication of Needs:

Advertising compels people to buy things they do not need as it is human instincts, to possess, to be recognized in the society, etc., are provoked by advertiser in order to sell products. At times, various types of appeals are advanced to arouse interest in the product. Sentiments and emotions are played with to gain customers.

Benefits of Advertising :

i. Internet Advertising is Huge:

With the growth of information on the Internet has growth the amount of time people spend on it, which has in turn generated a new market for Internet advertising. Some of the wealthiest companies in the world have made sure that they get a piece of the internet marketing pie, and for a good reason.

ii. Internet Advertising is Targeted:

As a company looking for advertising opportunities to a specific market, Internet advertising offers some targeting methods that insure that those who see your ads are the ones most likely to buy. Programmes like Google’s Ad Words and AdSense match up advertisers with content that their target market peruses regularly. Forget the costly machine- gun strategy of newspaper advertisements, Internet advertising is targeted!

iii. Internet Adverting Enables Good Conversion Tracking:

It is impossible to get a good idea of how many people see advertising through traditional means. Tracking the reach of newspaper and television advertisements is difficult. However, Internet advertising allows the advertiser to track the number of impressions an ad gets (how many people see it), and how many visits their business web site gets from particular ads, making it easy to see what kind of conversion rates internet advertisements are getting.

iv. Internet Advertising has a Lower Entry-Level Fees:

If you have a limited budget, Internet advertising can be much more in reach than traditional methods. A small yellow-page ad can cost thousand rupees. However, you can bid for advertisements on Google and Overture on a performance basis. That means that you only get charged when visitors click on the advertisement, and bidding starts at a few rupees pop.

v. Internet Advertising can be Much Cheaper :

Because of the targeted nature of Internet advertising and the ability to track the effectiveness of ads, conversion rates from internet advertising is typically much better than traditional mediums.

vi. Internet Advertising has Greater Range :

One more benefit is that, since the Internet spans the globe, pockets of your target market scattered around the world can all be targeted at once, rather than trying to find different publications, radio stations and television stations that cater to a particular geographical area.

On the whole, Internet advertising can be a great way to get the word out there about your service or product in a cost- effective, efficient way.

Limitations :

i. Measurement problem – It is difficult to measure effectiveness of advertising.

ii. Surfing speed – Due to traffic and technical difficulties users find that the time required to access sites can be long.

iii. Clutters – Too many ads over a short period could result in low registration of the message.

iv. Privacy – Like telephones being misused for telemarketing, Internet is also accused of invading user privacy.

Advertising is beneficial to manufacturers, traders, consumers and society as a whole:

1. Promotion of Sales:

Advertising helps the producer to increase his sales. A form attempts to increase the demand for its product, either by reducing the price or by inducing buyers to purchase more of its product; even at the constant price. The latter involves the use of sales promotion and hence advertising.

2. Expansion of Production:

Increased demand brought about by advertising has to be met by a corresponding increase in production. In this way, advertising causes production to expand in order to cater to an increased demand.

3. Enhances Goodwill:

Advertising is instrumental in increasing the goodwill of the company (advertises). It introduces the manufacturer and his product to the people. Repeated advertising and better quality of products strengthens manufacturer’s reputation and enhances his goodwill.

4. Large Turnover and Huge Profits:

An increased demand, generated through advertisements can create a larger turnover for the company and eventually resulting in more profits.

5. Information about Different Options and Comparative Prices:

Advertisement keeps the buyers well informed by providing information about the different products and their relative prices. This helps the consumer to take adequate decision regarding the features they want and the amount they want to spend, even before physically going to the shops.

6. Creates Employment Opportunities:

Advertising is capable of providing employment to large section of the society including the professionals like painters, photographers, singers, cartoonist, musicians, models and people working in different advertising agencies.

7. Higher Standard of Living:

Advertisement promotes larger consumption, increased production and greater employment. This further reflects on lower prices, better quality and greater variety of goods to the consumers. Advertising, thus, ensures better and happier living.

Disadvantages of Advertising :

Despite of being regarded as the life-blood of modern business advertising has the following disadvantages:

1. Adds to the Cost of Production and Product:

Advertising increases the cost of the advertised product, as the expenses on advertisement add to the total cost of the product. To mitigate the cost incurred during advertising of the product or the service, the advertiser adds the cost of advertisement to the total price of the product or the service. So, the advertising cost is actually being borne by the consumers.

2. Leads to Price War:

Large scale competitive advertising by prominent competing firms can possibly lead to advertising wars with the consumers being made to pay for it. It leads to a situation of price war and that makes the production activity unduly wasteful. The entire industry has to suffer a setback.

3. Deceptive Advertising:

Sometimes, advertising is used as an instrument of cheating. Unscrupulous firms defraud the consumers by misrepresenting their products through advertising. In order to induce people to purchase their product, firms issue false statements with regard to different virtues of a products; this undermines public confidence in advertising. As a result we have the Advertising Code of Conduct that regulates advertising and ensures commercial honesty.

4. Leads to Unequal Competition:

The producers spend a huge amount of money for the advertisement of their products and services. Small local firms cannot match the big advertising budgets of multinational companies. Therefore, the scales are always tilted in favour of the bigger producers leading to unequal competition.

5. Creates a Monopolistic Market:

Larger firms by virtue of their larger advertising budgets drive the smaller firms out of the market. This leaves the market open to just a few large producers. In this way the bigger firms win competition and monopolize the market.

6. Promotes Unnecessary Consumption:

Advertising promotes the consumption of goods and services which are not even required by the people. Hence it is wastage of national resources.

7. Decline in Moral Values:

In order to attract attention of the people, many times advertisers use indecent, vulgar language and obscene photographs.

All these reasons together justify the statement that “Advertising is Social Waste”, because it does not add any real value to the society.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising – With Criticisms

Money spent on advertisement is an investment – This is because it gives rise to many benefits to various. Categories viz., Producers, Middlemen, Consumers and entire society.

The various benefits are as under:

A. Benefits / Advantages to Producers / Manufacturers:

1. Communication of Information to Consumer, i.e., Information about product, price and place from where it can be bought. Latest innovations and arrivals. Changes in product by manufacturer.

2. Brand Building – Advertisement is actually brand building. Advertisement creates brand preference for company’s products. Brand equity is established with the help of advertisement Brand equity refers to over-all strength of a brand in the market and its value to the company owning it.

3. Increase in sales – Old customers are kept tied up with the firm, reminding them about product, again and again through advertising. New customers are created by creating attraction towards product. Demand for new products is created by explaining merits of the product showing superiority over rivals’ products and giving knowledge about new products.

4. Help in facing competition and protecting manufacturer against unfair competition as advertisement creates a brand name.

5. Increase in Profits via increased sales.

6. Creation/Enhancement of Goodwill of Company and Product as clientele increases.

7. Stability in seasonal Demand – Advertisement helps in creating demand over all the seasons by discovering new product and new usage of product. For example, tea is sold in summer, ice-cream in winter due to advertising.

8. No Overstocking due to Quick Sales/turnover by creating high responsive market. Also this results in lower inventories.

9. Economies/Advantages of Large Scale Operation as sales increase.

10. Establishing Direct Relations/Contact between manufacturers and consumers through mass communication of messages about product.

11. Getting Efficient and Experienced Middlemen – Advertisement helps manufacturers in getting a team of efficient and experienced middlemen because increase in demand for a product encourages middlemen to maintain its stock/inventory.

12. Quickening the turnover by creating high responsive market resulting in lower inventory.

13. Advertisement gives employees a sense of practice on their jobs and a feeling to be in the service of a concern of repute. As such, it inspires executives, employees and workers to improve their performance and efficiency.

B. Benefits/Advantages to Middlemen (Wholesalers and Retailers):

1. Convenience in Selling without much effort as advertised goods are already in demand and customers are well convinced about such goods.

2. Increased Sales and Profits due to high demand, easy sale of products, and high rate of turnover.

3. No risk of overstocking as demand is already high.

4. Increase in goodwill as they become known for dealing in standard, quality goods.

5. Economy in selling as their overheads are saved and they need not spend on advertising.

6. Stability in sales and profits due to all-seasons demand through advertising.

7. It enables wholesalers and retailers to have product information.

C. Advantages to Salesmen:

1. Salesmanship is incomplete without advertising.

2. Advertising serves as a forerunner of salesman in selling goods.

3. Salesmen are helped by advertisement in following ways –

i. Selling becomes easy and convenient as products are already advertised informing consumer about product’s characteristics and quality.

ii. Advertising prepares requisite ground for salesman; as such his sales efforts are reduced.

iii. Contact between salesman and customer becomes permanent through effective advertising as customer is assured of quality and price of produce.

iv. Salesman can also weigh advertising effectiveness through direct contacts with customers.

D. Benefits / Advantages to Consumers:

1. Knowledge about New Products.

2. Saving of time and Labour in making purchases as they already know details about product through advertising viz., features, place where available.

3. Advance Decision to buy Consumers are able to take advance decision to buy in the light of advertisement.

4. Protection against cheating by Sellers as advertising message often provides details about weight, packing, price, discounts, special schemes and ‘alerts and warnings’.

5. Knowledge about variety of Products as different producers advertise their products.

6. Knowledge about Alternative Use of Products.

7. Enhancement in Consumers’ Marketing knowledge through advertising about existing products, new products, their different as well as new uses, place and manufacturers where available, other details.

8. Elimination of Middlemen and their costs in cases where direct relation between producer and consumer develops and this reduces consumer price.

9. Helps retailer’s Anticipation of actual sales.

10. Unfair competition and price wars are avoided as prices are controlled by manufacturers through advertisement.

11. Increase in Standard of living as people come to know about new home products, gadgets and appliances which makes their living more comfortable and living standard higher.

E. Advantages/Benefits to Society/Community:

1. Increase in standard of living of citizens.

2. Larger and Handsome Employment opportunities.

3. Development of Advertisement Industry viz., advertising firms / agencies, artists, writers, models, art designing.

4. Boon to Press, that is Newspapers, Magazines etc. as their income increases.

5. Encourages R & D.

6. Encourages Healthy Competition.

7. Educative, providing lot of information to people.

8. Provides new Horizon of knowledge.

The main reason is that advertisement benefits not only different sections of society but also the society as a whole. One can therefore also say that money spent on advertisement is an investment and not a waste.

Criticisms of Advertising:

Despite its various advantages, advertising has not been free from criticisms.

1. Burden upon Consumers:

Media of advertisement being costly, manufacturers have to spend huge amount on advertising. This ad spend adds to cost of production and increases cost per unit and finally the price of the product. Increased prices are a burden on consumer.

This criticism is not fully correct. Advertisement also raises demand for products, increases scale of production, brings economies of large scale production and thus finally decreases cost per unit and hence price.

2. Advertisement Creates Monopoly:

Advertising ultimately blocks other firms from entering an industry (barriers to entry) leading to market power for the firm and ultimately to higher prices. If sheer advertising volume expenditure is directly related to increased sales, small firms cannot afford it. This enables large-scale manufacturer to stay and enjoy monopoly.

However, advertisement also creates healthy competitive market for the products.

3. Advertisement Leads to Consumerism:

Advertising encourages excessive and at times unnecessary expenditure by consumers. Frequent and repeated advertising compels consumers to buy a product even when it does not suit him or is not needed.

4. Advertisement Leads to Luxurious Life:

Advertising luxurious goods is often done in a manner that consumers feel them necessary to buy. Such goods become status symbol. Consequently, people are made to live a luxurious life even when they cannot afford it

However, in so far as advertising offers wide choice in making their purchases, it improves their life style and raises their standard of living.

5. Advertisement is a Wastage:

Money spent on advertising is a wastage if demand for advertised goods and services does not increase.

This is however not necessarily so because very often, advertisement increases demand through wider coverage and new uses of product.

6. Advertisement Leads to Falsehood in Business:

Advertisements often mislead people, and at times exaggerate benefits of products or their attributes.

While it is true that some of the advertisements are untrue and fraudulent, this is not disadvantage of advertisement. Rather it is the advertiser who is to be blamed.

7. Advertisement Gives Birth to Social Evils:

Advertisement often gives birth to social evils like smoking, drinking etc.

Conclusion – While various criticisms are true, measures can be adopted to check these social evils.

1. Advertising stimulates production, employment and income, leading to rising purchasing power and better living standards.

2. Commercialization of inventions, accelerated public acceptance of innovations, new products, etc., can be realised only due to effective mass communication or advertising. Change is the essence of life. It can be brought about by science and technology but it has to be accepted by the public without much resistance. For quick acceptance of new products and new ideas we need advertising.

3. Informative advertising enables consumers to secure relevant and adequate information about all rival products and their relative merits. Thus, advertising helps consumers to exercise their right to choose and buy a product of service intelligently. We have a wide variety of goods many of them complicated and sophisticated. Hence, wise purchases demand adequate information flow.

4. Advertising facilitates mass production and mass distribution. We have, therefore, lesser unit cost of production as well as lesser unit cost of distribution. Scientific management reduces cost of production. Scientific marketing research ensures reduction in the cost of distribution.

Marketing research can be used to reduce the cost of all components of the marketing mix including advertising. Reduction in costs enables corresponding reduction in prices. Competition in business also ensures price reduction and fair prices. Thus, consumers enjoy all the benefits of effective advertising and marketing. They can have increasing real income also in terms of goods and services.

5. Advertising builds up brand preference and brand loyalty. In the long run these are not possible under keen competition unless the brand quality is maintained and steadily improved by the manufacturer. Thus, consumers can get not only goods at lower prices but also goods of standard quality and quantity.

6. Advertising has educative value also. It teaches us to adopt new ways of life and higher standard of living. It can educate the community to demand quantity of life, e.g., freedom from pollution.

Disadvantages of Advertisement:

1. Loading the Price:

Advertising is expected to reduce total costs due to mass production and mass distribution and ultimately enable consumers to buy at lower prices. Experience proves otherwise. In reality advertising increases the prices of goods.

National brands demand heavy expenditure on advertising and promotion and their prices are higher by about 20 per cent than the prices of dealer brand though products under both brands are manufactured by the same enterprise. There is some element of truth in this criticism. However, it is due to extreme product differentiation resorted to by manufacturers through branding and higher prices are due to element of monopoly.

2. Creating Wastes:

Advertising is wasteful. It can never appeal accurately to the target market like salesmanship. Many people may not read, hear or view your advertisement. Press, radio, and TV advertisements have short life span and relatively costly persuade unit of space or time.

Competitive advertisement is a waste as it enables only reshuffling of customers-one Company stealing customers from another. Measurement of effectiveness of all advertisement statistically is practically impossible. But research in advertising and distribution can enable a company to reduce waste of expenditure in advertising appreciably.

3. Monopoly:

A few firms in an industry do utilise the weapon of advertising to prevent entry of small firms in the market and thus advertising enables creation of monopoly or oligopoly in the market. It kills competition and to that extent consumers’ interest is sacrificed. Only giant manufacturers can afford to spend lavishly on extensive and intensive advertising to retain and even enlarge their market share.

However, if government can effectively control and regulate monopolistic tendencies, we can have reasonable competition in the market. We have to crush monopolies in the world of business to protect consumers against evils of monopolies.

4. Fraud on Consumers:

Some advertising is fraudulent, misleading or deceptive. Advertising causes us to buy goods, we do not want, at prices we cannot pay, and on terms we cannot meet. It is true that hard-sell, high pressure advertising does coerce the innocent and ignorant buyers to purchase many unwanted and shoddy goods. It is true that advertising often persuades people to buy things they should not buy, they do not need nor they can afford.

Public attitude toward advertising as a persuader is constantly unfavourable. This has been proved through opinion polls in the U.S.A in 1960s. Only self-regulation by business firms can ensure truthful advertising. The seller should ensure that his advertisements mean what they say and they say what they really mean. Consumer legislation can also prevent such abuses of advertising. Consumerism through self-help can also safeguard consumer interest against bogus advertising.

Marketing mix based on marketing concept (consumer-oriented marketing approach) can also reduce substantially these abuses of advertising. Marketing research and customer-centred marketing plans and policies can definitely provide judicious and best use of advertising, sales promotion and personal selling in our promotion mix.

Enlightened and scrupulous top marketing management can recognise consumerism not as an obstacle but challenge and primarily through self-regulation streamline the entire marketing process based on the new marketing concept, then only marketing communication complex (promotion mix) can deliver rich dividends and ensure bright public image of business concerns.

(1) Low cost per contact.

(2) Ability to reach potential visitors where sales staff cannot reach.

(3) Great scope for creative versatility and dramatization of messages.

(4) Ability to create images that sales staff cannot.

(5) Non-threatening nature of non-personal presentation.

(6) Prestige and impressiveness of mass media advertising.

(1) Inability to close sales.

(2) Advertising clutter or too much competition.

(3) Viewer visitor may ignore advertising messages

(4) Difficulties in getting immediate response and actions.

(5) Difficulties in getting quick feedback and in adjusting messages.

(6) Difficulties in measuring effectiveness.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising – With Objections against Advertising

The importance of advertising is realised on all hands. In fact, advertising has already become such an integral part of our life that we never feel the need of pausing to consider its value and importance. There is no doubt about the fact that in the absence of advertising, our lives would have been lived very differently.

Such being the place of advertising in our life, it will be worthwhile to consider some of the important advantages of advertising here:

1. Advantages to Manufacturers :

There is justification in the adage, “it pays to advertise” because of the following advantages of advertising accruing to manufacturers:

(i) Increased Sales:

The chief object of the manufacturer in advertising his products is to promote the sale of his products. Goods produced on a mass scale are marketed by the method of mass persuasion through advertising. By repeating advertisements, the manufactures are not only able to retain existing markets but are also able to expand the markets both by attracting more people to their products as also by suggesting new uses for them. Advertising acts as an aid to selling.

(ii) Steady Demand:

Advertising has led to the smoothening cut of the seasonal fluctuations in demand for many products. The manufactures are generally trying to discover and advertise new possible uses to which a seasonal product may be put. The innovation of cold tea and cold coffee for the use during summer has helped in increasing the demand for these beverages even in that season. The same may be said for refrigeration.

(iii) Quick Turnover and Smaller Inventories:

A well-organised advertisement campaign creates a highly responsive market thereby facilitating quick turnover of the goods. This, in turn, results in lower inventories in relation to sales being carried on by the manufactures.

(iv) Greater Dealer Interest:

The retailers who deal in advertised goods are materially assisted by advertising in the performance of their functions. Advertising creates demand which every retailer gets an opportunity to share with others. The retailers have not to bother much about pushing up the sale of such products. So they evidence more interest in advertised products.

(v) Lower Costs:

Advertising provides a spur to the sale and increases the turnover tremendously. This is advantageous in two ways – on one side, the selling costs including the cost of advertising get spread over a large volume of sales, thus lowering the average cost of selling; while on the other side, higher turnover necessitates higher volume of production, thus lowering the average cost of production per unit.

(vi) Supplementing Salesmanship:

Advertising prepares the necessary ground for the efforts of the salesmen. When a salesman visits a prospect, he has just to canvass for a product with which the consumer may already have been familiarised through advertisements. Thus, the salesman’s efforts are supplemented and his task is made easier by advertising.

(vii) Creation of Goodwill:

By constantly associating the name of the manufacturer with certain standards of quality, advertising builds a fund of goodwill for him. Goodwill thus created is a valuable asset not merely because it enables him to get more and more of repeat orders for his existing products but also for the reason that the manufacturer can introduce new products in the market with confidence. The Godrej concerns have been able to sell the whole range of products ranging from oils to soap and from locks to typewriters mostly on the strength of their goodwill.

(viii) Encouragement to Better Performance:

Advertising gives the employees that feeling of pride in their jobs and the products they produce or help to produce, which is basic to high morale. It can, thus, inspire executives and workers to improved performance. Moreover, an advertiser may have built up a vast fund of goodwill which will serve as assurance of security to the employers. This will also serve to boost up the morale of the men working in the manufacturer’s organisation.

2. Advantages to Consumers :

(i) Facility of Purchasing:

Advertising makes purchasing easy for the consumers. Moreover, the resale prices (prices at which the goods are to be sold by the retailers) are generally fixed and advertised. Thus, advertising offers a definite and positive assurance to the consumer that he will not be overcharged for the advertised product. The consumer can make his purchases with utmost ease and confidence.

(ii) Improvement in Quality:

Goods are generally advertised under brand names. When a person is moved by the advertisement to use the product, he proceeds on the hope that the articles of the particular brand will be better than the other brands of the same goods. If his experience confirms his expectation, a repeat order can be expected.

Otherwise, the sales may rise very high once but may drop down very low subsequently when the consumer’s confidence in the quality of the product is shaken. The manufacturer is thus prompted to maintain and, if possible, improve the quality of his brand so that the confidence of the consumers can be maintained.

(iii) Elimination of Unnecessary Intermediaries:

By advertising his goods, a manufacturer may seek to establish direct contacts with the consumers. In this process, the number of middlemen whose profits increase the price and reduce the manufacturer’s margin of profits may be considerably reduced. This will mean large profits for the manufacturer and cheaper products for the consumers.

(iv) Education of Consumers:

There is considerable truth in Sir William Leverhulm’s remark that advertising is an educational and dynamic principle. Advertising aims at educating the buyers about new products and their diverse uses. In this process, it introduces new ways of life to the people at large and prompts them to give up their old habits and inertia. Advertising thus paves the way to better standards of living.

(v) Consumer’s Surplus:

Advertising increases the utility of given commodities for many people. It points out and emphasizes the qualities possessed by certain goods and leads consumers to appreciate more strongly the utility of such goods. As a result, the consumers may be willing to pay even more for certain products which appear to have higher utility to them.

If these products are available at the original lower prices, there will naturally be a certain amount of consumer’s surplus in terms of increased satisfaction or pleasure derived from these products.

3. Benefits to Society :

(i) Sustaining the Press:

When advertising made its beginning, advertisements generally occupied some odd nooks and corners in the newspapers. The present situation is just the reverse. The newspapers, periodicals, journals, nay the whole press, look to advertisements for support and sustenance.

In the absence of income from advertising, the newspapers have to be produced at a higher cost and may not be able to keep themselves free from party pulls and pressures from business lords.

(ii) Encouragement to Research:

The manufacturers will undertake research and discover new products or new uses for existing products only when they are assured of sufficient profits. Advertising provides this assurance and thus encourages industrial research with all its advantages.

(iii) Change in Motivation:

Advertising has radically changed the basis of human motivation. While people of earlier generations lived and worked mainly for bare necessities of life, the modern generation works harder to supply itself with the luxuries and semi-luxuries of life.

Advertising has brought to the notice of the masses numerous products which are more than mere necessities and has created in their minds a desire to possess them. Thus, the motive force of fear (or going without the bare essentials of life) has been replaced by desire (for more and newer products).

(iv) Higher Standards of Living:

Advertising leads to a rise in the standards of living, not only through the education of the buyers but also through greater consumption, increased production and a larger volume of employment.

(v) Encouragement to Artists:

Men of talent, including artists, story writers, announcers, etc., get an opportunity to do some creative work while earning their livelihood through the designing of advertisements and the use of ideas in advertising various products.

(vi) Glimpse of National Life:

Advertising does provide a glimpse of a country’s way of life. It is, in fact, a running commentary on the way the people live and behave and is also an indicator of some of the future trends in this regard.

Objections against Advertising :

Advertising has also been subjected to a number of objections mainly because it has been misused by some people to serve their own ends, overlooking the business interests. An examination of some of the forceful objections will be of interest.

(i) Multiplication of Needs.

It is said that advertising compels people to buy things they do not need. Human instincts, like desire to possess, to be recognised in the society, etc., are provoked in order to sell products. Sometimes, various types of appeals are advanced to arouse interest in the product. Sentiments and emotions are played with to gain customers. To say this would not however, be correct inasmuch as advertising cannot force anybody to buy a thing which he considers unnecessary.

(ii) Misrepresentation of Facts:

Through misrepresentation of the benefit a product will give, goods of no real value are sold. Tall claims are made by the advertisers to tempt people to take such actions as go purely to their advantage and cause tremendous loss to the consumer. Even adulterated food and medicines are marketed, which by no stretch of imagination can benefit anybody.

By sheer exaggeration of facts, demand for the merchandise advertised is created without much difficulty even when the commodities carrying greater worth or satisfaction are already there in the market. Such unscrupulous actions of a few tell upon public confidence in advertising.

(iii) Consumers’ Deficit:

While advertising leads to increased satisfaction from commodities already in use, it also creates discontent in the minds of many people who are tempted to purchase some commodities but are not able to do so because of insufficient purchasing power. Such discontent is obviously not very desirable from the point of view of society, particularly if it affects a large majority of people. But it is important if it acts as a spin to social change.

(iv) Wastage of National Resources:

A more serious objection against advertising is that it is used to destroy the utility of goods before the end of their normal period of usefulness. New models of automobiles with nominal improvements are, for instance, advertised at such high pressure that the old models have to be discarded long before they become useless.

Not that merely, the most-advertised products are delicate, fragile and brittle. In the U.S A., there is evidence of a marked decline in the quality and durability of cars, furniture, rugs, television sets, refrigerators, etc. That appears to be the way in which the increased demand created through advertising can be sustained.

The same is true of dresses, furniture and other products. From the point of view of the community it is a waste of resources. The natural resources, capital equipment and labour energy which go into the production of new items to take the place of the discarded ones amount to waste when measured in terms of social well-being.

(v) Increased Cost:

There is a great deal of controversy as to whether advertising leads to increase in the cost which the community has to pay for a product. In a sense it is true since expenses on it form a part of the total cost of the product. But at the same time it would be wrong to infer that if the advertising costs were cut down the goods would necessarily be cheaper.

Advertising is, no doubt, one of the items of costs but it is a cost which brings savings in its wake on the distribution side. On manufacturing side, it is one of the factors that make large-scale production possible and anyone would agree that large-scale production leads to lower costs.

It is quite usual for the small non-advertiser retailer to say, “We don’t advertise—we put the cost of advertising into the goods.” But it is often nothing more than an attempt to justify his “side street location, the quality of his goods and his high price.” In fact, if comparisons are made between advertisers and non-advertisers, it will usually be found that the merchants who advertise have larger stores and lower prices than those who do not advertise.

Sears, Roebuck and Co., is one of the heaviest advertisers of the U.S.A. spending over $16 million a year for newspaper advertising alone and, in addition, $30 million or more on other forms of advertising including catalogues. In spite of such a heavy expense on advertisement, the Company is known for its low prices.

In fact the history of American business is full of examples of such industries as have lowered prices and supplied better quality while spending millions of dollars for advertising. This has been possible because advertising has raised the volume of their sales tremendously thus bringing about a number of economies in production and selling.

(vi) The ‘Monopoly Argument’:

An objection which is most commonly raised against advertising is that it tends to develop monopolies. As it is, most advertising is devoted to the promotion of branded merchandise. The manufacturer usually chooses a particular brand name or trade mark for his product and uses advertising to create an impression on the mind of the consumer that his brand or product is superior to all other brands.

Through constant repetition of the brand name and its qualities, the manufacturers may ultimately succeed in creating the desired ‘brand image’ in the mind of the prospect. Although the particular ‘brand’ may be similar to another brand in all respects including physical construction, yet the similarity is concealed from the public by the use of an exclusive name and illusion is created that it is superior to the competing brands.

This gives rise to a ‘brand monopoly’. On reflection, however, it will be found that this kind of monopoly will be based upon a control of human attitudes, and it will not give the manufacturer a monopolistic control over the supply of goods or services which are similar in everything but name.

Besides, brand monopoly created through large-scale advertising will provide only slight power to increase prices. The moment prices are increased substantially in the wake of a brand monopoly; rival companies may rush into the market with lower-priced product and may use extensive advertising to push its sales. This may be followed, in course of time, by a shift of choice on the part of the consumers.

A brand monopoly secured through expenditure on advertising does not necessarily give the manufacturer an effective monopoly of particular industry. The Golden Tobacco Company has a monopoly of Panama brand of cigarettes but not of the whole cigarette industry.

Even in those cases, where the popularity of a brand places the manufacturer in a position of near- monopoly, the competitors generally use advertising to break his hold on consumers’ attitudes secured through advertising.

It may be concluded that advertising can create temporary brand monopolies which are abolished through competitive advertising -by other manufacturers. Even these short-lived monopolies are more useful for increasing sales than for increasing prices and profit margins. As Heppner aptly points out, “Advertising stimulates competition. It often enables the small businessman to compete with large concerns as well as to start new business.”

Though one cannot entirely turn one’s face away from the objections which are raised against advertising, it is clear that much of the criticism is either ill-founded or exaggerated. Fundamentally most of the drawbacks attributed to advertising are inherent in the competitive system of economy.

The social wastage involved in the struggle for more markets as between brands of a product is, for example, a basic feature of the competitive market economy. As Sandage puts it, “As a competitive tool, advertising is perhaps less costly than many other tools which will be used to a greater degree if advertising were banned.”

He obviously refers to the personal selling and the giving of greater dealer’s margins to the retailers which might be used in place of advertising. Either of them would be costlier for the society.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising – As a Promotional Tool

Strengths of advertising:.

Advertising is a major promotion tool.

It has the following basic plus points or strengths as a promotion tool:

(1) It offers planned and controlled message.

(2) It can contact and influence numerous people simultaneously, quickly, and at a low cost per prospect. Hence, it is called mass means of communication.

(3) It has the ability to deliver messages to audiences with particular demographic and socio-economic features.

(4) It can deliver the same message consistently in a variety of contexts.

(5) It can reach prospects that cannot be approached by salesmen, e.g., top executives.

(6) It helps to pre-sell goods and pull the buyers to retailers.

(7) It offers a wide choice of channels for transmission of messages such as visual, aural, aural and visual.

(8) It is very useful to create maximum interest and offer adequate knowledge of the new product when the innovation is being introduced in the market.

Weaknesses of Advertising:

Advertising as a promotion tool has the following weaknesses:

(1) It is much less effective than personal selling and sales promotion at later stages in the buying process, e.g., in convincing and securing action.

(2) It is less flexible than personal communication. It cannot answer objections raised by prospects.

(3) It is essentially one-way means of communication. It cannot obtain quick and accurate feedback in order to evaluate message effectiveness. In absence of feedback, personal salesmen becomes necessary.

(4) It is most efficient communication (very low cost persuasion prospect) but it is least effective as a tool of communication.

(5) It is unable to reach prospects when they are in a buying mood. Hence, we have to repeat advertisements and repetition involves additional cost.

(6) Advertising media, e.g., newspapers, magazines, carry many messages competing to secure attention of audience simultaneously. Thus, it creates noise in communication.

(7) Advertising, many a time, lacks credibility and trustworthiness.

Many of the aforesaid weaknesses can be eliminated by other elements of promotion when they are combined with advertising.

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  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Small-Scale Production
  • Use of Machineries: Advantages and Disadvantages | Production | Economics

Module 13: Promotion: Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)

Advertising, learning objectives.

  • Explain advertising

Advertising: Pay to Play

Pears advertisement. Features a small child and puppy near a fireplace. A basket of coals has spilled, and the child and puppy are covered in soot marks.

A 1900 advertisement for Pears soap.

Advertising is any paid form of communication from an identified sponsor or source that draws attention to ideas, goods, services or the sponsor itself. Most advertising is directed toward groups rather than individuals, and advertising is usually delivered through media such as television, radio, newspapers and, increasingly, the Internet. Ads are often measured in impressions (the number of times a consumer is exposed to an advertisement).

Advertising is a very old form of promotion with roots that go back even to ancient times. In recent decades, the practices of advertising have changed enormously as new technology and media have allowed consumers to bypass traditional advertising venues. From the invention of the remote control, which allows people to ignore advertising on TV without leaving the couch, to recording devices that let people watch TV programs but skip the ads, conventional advertising is on the wane. Across the board, television viewership has fragmented, and ratings have fallen.

Print media are also in decline, with fewer people subscribing to newspapers and other print media and more people favoring digital sources for news and entertainment. Newspaper advertising revenue has declined steadily since 2000. [1]  Advertising revenue in television is also soft, and it is split across a growing number of broadcast and cable networks. Clearly companies need to move beyond traditional advertising channels to reach consumers. Digital media outlets have happily stepped in to fill this gap. Despite this changing landscape, for many companies advertising remains at the forefront of how they deliver the proper message to customers and prospective customers.

The Purpose of Advertising

Advertising has three primary objectives: to inform, to persuade, and to remind.

  • Informative Advertising  creates awareness of brands, products, services, and ideas. It announces new products and programs and can educate people about the attributes and benefits of new or established products.
  • Persuasive Advertising tries to convince customers that a company’s services or products are the best, and it works to alter perceptions and enhance the image of a company or product. Its goal is to influence consumers to take action and switch brands, try a new product, or remain loyal to a current brand.
  • Reminder Advertising  reminds people about the need for a product or service, or the features and benefits it will provide when they purchase promptly.

On the left, a poster portraying a man in a top hat holding a beer and raising a fist. Behind him is a a patterned background featuring pigs and maple leaves. The poster reads Rogue. Voodoo Doughnut. Bacon Maple Porter, Porter brewed with natural flavors. On the right, a poster depicts a bottle of Naked Boosted Green Machine smoothie on a scale with numerous other fruits. The scale says 1. The poster reads, Drink 1 pound of fruit. Do more of what you love. In smaller print, it reads: Whether you're into fly fishing or yoga, Naked Juice has more than enough stuff to keep you going. Our 100% juice helps you do 110% of the stuff you love to do. Now go get 'em.

Left: Informative Advertising Right: Persuasive Advertising

White text against a black background that reads simply "Got milk?"

Reminder Advertising

When people think of advertising, often product-focused advertisements are top of mind—i.e., ads that promote an organization’s goods or services. Institutional advertising  goes beyond products to promote organizations, issues, places, events, and political figures.  Public service announcements (PSAs) are a category of institutional advertising focused on social-welfare issues such as drunk driving, drug use, and practicing a healthy lifestyle. Usually PSAs are sponsored by nonprofit organizations and government agencies with a vested interest in the causes they promote.

A line of seven stick figures. The center stick figure is pink and has a head, while the three stick figures on either side are black and have no head. Text below the stick figures reads Keep your head. Drink responsibly.

Public Service Announcement (PSA)

Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising

As a method of marketing communication, advertising has both advantages and disadvantages. In terms of advantages, advertising creates a sense of credibility or legitimacy when an organization invests in presenting itself and its products in a public forum. Ads can convey a sense of quality and permanence, the idea that a company isn’t some fly-by-night venture. Advertising allows marketers to repeat a message at intervals selected strategically. Repetition makes it more likely that the target audience will see and recall a message, which improves awareness-building results. Advertising can generate drama and human interest by featuring people and situations that are exciting or engaging. It can introduce emotions, images, and symbols that stimulate desire, and it can show how a product or brand compares favorably to competitors. Finally, advertising is an excellent vehicle for brand building, as it can create rational and emotional connections with a company or offering that translate into goodwill. As advertising becomes more sophisticated with digital media, it is a powerful tool for tracking consumer behaviors, interests, and preferences, allowing advertisers to better tailor content and offers to individual consumers. Through the power of digital media, memorable or entertaining advertising can be shared between friends and go viral—and viewer impressions skyrocket.

The primary disadvantage of advertising is cost. Marketers question whether this communication method is really cost-effective at reaching large groups. Of course, costs vary depending on the medium, with television ads being very expensive to produce and place. In contrast, print and digital ads tend to be much less expensive. Along with cost is the question of how many people an advertisement actually reaches. Ads are easily tuned out in today’s crowded media marketplace. Even ads that initially grab attention can grow stale over time. While digital ads are clickable and interactive, traditional advertising media are not. In the bricks-and-mortar world, it is difficult for marketers to measure the success of advertising and link it directly to changes in consumer perceptions or behavior. Because advertising is a one-way medium, there is usually little direct opportunity for consumer feedback and interaction, particularly from consumers who often feel overwhelmed by competing market messages.

Developing Effective Ads: The Creative Strategy

Effective advertising starts with the same foundational components as any other IMC campaign: identifying the target audience and the objectives for the campaign. When advertising is part of a broader IMC effort, it is important to consider the strategic role advertising will play relative to other marketing communication tools. With clarity around the target audience, campaign strategy, and budget, the next step is to develop the creative strategy  for developing compelling advertising. The creative strategy has two primary components: the message and the appeal .

The message comes from the messaging framework discussed earlier in this module: what message elements should the advertising convey to consumers? What should the key message be? What is the call to action? How should the brand promise be manifested in the ad? How will it position and differentiate the offering? With advertising, it’s important to remember that the ad can communicate the message not only with words but also potentially with images, sound, tone, and style.

A wolf and a lamb look at each other. The wolf has a Puma sneaker in its mouth.

Effective wordless advertisement

Marketers also need to consider existing public perceptions and other advertising and messages the company has placed in the market. Has the prior marketing activity resonated well with target audiences? Should the next round of advertising reinforce what went before, or is it time for a fresh new message, look, or tone?

Along with message, the creative strategy also identifies the appeal , or how the advertising will attract attention and influence a person’s perceptions or behavior. Advertising appeals can take many forms, but they tend to fall into one of two categories: informational appeal and emotional appeal.

The informational appeal offers facts and information to help the target audience make a purchasing decision. It tries to generate attention using rational arguments and evidence to convince consumers to select a product, service, or brand. For example:

  • More or better product or service features: Ajax “Stronger Than Dirt”
  • Cost savings:  Wal-Mart “Always Low Prices”
  • Quality: John Deere “Nothing runs like a Deere”
  • Customer service: Holiday Inn “Pleasing people the world over”
  • New, improved: Verizon “Can you hear me now? Good.”

The following Black+Decker commercial relies on an informational appeal to promote its product:

The emotional appeal targets consumers’ emotional wants and needs rather than rational logic and facts. It plays on conscious or subconscious desires, beliefs, fears, and insecurities to persuade consumers and influence their behavior. The emotional appeal is linked to the features and benefits provided by the product, but it creates a connection with consumers at an emotional level rather than a rational level. Most marketers agree that emotional appeals are more powerful and differentiating than informational appeals. However, they must be executed well to seem authentic and credible to the the target audience. A poorly executed emotional appeal can come across as trite or manipulative. Examples of emotional appeals include:

  • Self-esteem: L’Oreal “Because I’m worth it”
  • Happiness: Coca-Cola “Open happiness”
  • Anxiety and fear: World Health Organization “Smoking Kills”
  • Achievement: Nike “Just Do It”
  • Attitude: Apple “Think Different”
  • Freedom: Southwest “You are now free to move about the country”
  • Peace of Mind: Allstate “Are you in good hands?”
  • Popularity: NBC “Must-see TV”
  • Germophobia: Chlorox “For life’s bleachable moments, there’s Chlorox”

The following Heinz Ketchup commercial offers a humorous example of an ad based entirely on an emotional appeal:

Developing the Media Plan

The media plan is a document that outlines the strategy and approach for an advertising campaign, or for the advertising component in an IMC campaign. The media plan is developed simultaneously with the creative strategy. A standard media plan consists of four stages: (a) stating media objectives; (b) evaluating media; (c) selecting and implementing media choices; and (d) determining the media budget.

Media objectives are normally started in terms of three dimensions:

  • Reach: number of different persons or households exposed to a particular media vehicle or media schedule at least once during a specified time period.
  • Frequency: the number of times within a given time period that a consumer is exposed to a message.
  • Continuity: the timing of media assertions (e.g. 10 per cent in September, 20 per cent in October, 20 per cent in November, 40 per cent in December and 10 per cent the rest of the year).

The process of evaluating media involves considering each type of advertising available to a marketer, and the inherent strengths and weaknesses associated with each medium. The table below outlines key strengths and weaknesses of major types of advertising media. Television advertising is a powerful and highly visible medium, but it is expensive to produce and buy air time. Radio is quite flexible and inexpensive, but listenership is lower and it typically delivers fewer impressions and a less-targeted audience. Most newspapers and magazines have passed their advertising heydays and today struggle against declining subscriptions and readership.  Yet they can be an excellent and cost-effective investment for reaching some audiences. Display ads offer a lot of flexibility and creative options, from wrapping busses in advertising to creating massive and elaborate 3-D billboards. Yet their reach is limited to their immediate geography. Online advertising such as banner ads, search engine ads, paid listings, pay-per-click links and similar techniques offers a wide selection of opportunities for marketers to attract and engage with target audiences online. Yet the internet is a very crowded place, and it is difficult to for any individual company to stand out in the crowd.

Table: Advertising Media Strengths and Weaknesses

The evaluation process requires research to to assess options for reaching their target audience with each medium, and how well a particular message fits the audience in that medium. Many advertisers rely heavily on the research findings provided by the medium, by their own experience, and by subjective appraisal to determine the best media for a given campaign.

To illustrate, if a company is targeting young-to-middle-aged professional women to sell beauty products, the person or team responsible for the media plan should evaluate what options each type of media offers for reaching this audience. How reliably can television, radio, newspapers or magazines deliver this audience? Media organizations maintain carefully-researched information about the size, demographics and other characteristics of their viewership or readership. Cable and broadcast TV networks know which shows are hits with this target demographic and therefore which advertising spots to sell to a company targeting professional women. Likewise newspapers know which sections attract the eyeballs of female audiences, and magazines publishers understand very well the market niches their publications fit. Online advertising becomes a particularly powerful tool for targeted advertising because of the information it captures and tracks about site visitors: who views and clicks on ads, where they visit and what they search for. Not only does digital advertising provide the opportunity to advertise on sites that cater to a target audience of professional women, but it can identify which of these women are searching for beauty products, and it can help a company target these individuals more intensely and provide opportunities for follow-up interaction.

The following video further explains how digital advertising targets and tracks individuals based on their expressed interests and behaviors.

You can read a transcript of the video here .

Selection and Implementation

The media planner must make decisions about the media mix and timing, both of which are restricted by the available budget. The media-mix decision involves choosing the best combination of advertising media to achieve the goals of the campaign. This is a difficult task, and it usually requires evaluating each medium quantitatively and qualitatively to select a mix that optimizes reach and budget.

Unfortunately, there are few valid rules of thumb to guide this process, in part because it is difficult to compare audiences across different types of advertising media. For example, Nielsen ratings measure audiences based on TV viewer reports of the programs watched, while outdoor (billboard) audience-exposure estimates are based on counts of the number of automobiles that pass particular outdoor poster locations. The “timing of media” refers to the actual placement of advertisements during the time periods that are most appropriate, given the selected media objectives. It includes not only the scheduling of advertisements, but also the size and position of the advertisement.

There are three common patterns for advertising scheduling:

  • Continuous  advertising runs ads steadily at a given level indefinitely. This schedule works well products and services that are consumed on a steady basis throughout the year, and the purpose of advertising is to nudge consumers, remind them and keep a brand or product top-of-mind.
  • Flighting  involves heavy spurts of advertising, followed by periods with no advertising. This type of schedule makes sense for products or services that are seasonal in nature, like tax services, as well as one-time or occasional events.
  • Pulsing mixes continuous scheduling with flighting, to create a constant drum-beat of ads, with periods of greater intensity. This approach matches products and services for which there is year-round appeal, but there may be some seasonality or periods of greater demand or intensity. Hotels and airlines, for example, might increase their advertising presence during the holiday season.

When considering advertising as a marketing communication method, companies need to balance the cost of advertising–both of producing the advertising pieces and buying placement—against the total budget for the IMC program. The selection and scheduling of media have a huge impact on budget: advertising that targets a mass audience is generally more expensive than advertising that targets a local or niche audience. It is important for marketers to consider the contribution advertising will make to the whole. Although advertising is generally one of the more expensive parts of the promotion mix, it may be a worthwhile investment if it contributes substantially to the reach and effectiveness of the whole program. Alternatively, some marketers spend very little on advertising because they find other methods are more productive and cost-effective for reaching their target segments.

Anatomy of an Advertisement

Advertisements use several common elements to deliver the message. The visual is the picture, image, or situation portrayed in the advertisement. The visual also considers the emotions, style, or look-and-feel to be conveyed: should the ad appear tender, businesslike, fresh, or supercool? All of these considerations can be conveyed by the visual, without using any words.

The headline is generally what the viewer reads first—i.e., the words in the largest typeface. The headline serves as a hook for the appeal: it should grab attention, pique interest, and cause the viewer to keep reading or paying attention. In a radio or television ad, the headline equivalent might be the voice-over of a narrator delivering the primary message, or it might be a visual headline, similar to a print ad.

In print ads, a subhead is a smaller headline that continues the idea introduced in the headline or provides more information. It usually appears below the headline and in a smaller typeface. The body copy  provides supporting information. Generally it appears in a standard, readable font.  The call to action may be part of the body copy, or it may appear elsewhere in a larger typeface or color treatment to draw attention to itself.

A variety of brand elements  may also appear in an advertisement. These include the name of the advertiser or brand being advertised, the logo, a tagline, hashtag, Web site link, or other standard “branded” elements that convey brand identity. These elements are an important way of establishing continuity with other marketing communications used in the IMC campaign or developed by the company. For example, print ads for an IMC campaign might contain a campaign-specific tagline that also appears in television ads, Website content, and social media posts associated with the campaign.

A hoover advertisement featuring a woman pushing a vacuum cleaner through the crosswalk of a busy intersection in a big city. Text reads Its limits are your limits. Smaller text says It beats, as it sweeps, as it cleans. In the bottom corner is the Hoover logo. Also at the bottom is small text that reads The Cordless Wind Tunnel, In stores now. For a 15% discount use offer code SD101. The advertisement's parts are labeled. The woman pushing the vacuum cleaner is the visual. The big text, Its limits are your limits, is the headline. The smaller text that reads It beats, as it sweeps, as it cleans is the subhead. The logo in the bottom corner is the brand element. The small text at the bottom of the page is the body copy. The line For a 15% discount use offer code SD101 is a call to action.

Hoover advertisement with ad elements shown.

Ad Testing and Measurement

When organizations are poised to make a large investment in any type of advertising, it is wise to conduct marketing research to test the advertisements with target audiences before spending lots of money on ads and messages that may not hit the mark. Ad testing may preview messages and preliminary ad concepts with members of a target segment to see which ones resonate best and get insight about how to fine-tune messages or other aspects of the ad to make them more effective. Organizations may conduct additional testing with near-final advertising pieces to do more fine-tuning of the messages and visuals before going public.

To gauge the impact of advertising, organizations may conduct pre-tests and post-tests of their target audience to measure whether advertising has its intended effect. A pre-test assesses consumer attitudes, perceptions, and behavior before the advertising campaign. A post-test measures the same things afterward to determine how the ads have influenced the target audience, if at all.

Companies may also measure sales before, during, and after advertising campaigns run in the geographies or targets where the advertising appeared. This provides information about the return on investment for the campaign, which is how much the advertising increased sales relative to how much money it cost to execute. Ideally advertising generates more revenue and, ultimately profits, than it costs to mount the advertising campaign.

  • http://www.slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2014/04/28/decline_of_newspapers_hits_a_milestone_print_revenue_is_lowest_since_1950.html ↵
  • Screenshot Keep Your Head PSA. Provided by : Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Screenshot Naked Juice Ad. Provided by : Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Screenshot Puma Ad. License : Public Domain: No Known Copyright
  • Screenshot Rogue Voodoo Porter Ad. Provided by : Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Revision and adaptation. Provided by : Lumen Learning. License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
  • Screenshot Hoover Ad. Provided by : Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Advertising. Provided by : Wikipedia. Located at : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising . License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
  • Communicating to Mass Markets, from Introducing Marketing. Authored by : John Burnett. Project : Global Text. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Behavioral Targeting. Provided by : BBC. Located at : https://youtu.be/HtOkaAMOmAc . License : CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives
  • HEINZ Ketchup Wiener Stampede. Provided by : Heinz. Located at : https://youtu.be/LOlfhBT8i9I . License : All Rights Reserved . License Terms : Standard YouTube license
  • Our Awesome Drill with AutoSense Technology. Provided by : Black+Decker. Located at : https://youtu.be/mc_VsL44nWE . License : All Rights Reserved . License Terms : Standard YouTube license
  • Got Milk?. Provided by : Wikimedia. Located at : https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gotmilk.png . License : Public Domain: No Known Copyright
  • Pears Soap ad. Provided by : Wikimedia. Located at : https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pears_Soap_1900.jpg . License : Public Domain: No Known Copyright
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advantages and disadvantages of advertising

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IELTS essay advantages and disadvantages of advertising

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12 Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising

Concept of advertising.

Advertising is a means of creating awareness and promoting a product or service in the market. It is a paid form of communication to inform the public about an idea, good or service. Advertising is a market communication intended to influence people’s actions and persuading them to buy or try the product.

This is one of the effective promotional tool of an organization for promoting its product among the target audience. It spreads the promotional message containing full details about the product among the customers. Advertising is a one-way communication by which organizations communicate with people by paying charges to an advertising company.

Advertising is of different kinds depending upon the type of medium used for communication such as print advertising, social advertising, outside advertising, broadcasting advertising, etc. There are three main motives of advertising: informing potential customers about brand, persuading people for buying brand products and reminding customers from time to time about brand message and vision.

Advantages of Advertising

advantages of Advertising

Introduces product

Advertising is a medium through which companies introduce and create awareness regarding their products in the market. It explains the features and uses of new products to customers.

Increase Sales

Advertising helps the business in increasing its sales volumes. It attracts more and more people toward the company’s products and persuades them for purchasing it.

Widens Market

It enables businesses in exploring new markets and reaching out to a wide number of peoples. Advertising creates wide awareness regarding brand products among the public.

Fights Competition

Advertising is an effective tool for businesses to face competitive forces in the market. It provides detailed information regarding products that helps in differentiating it from competitor’s products and acquiring a competitive advantage.

Eliminates Middlemen

It serves as the direct connecting link between manufacturers and consumers. Advertising eliminates the role of all intermediaries between producer and customers which increases the profit margin of producers and reduces the overall cost to customers.

Stabilizes Sales Volume

Advertising helps in stabilizing the sales volumes for business. It helps in retaining more and more customers for a longer time period and develops more loyal customers.

Educates Consumers

It serves as the mean through which companies communicates all details regarding their products among customers. Advertising informs customers about the uses and utility of the product. 

Disadvantages of Advertising

Disadvantages of Advertising

Increases Cost

Advertising raises the cost of products offered by the business for sale in the market. The business incurs huge expenditure on advertisement activities which they recover by charging high prices for their products.

Mislead People

Advertising often leads to misleading and fraud customers by presenting false facts about goods. Many times it makes exaggerated and unfair claims regarding products. 

It is an impersonal and one-way means of communication between the manufacturer and customers. Customers sometimes are confused by the message communicated through advertisements by the company and are not able to resolve their queries.

Discourages Small Business

Advertisement programs require huge funds to gain popularity and goodwill in the market. It is beyond the scope of small businesses as they cannot afford huge advertisements like big companies.

Encourage Monopoly

Big corporations through wide advertisement programs create their monopolies in the market. They are able to create a permanent place for them among customers and restricts the entry of new competitors.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertisement

Looking for advantages and disadvantages of Advertisement?

We have collected some solid points that will help you understand the pros and cons of Advertisement in detail.

But first, let’s understand the topic:

What is Advertisement?

Advertisement refers to the process of promoting a product, service, or idea through various media channels.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Advertisement

The following are the advantages and disadvantages of Advertisement:

Advantages and disadvantages of Advertisement

Advantages of Advertisement

  • Increased Awareness – Advertisements help to increase awareness of a product or service, by introducing it to a wider audience. This can lead to increased interest and sales.
  • Targeted Audience – Advertisements can be targeted to a specific audience, based on factors such as age, gender, and interests. This helps to ensure that the right message is reaching the right people.
  • Creative Freedom – Advertisements allow for creative freedom in how a product or service is presented, using a range of different mediums such as TV, print, and social media. This can help to make the message more engaging and memorable.
  • Brand Recognition – Advertisements can help to build brand recognition and loyalty, by creating a strong association between a product or service and a particular brand.
  • Economic Benefit – Advertising can have a positive impact on the economy, by creating jobs in the advertising industry and stimulating consumer spending.

Also check:

  • 10 Lines on Advertisement
  • Essay on Advertisement
  • Paragraph on Advertisement
  • Speech on Advertisement

Disadvantages of Advertisement

  • Misleading Information – Some advertisements may contain misleading information or exaggerations about the product or service being promoted. This can lead to false expectations and disappointment among consumers.
  • Increased Costs – Advertising can be expensive, particularly for small businesses with limited budgets. The costs associated with creating, producing, and distributing ads can add up quickly.
  • Overexposure – Too much advertising can lead to overexposure and consumer fatigue, as people may become tired of seeing the same ads repeatedly. This can lead to a decrease in the effectiveness of the advertising campaign.
  • Negative Association – Some advertisements may be perceived as offensive or inappropriate, which can lead to negative associations with the product or service being promoted. This can damage the reputation of the brand and lead to decreased sales.
  • Environmental Impact – Advertising can have a negative impact on the environment, particularly with regards to printed materials such as flyers, posters, and billboards. These materials can contribute to waste and pollution.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of Integrated Accounting
  • Advantages and disadvantages of Responsibility Accounting
  • Advantages and disadvantages of Accounting Standards

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essay about disadvantages of advertising

Essay On Advertisement

500 words essay on advertisement.

We all are living in the age of advertisements. When you step out, just take a quick look around and you will lay eyes upon at least one advertisement in whichever form. In today’s modern world of trade and business, advertisement plays an essential role. All traders, big and small, make use of it to advertise their goods and services. Through essay on advertisement, we will go through the advantages and ways of advertisements.

essay on advertisement

The Various Ways Of Advertisement

Advertisements help people become aware of any product or service through the use of commercial methods. This kind of publicity helps to endorse a specific interest of a person for product sale.

As the world is becoming more competitive now, everyone wants to be ahead in the competition. Thus, the advertisement also comes under the same category. Advertising is done in a lot of ways.

There is an employment column which lists down job vacancies that is beneficial for unemployed candidates. Similarly, matrimonial advertisement help people find a bride or groom for marriageable prospects.

Further, advertising also happens to find lost people, shops, plots, good and more. Through this, people get to know about a nearby shop is on sale or the availability of a new tutor or coaching centre.

Nowadays, advertisements have evolved from newspapers to the internet. Earlier there were advertisements in movie theatres, magazines, building walls. But now, we have the television and internet which advertises goods and services.

As a large section of society spends a lot of time on the internet, people are targeting their ads towards it. A single ad posting on the internet reaches to millions of people within a matter of few seconds. Thus, advertising in any form is effective.

Benefits of Advertisements

As advertisements are everywhere, for some magazines and newspapers, it is their main source of income generation. It not only benefit the producer but also the consumer. It is because producers get sales and consumer gets the right product.

Moreover, the models who act in the advertisements also earn a handsome amount of money . When we look at technology, we learn that advertising is critical for establishing contact between seller and buyer.

This medium helps the customers to learn about the existence and use of such goods which are ready to avail in the market. Moreover, advertisement manages to reach the nooks and corners of the world to target their potential customers.

Therefore, it benefits a lot of people. Through advertising, people also become aware of the price difference and quality in the market. This allows them to make good choices and not fall to scams.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Conclusion of Essay On Advertisement

All in all, advertisements are very useful but they can also be damaging. Thus, it is upon us to use them with sense and ensure they are entertaining and educative. None of us can escape advertisements as we are already at this age. But, what we can do is use our intelligence for weeding out the bad ones and benefitting from the right ones.

FAQ on Essay On Advertisement

Question 1: What is the importance of advertisement in our life?

Answer 1: Advertising is the best way to communicate with customers. It helps informs the customers about the brands available in the market and the variety of products which can be useful to them.

Question 2: What are the advantages of advertising?

Answer 2: The advantages of advertising are that firstly, it introduces a new product in the market. Thus, it helps in expanding the market. As a result, sales also increase. Consumers become aware of and receive better quality products.

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Unveiling the Power Play: Advantages & Disadvantages of Advertising

Jun 7, 2023 | Digital Marketing

Advantages & Disadvantages of Advertising

Advertising is one of the most powerful tools in the business and is capable of attracting millions of consumers worldwide. Companies search out other advertising agencies and pay them to advertise their products on different platforms. The goal of this investment is simple, to reach people and urge them to buy their products and services. 

Advertisement involves researching much information related to demographics, culture, people, gender, and many other factors to determine success. A brand can grow and thrive with the help of advertising, however, if done improperly, it can also be an ignominy. Henceforth, it is significant to review the advantages and disadvantages of advertising as mentioned in this article.

  • 1.1 Set brands and products apart from the competition
  • 1.2 Increase product & brand awareness
  • 1.3 Attracting Current and Potential Customers
  • 1.4 Increase Sales volume and ROI
  • 1.5 Reach multiple markets and population groups simultaneously
  • 2.1 It is money and time consuming
  • 2.2 Challenging for small businesses
  • 2.3 It creates a general disturbance
  • 2.4 No surety of returns
  • 3 Concluding Advantages & Disadvantages of Advertising

Advantages of Advertising

Set brands and products apart from the competition.

There’s always a possibility of an alternative product in the market for the same product you are offering, which increases the competition. This necessitates an innovative marketing approach to set your product apart from other competitors.

The quality of advertisement makes the audience aware of the quality product you are offering which can help you create a powerful image in the minds of the consumers. Consequently, effective tailored advertisements that highlight the benefits of the products, their suitability for the consumer’s budget, and the professionalism of services offered can persuade customers to choose your product over the competition.

Increase product & brand awareness

Alerting the target audience about the existence of a product and brand is crucial. Advertisements have been proven to be a compelling tool for building brand awareness and effectively spreading the word about your business in a short period.

Well-established businesses use effective advertising strategies to enhance awareness about their products and services which in turn increases their sales. The strategies may include advertising a newly launched product or service, highlighting advancements in existing products, or offering discounts and benefits via service. This also provides an opportunity to market a brand’s authentic taste and distinctive qualities that are crucial to its reputation.

Attracting Current and Potential Customers

Advertising plays an important role in making the marketing sales funnel successful. In addition to building awareness, advertisements also increase considerations and conversions. More leads can be generated by effective advertisements that inform audiences about business operations. This includes promoting a new store’s opening through advertisements or publicizing the location of the business etc. Moreover, ads on Facebook, Twitter, and Linkedin can grow the followers base and help you connect to more people thus expanding your connectivity.

Increase Sales volume and ROI

Advertising serves as the motive to drive sales and increase return on investment(ROI) by targeting current and potential customers who are one step away from completing the desired conversion. 

Traditional advertisements like print ads, billboards, and broadcast ads are beneficial to increase awareness about your business, but they can be expensive. Digital advertising techniques like display ads, search engine ads, social media conversion-optimized, and retargeting ads are cost-saving which can further give an advantage by increasing ROI and sales volume.

Reach multiple markets and population groups simultaneously

Advertising is one of the most straightforward ways to reach multiple demographics simultaneously. This can help businesses better identify the demographics and population to whom their customers belong, providing information that allows for duplicating prospects.

Marketing through various paid and unpaid platforms enables the collection of useful data which could be analyzed to know precisely where to target ads to increase awareness and sales. Advertising also allows a company to reach out to new markets to effectively judge the influence of its marketing methods.

You Might Like: Navigating the Differences Between Advertising and Publicity

Disadvantages of Advertising

It is money and time consuming.

Advertising proves to be a very costly and time-consuming function. A lot of time is consumed from creating and editing videos for ads to finding space on platforms offering flexible budgets to run your ads. Therefore, advertising becomes a strategic activity for businesses, and allotting specific budgets and setting targets are recommended to overcome the consequences.

Moreover, in some scenarios, it has been found that the cost of advertisement increases the set budget which affects the cost of the advertised products and consequently decreases the sales volume.

Challenging for small businesses

Small business owners lack resources and budget for advertisements as a result of which they get lost in the market. Large firms are the ones who dictate the entire market of products and goods which makes it challenging for medium enterprises to make their presence and do their business.

It creates a general disturbance

Advertising may have a positive effect on the economy but it also impacts negatively on the consumers when it happens over and over again. Also, according to digital marketing experts, on average a person is exposed to 6,000 to 10,000 ads every single day. Many of the ads become repetitive and irritating which can develop hate towards a brand or an entity. This proves to be a major disadvantage of advertising.

No surety of returns

Advertising may cost thousands if not millions of dollars but cannot guarantee a surety in return on investment. This is why it becomes important for any digital marketing company to research demographics and audience groups to find the pain points before advertising. As long as there is some sort of valid value proposition there will always be some sort of return on investment. Even then, a million-dollar campaign could bring a $1 return.

Concluding Advantages & Disadvantages of Advertising

Advertising is an advantageous practice as it can increase brand and product awareness and simultaneously set you apart from the competition. Effective advertising strategies can help any company to ensure a good return on investment but it’s not always likely to achieve that feat. Further, make sure to do the proper research, allocate a flexible budget, and be patient for a campaign to be successful.

Brandshark is India’s leading creative digital marketing agency and we can help your brand grow and stay visible on the internet. Contact us now – Our professionals will help you at every stage from generating leads and improving brand authority to increasing your sales and driving website traffic.

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IELTS Writing Task 2 Model Answer: Discussing the pros and cons of advertising.

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IELTS Writing Task 2 essay with model answer

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic

Advertising has become an inevitable part of our lives. Some people believe that it is a positive aspect of our lives while others are of opposite belief. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Write at least 250 words.

Model Answer :

In the recent years, advertising has become an integral part of our daily life. Almost every product is advertised through several media sources like Youtube, television, websites. While some people support this trend, others tend to oppose it. There are several reasons for this. In this essay, I am going to discuss these viewpoints and give my opinion on the matter.

On one side of the argument, there are people who believe that advertising is not very beneficial. The main reason for this view is that people tend to buy unnecessary items because of watching these advertisements. Another reason is that several products fo not work the way they are claimed to work in the ads. For instance, these days several coding boot camps advertise a 100% job guarantee for every student who graduates from their boot camp. However, upon careful investigation, it was found that a job could be an internship, part-time position, or a full-time job!  Thus, it is easy to see why this argument has gained weight.

On the other hand, there are people who support advertisements. The primary reason is that the market very competitive these days. Rather than letting a product go unnoticed, it is better to advertise the product so as to enhance its popularity among the masses. For example, the percentage of sales of two products released by  top brands on the same day is greatly affected by marketing. A recent survey indicated that there is a 40% boost in sales if the product is rightly marketed. Althogh, some people or companies tend to promote the sales of their products through fake claims, it is left to the discretion of the buyer to decide. 

essay about disadvantages of advertising

In conclusion, advertising has its pros and cons as discussed. I feel that the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. People need to be very careful with falsce advertisements and decide on the usefulness of the product before buying it. 

Total Words: 280

Task Achievement: 9

Coherence & cohesion: 9, lexical resources: 9, overall score: band 9.

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Hướng dẫn làm Chủ đề Advertising – IELTS Writing Task 2

Như các bạn đã biết, ở bài thi IELTS Writing Task 2, chúng ta sẽ được yêu cầu viết một bài luận nêu lên quan điểm cá nhân về những vấn đề trong cuộc sống như là học tập, nghề nghiệp, nông thôn, thành thị, thể thao, giải trí,… Ở bài viết này, chúng mình chia sẻ với các bạn những thông tin cũng như kinh nghiệm đối với đề bài nói về chủ đề Quảng Cáo (Advertising) bạn nhé!

DOL IELTS Đình Lực

Tổng quan về chủ đề Advertising trong IELTS Writing Task 2

essay about disadvantages of advertising

Advertising (Quảng cáo) là một chủ đề thường được đề cập đến trong các bài thi IELTS Writing Task 2 trong những năm gần đây. Nội dung chủ yếu của các câu hỏi trong chủ đề này xoay quanh những vấn đề sau:

Ảnh hưởng của quảng cáo sai sự thật đến người tiêu dùng;

Ảnh hưởng của việc quảng cáo quá nhiều;

Ảnh hưởng của quảng cáo đến giới trẻ;

Sự cạnh tranh trong quảng cáo.

essay about disadvantages of advertising

Những câu hỏi về chủ đề Advertising là những câu hỏi mang tính thời sự, đòi hỏi các thí sinh phải có sự phân tích kỹ lưỡng vấn đề được đề cập ở đề bài để tránh đưa ra những quan điểm chung chung hoặc không liên quan.

Bạn phải hiểu câu hỏi trước khi cố gắng trả lời. Bằng cách này, bạn sẽ biết chính xác những gì giám khảo đang tìm kiếm. Một trong những sai lầm lớn nhất của học sinh là không trả lời đầy đủ câu hỏi, điều này khiến các em không đạt được điểm cao hơn Band 5. https://www.ieltsadvantage.com/writing-task-2/

Vậy thì làm sao để có thể phân tích vấn đề một cách kỹ lưỡng kể cả khi bạn không hề có kinh nghiệm hay nhiều kiến thức chuyên môn về quảng cáo? Đó là hãy đọc, đọc thật nhiều các bài mẫu, các ý tưởng để tạo nên một nguồn vốn ý tứ về chủ đề này cho bản thân. Cùng chúng mình xem qua những ý tưởng và bài mẫu cho chủ đề này ở dưới nhé!

Ý tưởng Advantages/ Positive Effects của Advertising

Advertisements help companies to tell customers about their products and services;

Advertisements inform us about the choices we have;

The advertising industry employs many people => creates employment;

Advertisements are often funny, artistic or thought-provoking => entertaining.

Ý tưởng về Disadvantages/ Negative Effects của Advertising

Advertisers aim to convince us that buying things leads to happiness, which may be exaggerated or even distorted;

We are persuaded to follow the latest trends and fashions => buy unnecessary things;

Children can be easily influenced by advertisements => Some advertisements with inappropriate content may be harmful to the development of children;

Pressure on their parents by pestering or nagging from children to buy things.

Ý tưởng về những xu hướng ra đề Advertising và các ý kiến về Advertising

essay about disadvantages of advertising

Advertising should be regulated by governments;

Advertisements that target children should be banned;

Packaging for junk food should display clear health warnings;

Overall, advertising is necessary but it needs to be controlled.

essay about disadvantages of advertising

Xu hướng ra đề về Advertising

Censorship, control and freedom of speech;

Advertising methods;

Children and advertising;

Media and Technology.

essay about disadvantages of advertising

Một số đề và bài IELTS Writing mẫu về chủ đề Advertising

1. Nowadays a large amount of advertising is aimed at children. Some people think this can have negative effects on children and should be banned. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

2. Some people say that advertising is extremely successful at persuading us to buy things. Other people think that advertising is so common that we no longer pay attention to it. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

3. If a product is good and meets customer needs, then people will buy it and advertising is unnecessary. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

4. Research has shown that overeating is as harmful as smoking. Therefore, the advertising of certain food products should be banned in the same way as the advertising of cigarettes is banned. Do you agree or disagree?

5. Consumers are faced with increasing numbers of advertisements from competing companies. To what extent do you think consumers are influenced by advertisements? What measures can be taken to protect them? – 8/4/2017

6. A ban on all forms of advertising is beneficial to society because it serves no useful purpose, and can even be damaging. Do you agree or disagree? – 30/3/2017

Câu hỏi thường gặp

Gợi ý phần thi IELTS Writing Task 2: Quảng cáo là gì?

Quảng cáo là 1 phương tiện giúp các nhãn hàng giao tiếp với khách hàng, người sử dụng sản phẩm, dịch vụ của mình. Thông qua quảng cáo, nhãn hàng sẽ thể hiện thông điệp của mình về sản phẩm, dịch vụ với mục đích tăng sự ảnh hưởng đến công chúng, nhất là khách hàng mục tiêu. Từ đó thúc đẩy hành động mua hàng, sử dụng dịch vụ và nâng cao độ phổ biến của thương hiệu.

Gợi ý bài viết IELTS: Ưu điểm và nhược điểm của quảng cáo là gì?

Về ưu điểm:

Quảng cáo giúp thúc đẩy doanh số bán hàng

Quảng cáo giúp thương hiệu tăng khả năng cạnh tranh với những đối thủ khác trong nghề

Quảng cáo giúp nhãn hàng xây dựng cảm tình với khách hàng.

Về nhược điểm:

Quá lạm dụng quảng cáo có thể khiến hình ảnh thương hiệu trở nên tiêu cực trong mắt công chúng

Gây tốn kém, tăng chi phí đầu tư vào quảng cáo cho công ty

Nhiều khi quảng cáo còn khiến người tiêu dùng mua những sản phẩm, dịch vụ mà họ không cần đến

Thi viết IELTS: 4 yếu tố chính làm nên 1 quảng cáo tốt là gì?

Thiết kế của quảng cáo đẹp mắt, thu hút

Truyền tải thông điệp 1 cách rõ ràng

Kêu gọi hành động cụ thể của người tiêu dùng

Đăng tải quảng cáo trên các kênh truyền thông của nhãn hàng

Hình thức quảng cáo tốt nhất là gì?

Quảng cáo truyền miệng được coi là hình thức hiệu quả nhất. Bởi người tiêu dùng thường có xu hướng tin lời của người thân, bạn bè hay những người xung quanh đã trực tiếp trải nghiệm sản phẩm, dịch vụ nào đó.

Hãy nắm chắc những điều cơ bản và các ý tưởng về chủ đề Advertising này để giải quyết thành công bất kì câu hỏi nào liên quan đến chủ đề này bạn nhé! Chúc các bạn luyện thi Writing hiệu quả, nắm chắc từng chủ đề. Bạn có thể tham khảo thêm các chủ đề IELTS Writing Task 2 sau.

Hy vọng bài viết này đem đến thông tin bổ ích cho các bạn. Đừng quên chia sẻ đến những bạn đang cần nữa nha!!

Ngoài ra, còn có một số chủ đề khác có khả năng xuất hiện trong IELTS Writing Task 2.

Topic Tourism

Writing about Family

Writing Task 2 Environment

Writing Task 2 Education

Money IELTS Writing Task 2

IELTS Writing Task 2 City life

IELTS Writing Task 2 topics Health

Topic crime

Writing Task 2 Technology

Bài viết khác

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Mary Wells Lawrence, High-Profile Advertising Pioneer, Dies at 95

She was the first woman to own and run a major national advertising agency. Her company, Wells Rich Greene, was best known for the “I ♥ NY” campaign.

A black and white photo of two men and a woman posing for the camera against an entirely white background. Ms. Wells had collar-length blond hair and wore a round-necked business dress. The men, both with dark hair, wore dark suits and ties. One man, with dark-framed eyeglasses, who was sitting in the foreground, held up a lit cigarette.

By Robert D. McFadden

She splashed jazzy colors on Braniff airliners. She put the “plop plop, fizz fizz” into Alka-Seltzer. She warned Benson & Hedges smokers that long cigarettes might pop balloons or set fire to beards. And from Niagara Falls to Broadway, she reached millions with her “I ♥ NY” campaign.

Mary Wells Lawrence, who grew up in Ohio, at 22 took her imagination and ambition to New York, where she broke through advertising’s male bastions of the 1960s, quit a prestigious job when she was denied a presidency, founded her own agency and dazzled Madison Avenue with vivid campaigns that became embedded in American culture. She died on Saturday morning in London. She was 95.

Her death, in a hospital, was confirmed by her daughter Katy Bryan.

Ms. Wells Lawrence was the first woman to own and run a major national advertising agency — Wells Rich Greene — and the first female chief executive of a company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In the 1970s, she was reputed to be the industry’s most highly paid executive, with a salary of more than $300,000 (more than a million dollars in today’s currency).

She was “arguably the most powerful and successful woman ever to work in advertising,” Stuart Elliott, who was then the advertising columnist of The New York Times, wrote in 2002 of Ms. Wells Lawrence , who sold her agency for $160 million (about $385 million today) and retired in 1990.

The world of advertising has changed dramatically since her day. Most agencies that nurtured creativity and made commercials with hummable music, talented acting, clever writing and deft strategies to reinforce brands and products have long since given way to corporate giants led by chief executives not closely involved in actual ad production, which relies heavily on market research and pictorially on digital tricks.

But in a pioneering career across four decades, including 24 years as her own boss, Ms. Wells Lawrence and her colleagues, Dick Rich and Stewart Greene, created hands-on campaigns that defied orthodoxy, took chances and, with flashes of wit and insight, often turned old-fashioned selling into entertainment. Sometimes they radically changed public perceptions.

Her agency’s best-known campaign was “I ♥ NY,” which began in 1977, when New York City’s social fabric seemed to be fraying, with dangerous streets littered with garbage and graffiti, a serial killer at large and racial strife. To resurrect tourism in the city and around New York State, the state hired Wells Rich Greene and the graphic designer Milton Glaser , who devised the heart logo to go with the campaign’s catchphrase.

“The first commercial we made ended with Frank Langella as Dracula,” Ms. Wells Lawrence recalled in a memoir, “A Big Life (in Advertising)” (2002). It was shot with machine-generated fog outside the Martin Beck Theater on 45th Street in Midtown, where Mr. Langella was starring as that famous vampire. “Swirling in his Dracula cape, he looks into your eyes and says thrillingly, ‘I love New York — especially in the evening.’”

Stars of Broadway, Hollywood and the Metropolitan Opera, political leaders and hosts of celebrities appeared in the ads. The “I Love New York” song, composed by Steve Karmen, was declared the state anthem by Gov. Hugh L. Carey in 1980, and the Glaser logo, a staple of television ads, still appears on millions of T-shirts, buttons, caps and posters.

Originally meant to last only a few months, the campaign went on for years, growing into one of the most successful and imitated in history. It instilled pride in New Yorkers and brought tourism roaring back as a key industry of both the city and the state.

Even before forming their own agency, Ms. Wells Lawrence, Mr. Rich and Mr. Greene made memorable commercials in the 1960s for Jack Tinker & Partners, a subsidiary of the advertising giant Interpublic.

For Alka-Seltzer, they shot two tablets dissolving in water as a catchy voice-over declared: “Plop-plop, fizz-fizz. Oh, what a relief it is!” They called it “Alka-Seltzer on the Rocks.” Sales nearly doubled as consumers got into the habit of taking two tablets instead of one.

The agency introduced the 100-millimeter Benson & Hedges cigarette with a tongue-in-cheek campaign that focused on the “disadvantages” of smokes so lengthy that they set men’s beards afire or were squashed in the closing doors of a crowded elevator.

The campaign for Braniff International Airways took another novel approach. A little-known airline that flew to Mexico and South America, it had invested in new planes, and its new president, Harding L. Lawrence, was desperate for recognition.

“Listen, Mary,” he said, as she recalled in her memoir, “I need a very big idea for this airline, something so big it will make Braniff important news overnight.”

She toured Braniff’s terminals, examined its planes and staff, and came away dismayed. The terminals “looked like a prison camp,” she said; the planes were drab “metallic or white”; flight attendants were “dressed to look like nurses.”

Then it hit her — an idea to exploit the 1960s culture of rebel freedom, eccentricity and vitality. “I saw Braniff in a wash of beautiful color,” she said.

The result was a fleet of airliners, each painted from nose to tail in one of seven bright hues: ocher, orange, turquoise, beige, yellow and two other shades of blue. Interiors were decorated with Herman Miller fabrics. Terminal lounges were redesigned by Alexander Girard with art from Mexico and South America. Flight attendants were attired in Emilio Pucci fashions worn, and removed, in layers during flights, an idea called “the air strip.”

“The End of the Plain Plane,” advertisements boasted. Braniff, suddenly the airline of the youthful jet set, reported an 80 percent leap in business. (Later, when the airline switched agencies, George Lois of Lois, Holland, Callaway contributed the tagline “When you got it — flaunt it!”)

Ms. Wells Lawrence sold Wells Rich Greene to a French company in 1990. Eight years later, with most of its clients and management talent gone, the agency closed. ( Mr. Rich died in 2014, Mr. Greene in 2019.)

Mary Wells Lawrence was born Mary Georgene Berg in Youngstown, Ohio, on May 25, 1928, the only child of Waldemar and Violet (Meltz) Berg. Her father was a furniture salesman.

Mary was shy, and her mother enrolled her in acting, dancing and music classes. She first performed at the Youngstown Playhouse when she was 5, and at 17 she began studying at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York.

When she was 18, she enrolled in the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, where she met Bert Wells. They were married in 1949, divorced in 1952, remarried in 1954 and divorced again in 1965. In 1967 she married Mr. Lawrence, Braniff’s president. Mr. Lawrence died in 2002.

In addition to Ms. Bryan, Ms. Wells Lawrence is survived by another daughter, Pamela Lombard; a stepson, State Lawrence; a stepdaughter, Deborah Lawrence; and several grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

Ms. Wells Lawrence wrote ad copy for a Youngstown department store and was an ad manager for Macy’s in New York in the early 1950s before joining the McCann-Erickson agency in 1953. She rose rapidly, but she felt undervalued. She joined Doyle Dane Bernbach in 1957 and became a $40,000-a-year vice president in 1963. Her first memorable ad was for French tourism — a photo of an old man and a child, behind him, riding a bicycle on a country road.

“Think you’ve seen France?” the caption read. “Think again.”

In 1964, she took a $60,000-a-year senior partnership with Jack Tinker & Partners, one of many agencies in the Interpublic Group. The job, she told Fortune magazine, held “the promise of eventual command.” She and a small group, including Mr. Rich and Mr. Greene, known as “Tinker’s Thinkers,” rented an office away from Madison Avenue’s bustle and devised the Alka-Seltzer and Braniff campaigns.

In 1966, having several high-profile campaigns under her belt and feeling entitled, Ms. Wells Lawrence asked for the presidency of Tinker & Partners. Her boss, Marion Harper Jr. , the president and chairman of Interpublic, told her that he would give her presidential authority but not the title — a woman, he said, could not win acceptance as president.

It was her moment of truth.

“He could see that I was feeling a red rage,” she told The Times in 2012. “And he said, ‘You wouldn’t want to ruin something you built.’ And at that point I just walked out the door. It wasn’t as though I wanted to be Betty Friedan . I just wanted my own agency.”

Mr. Rich and Mr. Greene quit, too. Mr. Rich joined her as treasurer and copy chief of the new agency, Mr. Greene as secretary and art director. They set up shop in a hotel suite, signed Braniff as their first client and soon won Benson & Hedges, Burma toiletries and Utica Club beer. Within months, Ms. Wells Lawrence was a national celebrity.

She took her agency public in 1968. In 1977, she profited handsomely by reverting to private ownership. Annual billings eventually reached $885 million, with clients including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Ford, American Motors, Cadbury Schweppes, MCI Communications, Hertz, Philip Morris, and Pan American and Trans World Airlines.

Her friends became a who’s who of American politics, entertainment, communications and corporate life. She was named Woman of the Year by the American Advertising Federation in 1971 and inducted into the American Advertising Hall of Fame in 1999.

In the 1980s, she survived uterine and breast cancer.

Ms. Wells Lawrence had homes in New York and the south of France, but spent most months in later years aboard her yacht in the Mediterranean. In 2020, she relocated to London. Since 2008 she had worked on wowOwow, a website for women, with her friends the book publisher Joni Evans, the columnists Peggy Noonan and Liz Smith , and the broadcast journalist Lesley Stahl. It was merged in 2010 with PureWow , a site aimed at a younger audience.

Michael S. Rosenwald contributed reporting.

An earlier version of this obituary referred incorrectly to a campaign for Braniff International Airways based on the slogan “When you got it — flaunt it!” It was created by George Lois of Lois, Holland, Callaway — not by Ms. Wells Lawrence’s agency.

How we handle corrections

Robert D. McFadden is a Times reporter who writes advance obituaries of notable people. More about Robert D. McFadden

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