high school teacher cover letter examples

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High School Teacher Cover Letter Sample

Kim had developed her own high school teacher cover letter and resume for a teaching job but it wasn't generating many responses. In this educator cover letter sample, you can see that Kim has excellent teaching skills, a beneficial teaching style, a strong passion for teaching, and measurable accomplishments — we put them front and center.

In case you didn't know, a cover letter could also be referred to as an application letter, letter of introduction or letter of intent. Remember that your cover letter is your opportunity to introduce yourself to a potential employer. So, put your best foot forward!

Kim had just finished her student teaching practicum at a high school and is now ready to be a first-year teacher in a classroom of her own. So, even though she lacks experience, it's important to showcase the passion as a new teacher, as well as her teaching philosophy and style so that a school can determine whether she will be a good fit.

Teachers Resume Writing Process

This sample secondary teacher cover letter highlights Kim's goal and ability to provide a stimulating classroom environment, which optimizes the learning experience to help all students reach their full potential.

We made sure this academic cover letter written to secure a high school teaching position matches her high school teaching resume  in format and style, ensuring consistency and visual appeal.

As well, when writing a cover letter for a teaching position, you want to have a strong introductory paragraph that clearly states what position you are applying to, as well as a closing paragraph that discusses follow-up and thanks your reader for their time and consideration.

Your body paragraphs should be two or three paragraphs total and should not be too long or wordy in order to keep your reader's attention. And, unless specifically stated otherwise by the school you are applying to, your cover letter should always be kept to one page in length.

At the end of the cover letter, below her name, you will notice that Kim has the word 'enclosure'. This is so she can specify what other documents have been enclosed with her job application letter. This will ensure that her application remains together for this teaching job position.

View this application letter for a teacher in high school in PDF format.

All resume and application letters examples on our website are fictionalized.

Don't forget to scrutinize the matching resume for this high school teacher cover letter sample to examine how we formatted and wrote about her student teaching experience and accomplishments.

Read in-depth teaching job application writing tips with examples to gain some modern ideas to enhance your high school teacher application letter.

While you are visiting the blog you can read 12 excerpts from sample application letters for teachers .

KIM A. SMITH 10710 – 90th Street • Sacramento, CA 99999 Phone: 555-590-2444 • Email: [email protected]


Mr. Todd Blair, Superintendent DEF School District 4589-27th Ave, East Sacramento, CA 99999

Dear Mr. Blair:

It is with great interest and anticipation that I am seeking to secure a Secondary School Teacher position with your school district. As an enthusiastic and dedicated new educator with hands-on student teaching experience, I would love to be a member of your academic team. I believe that my instructional abilities, combined with my strong interpersonal skills and work ethic can greatly benefit your educational program. I believe that experiential, inquiry-based education is the key to success for high school students. As a teacher, I hope to motivate students in ascertaining their inner strengths and abilities and discovering what truly inspires them. I aim to provide a stimulating learning environment that encourages students to trust their own opinions, while fostering confidence in order for students to realize their full potential.

As a teacher, I am committed to doing anything I can to help my students learn and achieve their goals. I will work hard to come up with lessons that will help every student better retain the subject matter. To this end, I will incorporate participatory activities, technology, guided practice, problem-based learning, and real-world applications to help students make progress and build on their skills. Through my teaching experience thus far, I have found that facilitating rather than dictating is a highly beneficial style of teaching. I have learned that if students construct their own learning experiences, they will not only retain information longer, but they will also become more confident in their abilities.

I love working with students and will continue to strive to be a positive influence in their lives. I realize how vital education is in the preparation for young people to achieve success in all endeavors set before them. I hope to instill a love of learning and a desire for constant knowledge within each student.

Being a highly motivated and passionate educator, I welcome the opportunity to meet with you to discuss how my teaching style and skills would benefit your educational program. Thank you for your time and consideration.

Kim A. Smith

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These Teacher Cover Letter Examples Will Help You Land Your Next Role

Your guide to a killer cover letter that will get you that interview.

Teacher Cover Letter Examples

Whether you are sending out resumes hoping to land your first teaching job or looking to shift to a new school or district, one fact remains the same: All the best credentials, experience, and passion will go unnoticed without a strong cover letter. The main rule? Sell yourself the way a publicist would. Cover letters aren’t a time for modesty. They’re a time to highlight your accomplishments and make your passion for teaching known. Below you’ll find our tips for creating the best cover letter possible and our top teacher cover letter and CV examples.

3 top tips for crafting a teacher CV or cover letter:

Keep it short and sweet..

You’ve only got about 30 seconds to capture a hiring director’s attention, so start with what we call “the elevator pitch.” Imagine you have the time between the elevators closing on one floor and opening again on another floor to sell yourself. Instead of rehashing everything on your resume, use the space to craft a paragraph or two that will convince them you are a standout candidate and are worth moving on to the next step.

Emphasize why you’re a great match.

Read the job description and find the overlap between the skills you bring to the table with the skills they need. If the job description calls for certain qualities or uses specific language, repeat them in your cover letter! The ultimate goal for your cover letter is to say, “You’ve got a problem? I’m the ideal person to solve it.” Be professional and use concrete examples.


Tailor each and every cover letter to fit the specific school, district, and job for which you’re applying. Research the school and its culture. That way, you can address their expectations and also use specific examples of achievements in your history to show why you’re the right candidate for the position.

Top teacher cover letter examples:

1. first-time teacher.

This letter is friendly and enthusiastic. It uses concrete examples and experiences related to student teaching while showcasing exactly why the applicant wants to become a teacher.


2. Another first-time teacher example

This version of a cover letter calls out the specific skills the applicant has and hopes to bring to the table.

3. Experienced elementary teacher

Not every teacher stays in their job until retirement. If you’re looking for a new position, your cover letter should clearly state your experience. This example also makes it obvious that the candidate researched the new district and discusses why she would be excited to join. The candidate also includes references at the bottom of the cover letter.

4. Another experienced elementary teacher

It doesn’t hurt to have additional examples! This teacher cover letter clearly showcases the school’s goals and addresses how this teacher specifically can help. She did her research!

5. Summer school teacher

As school lets out for summer, many teachers still need to earn an income. With competition tight, this cover letter stands out as the candidate states her qualifications as well as her ability to train other staff members.

6. Assistant teacher

With this letter, the applicant took a slightly different approach. The letter breaks down the most relevant accomplishments into bullet points. Those will jump out at the hiring manager, who will likely scan through a ton of applications.

7. Special education teacher

This letter is similar to a standard teacher cover letter, yet it also stresses the specific qualifications and experiences of a special ed teacher. For example, this candidate included how they modified the curriculum to meet the needs of a wide range of learners. In this particular cover letter example, the teacher was looking to move into a leadership role, so this serves as a template for someone looking to transition into management as well.

8. School counselor

This cover letter emphasizes the applicant’s academic achievements, especially with regard to the psychology education required for many counselor positions. It also talks about the characteristics that make this person the ideal candidate for this position.

9. School guidance counselor

We liked this cover letter because it pulls specific metrics that are not in the resume—including the number of students the candidate worked with and the funding obtained for special needs programs.

10. Library media specialist

This cover letter oozes confidence! As with any specialist position, the candidate hones in on how her specific skills and background make her qualified for this role.

11. High school English teacher

This cover letter covers a lot of ground. It points out the candidate’s strengths for teaching and assessing knowledge in the specific subject. It also presents the special techniques the candidate uses to teach students at the high school level.

12. Technology teacher

Taking a very professional approach to writing a cover letter shows that the contender is serious. This letter points out the specific skills that best prove why this candidate is a great fit for the position.

13. Music teacher

A music teacher requires knowledge of multiple instruments and a love of music and music theory. This cover letter showcases the candidate’s background and why they feel music is an important part of the education experience.

14. Drama teacher

Drama teachers often go above and beyond just teaching a class. They host auditions and rehearsals for after-school productions. This cover letter shows the candidate’s knowledge of curriculum, directing a show, and even marketing efforts!

15. Foreign language teacher

Foreign language teachers need to display their knowledge of the particular language as well as showcase how well they can immerse students in the culture. This cover letter discusses the teacher’s plans to incorporate curriculum as well as help facilitate induction of students into the German Honor Society.

16. Sports coach

This cover letter has a terrific opening line that sets the candidate apart from the get-go. It also clearly covers the candidate’s qualifications, from knowledge and experience to attitude and philosophy. This cover letter example also works well for PE teachers.

17. ESL teacher

Teaching English as a second language obviously requires a distinct skill set. This cover letter showcases key communication skills and lets the hiring director know the specific language fluency.

18. Math teacher

Touching on the highlights of their resume without rehashing it completely (who wants to read something twice?), this candidate points out their qualifications and certifications as well as their versatility in teaching different types of students.

19. Pre-K teacher

Teaching pre-K takes patience, creativity, and flexibility. This cover letter effectively highlights the candidate’s communication and problem-solving skills as well as the personal qualities that make them great at their job.

20. Business teacher

This cover letter provides excellent background about the teacher in a way that’s appropriate for business. It shares the necessary information clearly and concisely.

21. International school teacher

Working at an international school requires a certain skill set, and this letter highlights the teacher’s language skills as well as their ability to create effective lessons on relevant topics while providing students with the support they need to succeed.

Do you have more great teacher cover letter examples? Share in the comments below.

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Looking for teacher cover letter examples? Here are 18 great samples, along with guidelines and advice for writing your cover letter.

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High School Teacher Cover Letter Example

Writing a cover letter for a high school teacher position can seem intimidating. However, with the right guidance, you can craft a compelling letter that highlights your teaching experience, skills, and qualifications. This guide is designed to provide you with step-by-step instructions for writing a great cover letter for a high school teacher position. We will also provide an example of a cover letter for a high school teacher position to help you get started. With these tips, you will be able to write an effective cover letter that will help you stand out from the competition.

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Dear [Hiring Manager],

I am writing to apply for the High School Teacher position at [School Name]. With nearly a decade of teaching experience and two years of working in a high school, I am confident that I have the education, experience, and knowledge to make an effective and positive contribution to your school’s educational program.

Throughout my career, I have demonstrated the ability to create an engaging and stimulating learning environment for students. I have developed an appropriate curriculum for each grade level that follows the state and national standards for learning. In addition, I have consistently delivered a positive learning experience for my students, focusing on their individual needs and abilities.

I also have a strong background in technology and am proficient in the use of various educational software programs. I am also knowledgeable in the use of online learning platforms such as Blackboard and Canvas. I am confident that I can effectively use various technologies to create an engaging and interactive learning environment for my students.

I am highly organized and have excellent communication skills. I am confident that I can effectively communicate with students, parents, and colleagues and that I can maintain a professional environment in the classroom.

Finally, I am passionate about teaching and believe that I can make a positive and lasting impact on the lives of my students. I am eager to join your school’s faculty and help to create a supportive, stimulating, and rewarding educational program.

I look forward to discussing my qualifications in more detail. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions.

Sincerely, [Your Name]

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What should a High School Teacher cover letter include?

A high school teacher cover letter should include a few key elements in order to make a positive impression on potential employers.

Firstly, it should begin with a strong introduction that outlines your suitability for the role. This should include your qualifications, experience and enthusiasm for teaching. It should also explain how you meet the skills and qualifications stated in the job description.

In addition, the cover letter should provide an overview of the skills, knowledge and experience you have gained in the teaching sector. This should demonstrate your teaching abilities, such as your ability to develop and deliver engaging lessons, manage student performance, and communicate with colleagues and parents.

Include any extracurricular activities you have been involved in, such as coaching sports teams, mentoring students or leading school clubs. Highlighting these experiences will show employers you have a passion for teaching and working with young people.

Finally, the cover letter should include a brief explanation of why you are interested in the role and why you would be a great fit for the high school. This should demonstrate your understanding of the school’s vision and how you plan to contribute to its success.

By including the above elements, your high school teacher cover letter will make a strong impression on employers and give you the best chance of securing an interview.

High School Teacher Cover Letter Writing Tips

Writing a successful cover letter for a high school teacher position can be difficult, especially when you are new to the field and do not have much experience. With the right tips and advice, though, you can write an impressive letter that will help you stand out from the competition. Here are some tips to help you write an effective cover letter for a high school teacher job:

  • Research the school: Before writing your cover letter, take the time to research the school where you are applying. Learn about the school’s goals, mission, and values, and try to incorporate this information into your cover letter. This will show the hiring manager that you have a genuine interest in the school and that you have taken the time to understand the school’s philosophy and objectives.
  • Highlight your teaching experience: If you have previous teaching experience, be sure to highlight it in your cover letter. This will show the hiring manager that you have the knowledge and skills to be a successful teacher. Make sure to include information such as the grade levels you have taught, your teaching style, and any educational accomplishments you have achieved.
  • Mention any special qualifications: If you have any special qualifications, such as a teaching certification, or a particular area of expertise, be sure to mention this in your cover letter. This will help you stand out from the competition and show the hiring manager that you have the skills and qualifications necessary to be a successful teacher.
  • Show your enthusiasm: Your cover letter should demonstrate your enthusiasm for teaching. Talk about why you are passionate about teaching and why you are the best person for the job. Showing your enthusiasm and passion for teaching will make your cover letter stand out from the crowd.
  • Be professional: Your cover letter should be professional and error- free. Make sure to check for spelling and grammar mistakes, and don’t forget to proofread your cover letter before you submit it

Common mistakes to avoid when writing High School Teacher Cover letter

A High School Teacher cover letter is a resourceful way to introduce yourself to potential employers. In order to secure a job, it is important that your cover letter stands out from the competition. Here are some common mistakes to avoid while writing a High School Teacher cover letter:

  • Not customizing the cover letter: Every employer is different and will have specific expectations. It’s important to tailor your cover letter to the job description and make sure it speaks directly to the needs of the school.
  • Overusing clichés: Your cover letter should demonstrate your personality and enthusiasm for the job. Using phrases such as “I am an excellent communicator” or “I am a team player” might be too generic and can make your letter sound insincere.
  • Not proofreading: Grammatical and spelling errors can hurt your chances of getting hired. Make sure to thoroughly read through your cover letter before submitting it, and consider having a trusted friend or family member check it for any errors.
  • Not being concise: A cover letter should be 1 to 2 pages maximum and should highlight what makes you the ideal candidate for the position. It’s important to be brief and to the point while also giving enough information to make a lasting impression.
  • Not showcasing your strengths: Use your cover letter to highlight your qualifications and skills that are relevant to the job. Explain why you’re passionate about teaching and how you’d be an asset to the school.

By avoiding these common mistakes, you can ensure that your High School Teacher cover letter stands out and gives you the best chance of getting hired.

Key takeaways

The job market for teachers is highly competitive, and a well- written high school teacher cover letter is an important factor in getting noticed by a hiring committee. Writing an engaging and effective cover letter can be difficult, so here are some key takeaways for writing an impressive high school teacher cover letter:

  • Tailor your cover letter to the school and position you are applying for. Show that you have done your research and are familiar with the job requirements and school culture.
  • Express your enthusiasm and explain why you are the right candidate for the job. Focus on the skills, qualifications, and experience that make you a great fit for the position.
  • Use specific examples to illustrate your qualifications and demonstrate your commitment to teaching.
  • Provide evidence of your accomplishments and achievements in the classroom.
  • Highlight your ability to develop strong relationships with students and colleagues.
  • Demonstrate that you understand the commitment and responsibilities of a high school teacher.
  • Keep your cover letter concise and to the point.
  • Make sure you proofread and edit your cover letter carefully.

By following these tips, you can create a compelling and impressive cover letter that will stand out from the competition. With a well- crafted cover letter, you can increase your chances of landing an interview and getting the job.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. how do i write a cover letter for an high school teacher job with no experience.

Writing a cover letter for a high school teacher job with no experience can be a difficult task. However, it is possible to make a strong impression on your potential employer by focus on your soft skills, such as your ability to communicate effectively, your enthusiasm for teaching, and your dedication to building a successful learning environment. Highlight your experience working with children or other relevant experience that could be advantageous when teaching high school students. Finally, make sure to include any relevant certifications you may have that could be helpful in the teaching position.

2. How do I write a cover letter for an High School Teacher job experience?

When writing a cover letter for a high school teacher position with experience, it is important to focus on the accomplishments you have achieved in your past teaching positions. Highlight any successes you have had in motivating students, teaching innovative methods, and creating effective learning environments. Additionally, make sure to focus on the qualities that make you an ideal candidate for the job, such as your expertise in the subject material, your ability to build relationships with students, and your passion for teaching.

3. How can I highlight my accomplishments in High School Teacher cover letter?

When highlighting your accomplishments in a high school teacher cover letter, make sure to focus on the results achieved in your past teaching positions. For example, if you have helped to improve student test scores, focus on the percentage of improvement. Additionally, make sure to mention any awards or recognition you have received for your teaching work. This can be a great way to demonstrate your dedication and effectiveness as a teacher.

4. What is a good cover letter for an High School Teacher job?

A good cover letter for a high school teacher job should focus on the qualifications and experience that make you an ideal candidate for the position. Make sure to mention your teaching credentials, your ability to build relationships with students, and your enthusiasm for teaching. Additionally, highlight any successes you have had in your past teaching positions, such as improved student test scores or awards you have received. Finally, make sure to include any relevant certifications or special training you have received that would be beneficial in the high school teaching job.

In addition to this, be sure to check out our cover letter templates , cover letter formats ,  cover letter examples ,  job description , and  career advice  pages for more helpful tips and advice.

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High School Teacher Resume Template

Download in google doc, word or pdf for free. designed to pass resume screening software in 2022., high school teacher resume sample.

Being a High School Teacher is more than just lecturing in front of a class. It's about connecting with students, understanding their needs and concerns. As such, your resume should not only demonstrate your academic qualifications but also your ability to connect and engage with young minds. Recently, the education sector has been seeing a shift towards personalized learning. Therefore, showcasing your ability to cater to individual student needs can be a game-changer when applying for High School Teacher roles.

A sample resume of a High School Teacher demonstrating teaching methodologies and adaptability to technology.

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Recruiter Insight: Why this resume works in 2022

Tips to help you write your high school teacher resume in 2023,    highlight your teaching methodologies.

As a High School Teacher, how you teach can be just as important as what you teach. Your resume should describe your teaching methodologies, whether they're project-based, student-centric, or something else entirely.

Highlight your teaching methodologies - High School Teacher Resume

   Show your adaptability to technology

Nowadays, the use of technology in classrooms is inevitable. Therefore, you need to show your adaptability to different educational technologies. Include any experience with virtual classrooms, learning management systems, or any other relevant educational tech.

Show your adaptability to technology - High School Teacher Resume

As the name suggests, this teacher teaches in high school to students who are generally aged between 14 and 18 years old. In other countries, you might be called a secondary school teacher. High school teachers specialize in teaching specific subjects so you will be expected to have a bachelor’s degree in education and a specialization in the subjects you teach. Recruiters will also be looking to see years of experience as a high school teacher. Here is a successful resume sample.

A high school teacher resume sample that highlights the applicant’s specialization and experience.

   Include virtual learning tools in your skills list.

Covid changed the learning landscape forever. More learning is happening virtually so show recruiters that you are skilled at teaching virtually by including common virtual learning tools like Google Classroom.

Include virtual learning tools in your skills list. - High School Teacher Resume

   Consider adding your subject specialization in the title or the skills section of your resume.

When schools are recruiting teachers, they are usually looking for teachers to teach specific subjects. So including your subject specialization in the title or the skills section might be a good way to help you get past any ATS resume filters they have put in place.

Consider adding your subject specialization in the title or the skills section of your resume. - High School Teacher Resume

Secondary School Teacher Resume Sample

Education practitioner resume sample, instructional facilitator resume sample, academic instructor resume sample, skills for high school teacher resumes.

Here are examples of popular skills from High School Teacher job descriptions that you can include on your resume.

  • Leadership Development
  • Classroom Management
  • Teacher Training
  • Curriculum Development
  • Educational Technology
  • Microsoft Access

Skills Word Cloud For High School Teacher Resumes

This word cloud highlights the important keywords that appear on High School Teacher job descriptions and resumes. The bigger the word, the more frequently it appears on job postings, and the more likely you should include it in your resume.

Top High School Teacher Skills and Keywords to Include On Your Resume

How to use these skills?

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•  Find the High School Teacher skills your resume is missing.

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High School Teacher Resumes

  • Template #1: High School Teacher
  • Template #2: High School Teacher
  • Template #3: High School Teacher
  • Template #4: Secondary School Teacher
  • Template #5: Education Practitioner
  • Template #6: Instructional Facilitator
  • Template #7: Academic Instructor
  • Skills for High School Teacher Resumes
  • Free High School Teacher Resume Review
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  • High School Teacher Interview Guide
  • High School Teacher Sample Cover Letters
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Professional High School Teacher Cover Letter Example for 2023

Read for inspiration or use it as a base to improve your own High School Teacher cover letter. Just replace personal information, company application data and achievements with your own.

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How to write the perfect high school teacher cover letter

Would a good cover letter increase your chances of landing an interview? Yes.

Do we have any specific tips for High School Teacher applications? Yes.

Are cover letters the same as resumes, but longer? Definitely not!

So what are cover letters?

Well, great cover letters give you the opportunity to tell a personal story, while making the right impression and proving you’re the best candidate at the same time.

Need more details? Let’s dive deep.

high school teacher coverletter.png

So what does a good cover letter look like?

Well, it’s written in a tone of voice that matches the specific company’s culture, and it’s not just a long-form resume. It’s also focused on making the right impression.

We advise you to talk about your achievements, goals, and motivations, rather than just plainly listing your skills and experience. Try to tell a personal story.

And if that’s not enough, we have some additional pro tips for you.

Use an appropriate salutation and write a powerful introduction

Choosing the right salutation for your cover letter is crucial – after all, it’s the first thing the hiring manager will read.

For this reason, we’ve gathered several classic salutations. Note that some of them could be used even if you don't know the hiring manager's name.

  • Dear Human Resources Manager,
  • Dear Mr. Johnson,
  • Dear Head of [team you're applying for],
  • Dear Nathan Lovelace

A noteworthy introduction is what will grab the reader by the collar and make them want to get to know you better.

But what’s the best way to begin your cover letter? Highlighting your excitement about the position!

Be honest and original – this will get you remembered. You can even link your excitement to the reasons why you’d like to grow in this exact field.

Don't skip on your High School Teacher soft and hard skills

When it comes to listing skills on a cover letter, there’s only one thing that could be said about it – do it in a well thought out way!

We mean, don’t just plainly list all your skills on your cover letter. Instead, link them to achievements and goals. Share how your expertise can add value to the team. Maybe even tell a personal story. It’s up to you.

Just make sure to include both soft and hard skills – especially the ones listed in the requirements section of the job advert. This will help you pass applicant tracking systems that screen documents for certain keywords.

Show that you know the company and its problems well

Having a paragraph that shows you’re aware of the company and the issues it faces is always a good idea. It proves your enthusiasm to join the team and makes a great impression.

For bonus points, you could also share how some of your strengths could help resolve company or even industry problems.

Choose the right closing line

By now you’ve managed to make a good impression on the hiring manager, and it’s important not to ruin it. That’s why you need your ending to be just as great as your cover letter’s body.

But what are the things that make up a memorable closing line? Expressing gratitude for the reader’s time and consideration, and saying that you look forward to their reply, to name a couple.

You can stick to traditional phrases (e.g. Looking forward to hearing from you soon) if you wish to be on the safe side. Just make sure that the language you use matches the company culture.

High School Teacher cover letter

Cover letter examples by industry

  • Math Teacher
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  • Substitute Teacher
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If you want to make sure that the hiring manager will remember you, pair your cover letter with a matching resume.

Check out our High School Teacher resume examples and job-winning templates for some additional inspiration.

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5 Teacher Cover Letter Examples & Templates for 2023

Stephen Greet

  • Teacher Cover Letter
  • AP English Teacher
  • Writing Your Teacher Cover Letter 101

Though parents and students don’t always recognize it, teachers work way more than the 8 to 4 school day. Lesson planning, grading, parent communication, faculty meetings, and students’ extracurriculars are just some of what you do beyond classroom instruction. 

If you’re seeking a new teaching position, it’s mind-boggling why a school would ask you for a cover letter along with a resume and application. Your time is already fully committed . 

That’s why we’re here. We’ve got five teacher cover letter samples plus a how-to guide to aid your job hunt. You can’t cover every achievement in your  teacher resume  or cover letter, but with a little help from us, you’ll be on your way to showing principals and departments why they should hire you. 

Teacher Cover Letter Example


Microsoft Word

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Block Format

Teacher cover letter example

Elementary Teacher Cover Letter Example

Elementary teacher cover letter example

Art Teacher Cover Letter Example

Art teacher cover letter example

Why this resume works

  • Metrics bring your accomplishments to life, painting a vivid picture of your effectiveness for the role. For instance, Kaito reports a 12% increase in foot traffic to his mural projects.

Special Education Teacher Cover Letter Example

Special education teacher cover letter example

  • Passion equals commitment and even success. Not only does this align with the role she seeks, but it’s also an excellent trick to captivate the recruiter reading your piece.

AP English Teacher Cover Letter Example

AP English teacher cover letter example

AP English Teacher Resume

Need a resume to pair with your AP English teacher cover letter?

or download as PDF

AP English teacher resume example

How to Write a Cover Letter for a Teaching Job

Teacher on blue laptop types and questions how to write a teacher cover letter

The key to writing your teacher cover letter can be distilled into two main points: don’t be generic and don’t let it become a repeat of your resume. 

high school teacher cover letter examples

Step 1: Don’t skimp on researching the teaching role

Just as you want to tailor your resume to the school where you want to work and to its accompanying  teacher job description , you should do the same with your cover letter. Sure, this requires extra research, but what’re 20 or 30 minutes when this effort can pay off in dividends? Not only will research ensure your cover letter is relevant—not vague and generic—it’ll also prepare you well for common  teacher interview questions .

Additionally, leverage your research to demonstrate a real interest in the role you’re applying for as well as in the school itself.

  • Discuss how your commitment to standardized testing has improved students’ performance at other schools.
  • Share how Google Classroom has transformed your STEM projects.

high school teacher cover letter examples

Step 2: Go beyond your teaching resume

Addressing the specific needs and concerns mentioned in the job description will have the desired effect  as long as you go beyond what you included in your resume . Mentioning that you’re a rock star at using Google Classroom isn’t enough; principals have  already  gathered that from your resume bullet points and  skills section .  

This is your opportunity to specifically share what you’ve done with Google Classroom. Many teachers set up Google Classroom for their students but don’t get around to using it. What have you done that sets the standard for every teacher following you? This is when quantifying your experience becomes exceptionally valuable. 

  • Demonstrate how this resource has decreased late submissions by 53 percent.
  • What did you do exactly to accomplish such a feat? One-on-one tutoring, an after-school club, unique teaching methodologies?

high school teacher cover letter examples

Step 3: Convey the right message

Beyond specific and descriptive paragraphs in your teacher cover letter, keep your document  at  or less than a page. Eliminate wordiness and avoid pleasantries. Be sincere and gracious, but, really, no one likes a teacher’s pet.   

So, consider your tone of voice. Be professional, avoiding clichés, contractions, colloquialisms, and the like. Remember you’re applying for a teaching position, not a quirky tech startup.

Consider your tone. Remember you’re applying for a teaching role, not a quirky tech startup.

And when you think your cover letter is ready to go, hold up! You’re, indeed, almost at the finish line, but what is it you tell your students to do before they submit an essay (which they inevitably  never  do)? 

Yep—it’s time to practice what you preach. Invite a few people you trust to review your cover letter and offer constructive criticism while your eyes and brain rest. Then, return to your work, consider the feedback, and scour for any last content issues and spelling and grammar errors. Make revisions, save your document, and send your best teacher cover letter to the principal and hiring department with your resume, application, and any other requested materials.

Your Teacher Cover Letter Format & Outline

Teacher in yellow dress outlines cover letter on blackboard with yellow chalk

Now, if you’re staring at a blinking cursor on a blank document, not sure how to make the examples and steps work for you, don’t fret. It’ll come together beautifully like a perfectly executed lesson plan.

You just need a comprehensive outline that breaks the cover letter for a teaching position into distinct sections, making it easy to understand what to include in each part.

high school teacher cover letter examples

How to start a teacher cover letter

Your contact info: If you’re using a template, fill in the letterhead to suit your needs. Just ensure you replace all filler text and don’t accidentally exclude critical information like your name, email, and phone number. 

  • Formatting:  If you write a block business letter rather than use a template, including your address is standard. Additionally, while your name will be prominently displayed on a letterhead on a template, a basic but professional block letter should omit your name (the principal will find your name easily in your signature line).

Date:  If you write your cover letter today but don’t submit it until next week, edit the date, to reflect the day you submit the letter and other career documents for the specific teaching role. 

  • Formatting:  Write out the full date, e.g. January 12, 2023.

Inside address:  This is the contact information for the principal or hiring department at the school. Name the specific person; then, include the school and position title, e.g., Ryan High School Principal. Complete this section with the school’s address.

  • Formatting:  Each piece of the inside address should be on a new line. You’ll want a double space between the inside address and the greeting. 

Kyndra Marque Ryan High School Principal  5101 E McKinney St Denton, TX 76208

Greeting:  Your goal is to start on the right foot with your principal, so avoid issuing a generic greeting, also known as a salutation, like:

  • Dear Principal,
  • Dear Hiring Department,
  • To Whom it May Concern:

While it can take some sleuth skills to track down the name of the hiring manager for some jobs,  most, if not all,  schools have staff listings on their website. You’re already researching the school to help you write an amazing cover letter, so take a couple of extra minutes to put a real name to the greeting:

  • Dear Mr. Thatcher:
  • Dear Ms. Li:
  • Formatting:  Err on the side of caution and use a colon at the end of the greeting. A comma is more casual while a colon denotes professionalism, which will likely serve you best for a teaching role.  

high school teacher cover letter examples

How to write your teacher cover letter

Body:  The body of your teacher cover letter should be three to four brief paragraphs that state your interest, demonstrate your teaching credentials, and convey enthusiasm for further discussion. Let’s break it down further: 

  • Formatting:  The body of your teaching cover letter should be single-spaced although you’ll need to double-space between paragraphs.

Opening paragraph:  The goal is simple—state your interest in the position and your overarching credentials that reflect your research for the specific role. While the goal is simple, the execution often leaves little to be desired. Too many teacher cover letters start the same way.

I found your posting online and am interested in filling the English III position. 

No. Just no. Bore the principal and the English department right out of the gate, and they’ll wonder whether you’ll hold the attention of your students. Instead, try:

With 12 percent of Ryan High’s student population slotted to graduate with honors, I am eager to lead the initiation of the English Advanced Placement program as stated in the job description. With seven years of experience teaching AP courses, I am confident that Ryan High’s students will excel in my classroom and beyond.

Not only does this signal that you’ve done your homework and researched the school’s unique standing and areas for growth, this opening paragraph hooks the reader. Clearly, you’re interested in the role, offer valuable experience, and with phrases like “lead the initiation” and “excel in my classroom,” there’s no doubt you’re confident and capable.

Paragraphs 2-3:  If you can squeeze in the third paragraph, we recommend it as each paragraph is an opportunity to demonstrate indisputable evidence of the credentials and qualifications you boldly state in your opening paragraph. 

Each paragraph should not be a repeat of your resume; rather, each paragraph should hone in on  one  clear accomplishment, be it the results of your teaching methodology, values, or something else. Don’t try to tackle multiple topics in a paragraph. Be detailed, specific, and quantify your results when possible. 

Closing paragraph:  Clench an interview with this final paragraph. Now’s not the time to lay your head on your desk and call it a day. Don’t let this be your closing paragraph:

I believe I am the perfect candidate for this teaching position, and I look forward to hearing back from you soon. 

At best, it exudes laziness. At worst, no one will believe you’re actually interested in the job but just need something to put beans on the table. 

Instead, demonstrate that your unique values and qualifications align with the school’s needs, which will indicate a genuine interest in the role— even if you are  desperate to put beans on the table.

Finally, add a call to action that anticipates a follow-up or interview. With the following closing paragraph, it’s clear that teaching is far more to you than just a job:

Solving students’ pain points is more than acknowledging their existence. To me, pain points are a starting point to discovery. I firmly believe that some of the most challenging endeavors have the power to yield the most fruitful results. If these results speak to you, I am eager to share more of what my non-traditional classroom looks like and what you can expect from Belleville’s students and from me as their geometry instructor.  

high school teacher cover letter examples

How to end a teacher cover letter

Signature:  While you can include your gratitude at the end of the closing paragraph, you can also express thanks when you sign off. Keep it professional, and use your real name here just as you will on your resume and application form. 

  • Formatting:  Typically, you’ll send your cover letter to the principal’s email; however, if you deliver your career docs in person or—gasp—by mail, be sure to quadruple space and sign your name in blue or black ink between your closing line and typed name.

Thank you for your consideration,

Marcus DeWitt 

Enclosure(s):  This is important, and most job seekers, including teachers, fail to include it. “Enclosure(s)” means that more documents follow your cover letter.

What information would that be? Well, hopefully, your  teacher resume , likely the school’s application, potentially your teaching license, also your college transcripts, and maybe even a reference letter or two, depending on the requirements detailed in the  teacher job ad . 

After your signature, you’ll include “Enclosure(s),” followed by the exact documents in order of appearance. 

  • Formatting:  Use the singular form of “enclosure” if you’re only including one document. Also, include each additional document on a new line. 

Enclosures: Resume Application 2 letters of recommendation

See, including this final section is literally easier than writing your own address. Include it, and automatically set yourself apart from other teachers vying for the same role. 

Finish Strong with Your Teacher Resume

Teacher works on purple laptop to finish teacher resume

Now, that you’ve got the tools to confidently wow principals and departmental heads with your teacher cover letter, have you considered the current state of your resume? Maybe you’ve already updated and polished it, and if that’s you, kudos to you—you’re ahead of the game! 

If you’re blowing out an exaggerated breath because you’ve relegated your resume to the nether regions of your mind, we get it. But teacher resumes are judged more harshly than most. Hiring teams don’t cut a lot of slack when they’re looking for talent who will teach their students to communicate, read, and write well.   

So, if it’s time to think seriously about re-writing or, let’s face it,  writing  your resume  from scratch, take a page from us (literally) and get inspired with our  free resume templates  and  teacher resume examples  like the one below.

Elementary Teacher Resume

Need a resume to pair with your elementary teacher cover letter?

Elementary teacher resume example

Your career documents are a pain in the tush, we know, but think of us as your biggest cheerleaders. With our  resume builder ,  Google resume templates ,  Word resume templates , and expert-approved guidance, your teacher resume and cover letter are sure to win you interviews and secure your next role, where you just might earn Teacher of the Year at your next school. 

Every school you apply to will likely have slightly different teaching styles, cultures, and objectives they would like to achieve throughout the year. You can use your cover letter to connect your previous experiences to their mission and goals. For instance, if you volunteered for an early-age reading program, that would be a great experience to connect when applying to a K-5 position where the school wants to improve student reading scores.

Ideally, you want to match your tone to the feel of each school’s job description. Does the school have a very formal and knowledgeable tone in the description? Then being more formal and factual about your knowledge and experiences in different teaching styles they emphasize would be a great idea. For example, citing factual information about how you used hybrid learning to create 75% higher material retention in math subjects would work well in this instance.

Try to address your cover letter to a specific person in the school. Typically, this will be a principal, superintendent, or human resources hiring manager that would be reviewing teacher resumes . Check through the job description to see if a specific name is listed who will be reviewing applications, or review the school’s website for this information. If you can’t find anything, you can simply address it to “[Name of school] hiring staff” or something similar.

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How to Write a Perfect Teacher Cover Letter (Examples Included)


Quite simply, teachers rock. They give us so many of the tools we need to get by in life, and in the most Hollywood-ready moments, inspire us to get into poetry and stand on desks. But while we, as a society, see teachers at the head of the classroom, imparting the knowledge one needs to get by in this world, we might not think of the hiring process it takes to get there. But the reality is that every teacher had to go through the very ordinary hiring process to get their jobs, just like everyone else. If you’re a teacher, you want your cover letter to rock every bit as much as you do.

First let’s start with the basics of a good cover letter, and what that means for your job search as an educator.

Necessity #1: A Personalized Introduction

If you’re a teacher, your most basic goal is (most likely) to get a job teaching. Great—it’s the same goal as every other person applying for this open position. Your more specific goal with your cover letter is to make sure that your name and qualifications are as memorable as possible, setting a tone that the reader can carry over into reading your resume. This means that you need to engage the reader up front.

Whenever possible, make sure you’re addressing your letter (or email, if you’re being all modern about it) to someone specific. Before you start putting together your resume/cover letter package, do a little legwork about who will likely be reading this. If the job listing includes a specific name, great! You’re all set. If not, it’s worth doing a little digging online to see who will be on the receiving end.

It’s also important to use the right tone. Definitely don’t go too casual. The fact that you’re likely submitting these online, or writing an email, can lead to a false sense of shortcut familiarity. So even if you’re submitting your cover letter and resume digitally, treat the email like a regular letter.

Potential Obstacle

You’re working with an entirely online application process, with no visibility into who might be reading this. If that’s the case, and all you know is the school or school system where you’re applying, try to find information online about who has hiring responsibility for the school district. If that, too fails, go with a generic address like, “Greetings.” It’s not ideal, but it feels less stiff and formal than the old favorite, “to whom it may concern.”

Good salutation examples:

  • Dear Ms. Rodriguez,
  •   Dear Principal Rodriguez,
  •   Greetings, Ms. Rodriguez,

Bad salutation examples:

  • Dear Mudville Public Schools Administrator (too vague/impersonal)
  •   To Ms. Rodriguez, Superintendent of Mudville Public Schools (too formal—you’re not introducing royalty at a state dinner)
  •   Hi: (too impersonal/casual)
  •   To Whom It May Concern: (too formal/too impersonal)

You want your cover letter to seem professional, but approachable. The salutation helps set that tone. If you make it seem too much like an impersonal form letter, or the stiff letter of a person who is uncomfortable talking about this job application, you run the risk of not engaging the reader. And I think we all know what happens to application packages that don’t engage the reader. (Spoiler alert: they don’t get read.)

Necessity #2: Your Elevator Pitch

You’re an educator. You teach. That may be your elevator pitch in its simplest form, but this is your chance to add some necessary color. You should also be very specific about which position for which you’re applying, because there may be other openings in a variety of different teaching roles. If you think you’re applying for the high school English job and somehow your application gets routed to the pile for the elementary school gym teacher position, your very specific letter ensures that you’ll get to the right hands. Your resume would likely do this as well, but this helps the reader know up front that what position you’re seeking, and why.

And above all, make sure you’re proofreading your letter—and ideally, having a trusted friend look at it as well to make sure you haven’t missed anything. Unfairly or not, teachers are held to the highest standards of grammar and written communication, regardless of whether they teach writing or physics. You know and I know that teachers are human, and prone to mistakes like the rest of us, but you can avoid a lot uncomfortable, unforced errors by adding some extra care with your cover letter.

Good pitch example:

As a secondary math teacher for more than 10 years, I’ve found that my passion for (and commitment to teaching) have only grown with every year. Even with the complexities of the current educational landscape, the feeling of getting through to that student who just wasn’t “getting the hang of it,” or helping advanced students achieve their goals, never gets old. I have dedicated my career to helping students of all levels master the math skills and concepts they need to go on to college and everyday life beyond high school, and would love to continue that path with Mudville High School.

In my current position, I teach algebra, pre-calculus, and calculus to students in grades 9 through 12. Over my ten years of teaching, I’ve made it a point to stay up to date on the most current pedagogy and teaching methods, and use custom lesson planning to develop relevant curricula for students in order to maximize their engagement on complex concepts. I’ve also presented on curriculum planning at the National Federation of Teachers conference, and would bring that enthusiasm and expertise to your school.

Bad pitch examples:

I would love to teach at your school. Please see my attached CV, and let me know if you have any questions.

This is way too little information. Who are you? What experience do you bring? What are you hoping to accomplish in this job? It shouldn’t be a novel about your life, but you should be providing some context for your resume.

Teaching has been my only consuming passion in life. I eat, drink, sleep, and breathe calculus, and will not rest until all of my students are proficient. I have ten years of experience, and will bring nothing but focus and devotion to my next ten years as a math teacher at Mudville High School .

Too…intense. You want to position yourself as a strong candidate, but that doesn’t mean you have to pretend that you don’t have outside skills, interests, or…down time. Readers can see through hyperbole, so it’s best to find a balance between enthusiasm (a necessary part of any job application) and an exaggerated over-sell.

Necessity #3: A Strong Finish

Always have a closing that leaves room for follow-up. Yes, the reader knows that they can email you with any questions, but it’s a conversational way to close out the letter and move the reader on to your resume.

Good closing example:

I would love to continue my career as an educator with Mudville Public Schools, with its strong reputation for putting students first. If you have any additional questions or if there’s any additional information I can provide, please don’t hesitate to let me know. I look forward to hearing more about this teaching opportunity.

Bad closing examples:

  • Please let me know more about this job opening. Thanks.
  • I expect to hear from you within a week. Thank you.

In these examples, one teacher suggests that she has put thought and consideration into applying for this particular job. The other teachers, well…one closes with the most generic exit possible, and this adds nothing to the cover letter. In the second bad example, it comes off as too demanding, like the writer is evaluating the reader, not vice versa. I know it can be frustrating when you send your application package into the void and don’t hear back right away, but demanding a response doesn’t guarantee you’ll get one.

A strong closing is important, as it’s one of the few remaining elements between the cover and the resume.

Necessity #4: Keep It Clean

Like with your resume, you want your cover letter to be clear and easy to read. That means:

  • A standard font. This is not the time to test out “fun” fonts. Pick something clean and basic, like Times.
  • No huge blocks of text. In a letter, unbroken paragraphs can look like the ramblings of a manifesto. You want your reader to see a series of separate, elegantly outlined points. Short paragraphs, 2-3 at most.
  • Short length. A cover letter should never be more than a page, and even a full page is definitely pushing it. Brevity is the soul of wit, and the friend of application readers everywhere.

Good letter body example:

  In my current position, I teach algebra, pre-calculus, and calculus to students in grades 9 through 12. Over my ten years of teaching, I’ve made it a point to stay up to date on the most current pedagogy and teaching methods, and use custom lesson planning to develop relevant curricula for students in order to maximize their engagement on complex concepts. I’ve also presented on curriculum planning at the National Federation of Teachers conference, and would bring that enthusiasm and expertise to your school.

  I would love continue my career as an educator with Mudville Public Schools, with its strong reputation for putting students first. If you have any additional questions or if there’s any additional information I can provide, please don’t hesitate to let me know. I look forward to hearing more about this teaching opportunity.

Bad letter body example:

As a secondary math teacher for more than 10 years, I’ve found that my passion for (and commitment to teaching) have only grown with every year. Even with the complexities of the current educational landscape, the feeling of getting through to that student who just wasn’t “getting the hang of it,” or helping advanced students achieve their goals, never gets old. I have dedicated my career to helping students of all levels master the math skills and concepts they need to go on to college and everyday life beyond high school, and would love to continue that path with Mudville High School. In my current position, I teach algebra, pre-calculus, and calculus to students in grades 9 through 12. Over my ten years of teaching, I’ve made it a point to stay up to date on the most current pedagogy and teaching methods, and use custom lesson planning to develop relevant curricula for students in order to maximize their engagement on complex concepts. I’ve also presented on curriculum planning at the National Federation of Teachers conference, and would bring that enthusiasm and expertise to your school. I would love continue my career as an educator with Mudville Public Schools, with its strong reputation for putting students first. If you have any additional questions or if there’s any additional information I can provide, please don’t hesitate to let me know. I look forward to hearing more about this teaching opportunity.

One of these letters is clear and readable. The other is not. If the reader can’t get through your letter and know several things about you right away, it decreases the odds that your resume will click with him or her—and may even prevent someone from looking at the attached resume at all.

Once you’ve got the body of the letter in shape, all that’s left is the closing. Like the salutation, you want to err on the side of formal, but friendly.

Good closing examples:

  • Best wishes,


Bad examples:

  • Thanks. (brusque tone)
  • Fondest wishes, (too flowery)
  •   [name—no greeting] (too abrupt)
  •   Let me know, (too informal and oddly personal)

And with that, you’ve got your cover letter! Teachers are taking on an incredible commitment, and that means that those hiring them are looking for the most put-together, obviously qualified applicants available. You can have an amazing resume, but if you aren’t making your case with your cover letter, you’re missing out on an opportunity to really set the narrative and the tone for your application.

Let’s take a last look at the good sample cover letter as a whole:

  Dear Principal Rodriquez,

  As a secondary math teacher for more than 10 years, I’ve found that my passion for (and commitment to teaching) have only grown with every year. Even with the complexities of the current educational landscape, the feeling of getting through to that student who just wasn’t “getting the hang of it,” or helping advanced students achieve their goals, never gets old. I have dedicated my career to helping students of all levels master the math skills and concepts they need to go on to college and everyday life beyond high school, and would love to continue that path with Mudville High School.

I would love continue my career as an educator with Mudville Public Schools, with its strong reputation for putting students first. If you have any additional questions or if there’s any additional information I can provide, please don’t hesitate to let me know. Thanks for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing more about this teaching opportunity.

Rosemarie Jones

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About the author.

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Kate Lopaze

Kate Lopaze is a writer, editor, and digital publishing professional based in New York City. A graduate of the University of Connecticut and Emerson College with degrees in English and publishing, she is passionate about books, baseball, and pop culture (though not necessarily in that order), and lives in Brooklyn with her dog.

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28 Useful Cover Letter Examples for Teachers

July 19, 2023 //  by  Sean Kivi

Time to show the world you are an ideal candidate for any teaching job you desire. Focus on the job specifics, your previous experience, interpersonal skills...all the positive attributes that make you the amazing teacher you are! Here are some helpful examples of various cover letters to guide you through the writing process. Good luck!

1. Assistant Teacher

As an assistant teacher, one essential quality hiring managers are looking for is interpersonal skills. How you work and collaborate with others, and what you can contribute to the main teacher and students. Here is an example and some tips to consider as you write.

Learn More: Indeed

2. First Teaching Job

Everyone needs to start somewhere! Tell employers why it should be at their school by sharing other experiences you've had that showcase your teaching abilities. Student teaching, internships, and tutoring are a few transferable skills that you can list. Your dream job is waiting for you, so check out the best ways to present yourself here.

Learn More: The Balance Careers

3. Special Needs Teacher

This job application will have specific requirements and expectations that you should highlight in your teaching cover letter. Make sure to review the job description and tailor your writing with hands-on experience accounts and accreditations.

4. Preschool Teacher

As our children's first teachers, this teaching position requires classroom management skills, patience, experience with children, and organizational skills. For the perfect cover letter remember to emphasize your skills directly relating to what the job is asking. Research the school's philosophy on child education and development to show them you are a strong candidate.

5. Elementary School Teacher

Check out the core skills and philosophies the school is looking to emphasize in their education. Highlight any experiences you've had with elementary-level students and how you see the leadership role contributing to student engagement and an interest in education.

Learn More: Resume Genius

6. Summer School Teacher

Summer school teaching jobs are short-term with less commitment, so employers receive a lot of applications. Make sure yours stands out with relevant examples and enthusiasm for the subjects covered over the summer.

Learn More: Cover Letters And Resume

7. Middle School Teacher

Middle school is a time where students are going through a lot of changes and challenges. The expectations for teachers are in classroom management, how you deal with disruptive students, and ways you can motivate your students. Share your understanding of the importance this role holds in fostering positive connections and skills in teenagers and what you can do in this crucial role.

Learn More: Kick Resume

8. School Counselor

This job opportunity has a lot to do with how you relate to students and how you can be there to support and guide them. Employers will be looking at your education in psychology, communication skills, experience in the field, and passion to make a positive difference in students' lives.

9. High School Teacher

High school teaching jobs are subject-centered, so when applying make sure to highlight specific knowledge and relevant experience that makes you a good fit. Any distinct skills in teaching the subject should be noted, such as lesson plan ideas, assessment strategies, and motivation tactics.

Learn More: Resumes For Teachers

10. Technology Teacher

What is the schools' attitude towards technology in education? Research and adapt your cover letter to fit the desires and expectations of the position. Show your hiring manager your ultimate goal is to prepare the students for the ever-evolving world so they can achieve their dreams.

Learn More: Live Career

11. Music Teacher

Elective teaching positions allow more freedom in curriculum development and planning, so share how you wish to inspire a love for music and a motivation to practice and grow as a musician. Highlight lots of experience incorporating your qualifications, music background/knowledge, and teaching experience.

Learn More: Best Sample Resume

12. Foreign Language Teacher

Teaching a foreign language in school is a distinct skill that requires patience, motivation, and various methods of presentation. Many students struggle to learn a new language so employers are looking for someone with a strong grasp of all aspects of grammar, usage, and lexicology. Display your knowledge and understanding with concrete examples of your work with the language, as well as your credentials.

13. Physical Education Teacher

When writing this cover letter, highlight your relevant achievements in sports and education. Include any experience you have with physical therapy, coaching, and health. State how you would encourage healthy habits and make exercise fun for students and give specific examples from previous jobs in the field.

Learn More: Great Sample Resume

14. Science Teacher 

For this job listing, it is important to express your passion for the subject. Science has many components that can be challenging for students to grasp, but the knowledge is relevant and useful in many aspects of daily life. Tell the hiring manager the positive contribution you can provide your students with your knowledge and experience in the field.

15. English as a Second Language Teacher

This teaching job requires an understanding of the English language as well as knowing the challenges a non-native speaker might face while learning the language. Provide specific examples of when you helped someone with language learning. Education in linguistics and acquisition will show the employer you know strategies for how students can recognize and retain new lexicon and grammatical structures.

16. Drama Teacher

Theatre is a unique elective that requires a teacher with passion and a desire to inspire students to pursue their dreams and overcome fears. Communicate that you understand the expectations of this job with extended hours for rehearsals, finding resources for costumes/production, and time outside of school. List any previous experiences in productions and nurturing creative expression in youth.

17. Math Teacher

There are many variations of math with different levels of complexity and difficulty depending on the age/grade level. Begin your letter by stating your education and experience with the fields they are looking to fill. Explain how you could create a positive classroom environment where students can process the challenging equations and ask questions when necessary.

18. Substitute Teacher

Substitute teaching is different from a full-time teacher who can develop a long-term curriculum. Show the employer how adaptable you are by listing previous experiences you've had teaching various subjects, how you handle classroom management as a short-term authority figure, and how you can motivate students to try even when their main teacher is away.

19. Early Childhood Teacher


Unleashing the innocent curiosity and boundless energy of young learners is a privilege that demands a unique approach. If you're keen on becoming an early childhood teacher, it's imperative that in your cover letter, you weave a story of how you plan to engage young minds and instill a love for life-long learning.

Learn More: Resume.io

20. Literature Teacher


In the realm of literature, you aren't merely an educator. You're a guide; revealing the hidden layers beneath compelling narratives and beautifully constructed prose. In your cover letter, draw attention to how you plan to get students to appreciate literature in a whole new light.

21. Environmental Education Teacher


Standing at the nexus of learning and activism, you have the power to shape the planet's future. Use your cover letter to narrate these stories that exemplify your dedication to nurturing young environmental stewards.

Learn More: Qwik Resume

22. Art Teacher


The canvas of an art classroom is a dynamic landscape where creativity and inspiration bloom. Perhaps, there was an art project that you cleverly linked to a science unit, thereby bridging the gap between subjects? Detail this fusion in your cover letter- demonstrating your adaptability and commitment to holistic education.

23. History Teacher


Amidst the dates and events, you've acted as a luminary of the interconnected web of humanity's past. Craft your cover letter in such a way that it displays your knack for making history an engaging exploration rather than a mere recollection of facts!

24. Computer Science Teacher


Coding isn't just a language in the digital world; it's a powerful tool for creative problem-solving. It's important that this type of cover letter serves as a testament to your teaching strategy of melding theory with hands-on learning.

Learn More: Scribd

25. Language Arts Teacher


Language arts encompass the vibrant spectrum of communication. Highlight your role in nurturing effective communicators as you craft a cover letter that details your ability to make language leap from textbooks!

26. Career and Technical Education Teacher


As a career and technical education teacher, you have a unique role to bridge the gap between classroom and industry. Recollect a time you connected your students with a guest speaker from your vast industry network and provided them with an insider's perspective. Noting such details in your cover letter can paint a picture of the real-world learning environment you aim to foster.

27. Chemistry Teacher


To you, a lab isn't merely a room of chemicals and glassware; it's a stage where science springs to life. Share the narrative of an exciting experiment that captivated your students; linking the wonders of chemistry to its real-world application. Such a tale in your cover letter will showcase your dedication to turning learning into an exciting adventure.

28. Gifted and Talented Teacher


For gifted students, the quest for knowledge is a thrilling expedition, and you are their able guide. Highlight an instance where you tailored a lesson for these intellects; challenging them to scale new academic heights. Your cover letter could narrate this journey to showcase your adeptness at fostering high-achieving learners.

high school teacher cover letter examples

Dear Mr. Blair: It is with great interest and anticipation that I am seeking to secure a Secondary School Teacher position with your school district. As an enthusiastic and dedicated new educator with hands-on student teaching experience, I would love to be a member of your academic team.

These Teacher Cover Letter Examples Will Help You Land Your Next Role Your guide to a killer cover letter that will get you that interview. Online employment or job application form. The document is displayed on a digital tablet. There is also a mobile phone, computer keyboard, coffee, Filofax organizer notepad and glasses on the table.

41 people've already rated it Edit This Cover Letter The cover letter of a high school teacher is not all about the grades and subject matter. How do you bring your subject to life? Have you embraced technology to enhance the learning experience? How does it feel to be in your classroom? Why do your students respond to your teaching methods?

Dear [Hiring Manager], I am writing to apply for the High School Teacher position at [School Name]. With nearly a decade of teaching experience and two years of working in a high school, I am confident that I have the education, experience, and knowledge to make an effective and positive contribution to your school's educational program.

Two teacher cover letter examples: one for an experienced teacher and another sample cover letter for a first-year teacher. Step-by-step tips on how to write a cover letter for teaching positions that will land you more school interviews. A teaching cover letter template you can copy, adjust, and have ready in 15 minutes.

High School Teacher Cover Letter Example. Dear Hiring Manager, As a lover of literature and dedicated educator, I was thrilled to come across the High School Teacher position at New York City Department of Education. I have always admired the Department's commitment to nurturing academic excellence, encouraging creativity, and promoting ...

High School Teacher Resume Examples + Tips and Examples By Kellie Hanna, CPRW, Career Advice Expert Rated 4.5/5 Stars Last Updated: October 06, 2023 Build my resume EXCELLENT 8302 reviews on 30% higher chance of getting a job 42% higher response rate from recruiters Our customers have been hired at: * Foot Note

Skills Lesson Planning | Classroom Management | Performance Assessment | Student Development Student Rapport & Relationship Building | Cross-Functional Communication | Conflict Resolution Microsoft Office 365 | Smartboard | Chromebooks | Google Classroom | Zoom | Quizizz | Kahoot Experience

Google Docs Template #1 High School Teacher Resume Sample Being a High School Teacher is more than just lecturing in front of a class. It's about connecting with students, understanding their needs and concerns.

The following example illustrates what to include on a high school teacher resume: Alicia Graziano, K-12 Educator 440-221-1214 | [email protected] | Cleveland, Ohio Professional summary Dedicated high school calculus teacher passionate about delivering effective lessons, activities and assessments to high school students in grades 11 and 12.

[email protected] Dear [Mr./Ms./Mx.] [Hiring Manager's Last Name], I was delighted to learn of your opening for an English Teacher through my former colleague, Linda Brown. I first met Linda at Evergreen Academy where we worked closely to mentor students with behavioral challenges and eventually integrated a schoolwide mindfulness program.

Professional High School Teacher Cover Letter Example for 2023. Read for inspiration or use it as a base to improve your own High School Teacher cover letter. Just replace personal information, company application data and achievements with your own. Create a Cover Letter. Read the Guide.

5 Teacher Cover Letter. Examples & Templates for 2023. Stephen Greet November 14, 2023. Though parents and students don't always recognize it, teachers work way more than the 8 to 4 school day. Lesson planning, grading, parent communication, faculty meetings, and students' extracurriculars are just some of what you do beyond classroom ...

[email protected] . RE: "Grammar School Teacher for Hire" on Maria's List. Dear Ms. Del Gato, As an admirer of Company Name, I was really excited to see your posting for a 3rd grade teacher. Here's why I'm an excellent match for the position. In addition to having a Masters in Education and seven years of experience, I currently work as ...

This cover letter example is specifically designed for Teacher positions in 2023. Take advantage of our sample sentences + expert guides to download the perfect cover letter in just minutes. As a teacher, you spend countless hours preparing your students to succeed in school and the world beyond. Your passion for education means you're ...

Here are three tips to help you craft a compelling teacher cover letter: 1. Review the job description to identify key skills. Take the time to review the job description for your desired teaching role carefully to identify what key skills the hiring manager is looking for when reviewing candidates. Write these skills down and consider how you ...

5 Create a cover letter now You're ready to grab your students' attention and guide them through their formative scholastic years. But, before you can do that, you've got to grab the principal's attention— with the perfect teacher cover letter. That means treating it like a crucial final exam instead of an unimportant pop quiz. No worries!

Build Resume High School Teacher Resume Templates and Examples (Downloadable) Example #1 Entry-level Example #2 Mid-career Example #3 Senior-level How To Write a High School Teacher Resume An effective high school teacher's resume must prove to the school board you have the classroom management skills to engage students of all backgrounds.

Put our teacher cover letter example and tips to work for you. BUILD MY COVER LETTER. TRUSTED BY PROFESSIONALS FROM: 1. Teacher Cover Letter Example. Whether you want to work in a high school or an elementary school, no matter which school district you work in, the right teacher resume and cover letter combination is a must to find a great ...

You want your reader to see a series of separate, elegantly outlined points. Short paragraphs, 2-3 at most. Short length. A cover letter should never be more than a page, and even a full page is definitely pushing it. Brevity is the soul of wit, and the friend of application readers everywhere.

4. Preschool Teacher. As our children's first teachers, this teaching position requires classroom management skills, patience, experience with children, and organizational skills. For the perfect cover letter remember to emphasize your skills directly relating to what the job is asking.

Five elements make up a great teacher cover letter and give hiring managers a clear idea of what you can bring to their organization. These five crucial elements are: 1. Heading. Use a professional template to ensure this information is easy to find. Your heading needs to include: Your name and title. Your contact information.

Here is the Accomplished High School English Teacher Cover Letter Example: Dear Ms. Kathy Reynolds, I am writing to express my interest in the position of High School English Teacher at San Juan Choices Charter School. I have a bachelor's degree in English with additional courses that focused on preparation and classroom management.

data representation and number system ppt

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IGCSE Computer Science Chapter 1 - Data Representation [174x Animated Slide+PYQ]

IGCSE Computer Science Chapter 1 - Data Representation [174x Animated Slide+PYQ]

Subject: Computing

Age range: 14-16

Resource type: Lesson (complete)

IGCSE Computer Science & Physics A* Teaching Resources

Last updated

10 August 2023

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data representation and number system ppt

Complete IGCSE Computer Science [Chapter 1 - Data Representation] teaching/revision slides (2023 - 2025 syllabus)

Topic included: Chapter 1.1 - Number System (Denary, Binary and Hexadecimal conversion) Chapter 1.2 - Usage of Hexadecimal System Chapter 1.3 - Addition of binary numbers Chapter 1.4 - Binary Shifting (Multiplication and division of binary numbers) Chapter 1.5 - Two’s complement (Representing negative number in binary) Chapter 1.6 - How text, sound and images are represented in binary Chapter 1.7 - Measurement of Data Storage and Calculation of File Size Chapter 1.8 - Data Compression

Features of the slides: Feature 1 - Animated PPT Feature 2 - DIY (Do it yourself) session for students to practice what they just learned Feature 3 - Carefully slides using Canva to improve students’ engagement Feature 4 - Details step-by-step explanation (A textbook is not required) Feature 5 - Past year questions for students to practice for the IGCSE exam

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⭐️ [Slides + Topical PYQ] IGCSE Computer Science FULL CURRICULUM (2023-2025)

Introducing an invaluable time-saving solution! Discover our meticulously crafted bundle of high school Computer Science slides, designed to enhance the learning experience for both you and your students. As an experienced educator, James, I have dedicated over 200 hours to curating this comprehensive collection, ensuring optimal engagement and improved academic outcomes. When you purchase this exceptional bundle, you gain access to a wealth of professionally designed slides that cover the entire IGCSE 2023-2025 syllabus for Computer Science. Each chapter is thoughtfully organized and meticulously animated to captivate your students' attention while fostering a deeper understanding of the subject matter. Let's explore the extensive chapters included in this bundle: 1. Chapter 1 – Data Representation (174 slides) 2. Chapter 2 – Data Transmission (108 slides) 3. Chapter 3 – Hardware (275 slides) 4. Chapter 4 – Software (128 slides) 5. Chapter 5 – Internet and the World Wide Web (179 slides) 6. Chapter 6 – Automated System (A.I) (87 slides) 7. Chapter 7 – Algorithm and Problem Solving (182 slides) 8. Chapter 8 – Programming with Python and Pseudocode (200 slides) 9. Chapter 9 – Databases (53 slides) 10. Chapter 10 – Logic Gates (117 slides) The features of these slides are tailored to maximize student engagement and understanding: 1. Engaging Visuals: Our slides don't rely solely on words; they incorporate captivating images to keep your class fully engaged throughout each lesson. 2. Enhanced Comprehension: The animated elements integrated into the slides enhance student comprehension, allowing complex concepts to be grasped more easily. 3. Aesthetic Design: These slides are meticulously crafted using a beautiful color palette, ensuring an appealing visual experience that complements the educational content. Additionally, we have gone the extra mile to provide you with supplementary materials. This bundle includes worksheets for Chapters 1 to 5, 7, 9, and 10. These self-made worksheets consist of topical past-year questions from 2019 to 2022, accompanied by comprehensive answers, giving your students valuable practice and reinforcement. You can reach out to me directly via email ( [email protected] ) should you encounter any challenges or require further assistance. Don't miss out on this time-saving opportunity to revolutionize your Computer Science lessons. Invest in our meticulously curated bundle of slides today and witness the transformation in your classroom's engagement and academic success.

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Digital technology have found their way into innumerable areas of technology and the far most reaching is digital computers. In digital systems like computer ,the quantities are measured by symbol called digits. They occur in various forms like binary, octal, hexadecimal.



The number system is composed of 10symbols(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9).

Binary number system

To design a electronic system that can work with 10 different numbers very difficult, and it is easy to use number system with base 2 so binary digits are used. Ex 10001101

  • Octal number system is also very important in digital system. It is number system with base8.
  • Hexadecimal number system uses base16 from 0-9and a, b, c, d, e, f as 16 symbols.


  • The binary number system is very important as it is easy to feed it in a circuitry ,but we use decimal no. system

So there is a conversion need from one form to another.


Divide the number to be converted and write its remainder, the remainder are its binary form.


Successively multiply the decimal by the radix.

  • Decimal System/Base-10 System
  • Composed of 10 symbols or numerals(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0)
  • Binary System/Base-2 System
  • Composed of 1 0 symbols or numerals(0, 1)
  • Bit = Binary digit
  • Hexadecimal System/Base-16 System : Tab. 3-2
  • Composed of 16 symbols or numerals(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F)
  • Binary-to-Decimal Conversions

1011.101 2 = (1 x 2 3 ) + (0 x 2 2 )+ (1 x 2 1 ) + (1 x 2 o ) + (1 x 2 -1 ) + (0 x 2 -2 ) + (1 x 2 -3 )

= 8 10 + 0 + 2 10 + 1 10 + 0.5 10 + 0 + 0.125 10

= 11.625 10

  • Decimal-to-Binary Conversions

Repeated division(See p. 69, Fig. 3-1 )

37 / 2 = 18 remainder 1 (binary number will end with 1) : LSB

18 / 2 = 9 remainder 0

9 / 2 = 4 remainder 1

4 / 2 = 2 remainder 0

2 / 2 = 1 remainder 0

1 / 2 = 0 remainder 1 (binary number will start with 1) : MSB

Read the result upward to give an answer of 37 10 = 100101 2


Any binary number can be converted by summing up its positional value.

2 4 +2 2 +2 1 +2 0 =22

Ex1: Convert (0.625)10 decimal number to binary number (?)2  using successive multiplication method � 1st Multiplication Iteration � �Multiply 0.625 by 2�0.625 x 2 = 1.25(Product)         Fractional part=0.25            Carry=1    (MSB)�

2nd Multiplication Iteration ��Multiply 0.25 by 2�     0.25 x 2 = 0.50(Product)         Fractional part = 0.50            Carry = 0   

� 3rd Multiplication Iteration ��Multiply 0.50 by 2�      0.50 x 2 = 1.00(Product)         Fractional part = 1.00            Carry = 1  (LSB)    �   �The fractional part in the 3rd iteration becomes zero and hence we stop the multiplication iteration.

Carry from the 1st multiplication iteration becomes MSB and  carry from 3rd iteration becomes LSB. Hence, the fractional binary number of the given fractional decimal number (0.625) 10  is (0.101) 2 .


1.Sign and magnitude representation is the conventional form of number system. It is represented as signs ( + or - ).

2.One,s complement represents positive numbers by their binary equivalent called true value.

3.Two complement representation represents their binary equivalent numbers and negative numbers by their second compliment form.


  • Real numbers are represented in storage medium by their exponents and mantissa. For example numbers 32.17 can be written as 0.3217*10 2, 0.3217is its mantissa and 2 is its exponent.

Decimal system

Binary system

Binary to decimal conversion

Convert the binary number 10011 to decimal.

Write out the bits and their weights. Multiply the bit by its corresponding weight and record the result. At the end, add the results to get the decimal number.

Binary 1 0 0 1 1� Weights 16 8 4 2 1

-------------------------------------� 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 1� Decimal 19

Convert the decimal number 35 to binary.

Write out the number at the right corner. Divide the number continuously by 2 and write the quotient and the remainder. The quotients move to the left, and the remainder is recorded under each quotient. Stop when the quotient is zero.

0 ← 1 ← 2 ← 4 ← 8 ← 17 ← 35 Dec.

Binary 1 0 0 0 1 1 �

Decimal to binary conversion

Changing fractions to binary

Transform the fraction 0.875 to binary

Write the fraction at the left corner. Multiply the number continuously by 2 and extract the integer part as the binary digit. Stop when the number is 0.0.

0.875 ➔ 1.750 ➔ 1.5 ➔ 1.0 ➔ 0.0

Transform the fraction 0.4 to a binary of 6 bits.

Write the fraction at the left cornet. Multiply the number continuously by 2 and extract the integer part as the binary digit. You can never get the exact binary representation. Stop when you have 6 bits.

0.4 ➔ 0.8 ➔ 1.6 ➔ 1.2 ➔ 0.4 ➔ 0.8 ➔ 1.6

0 . 0 1 1 0 0 1

Decimal to Octal

Here is an example of using repeated division to convert 1792 decimal to octal:

Decimal to Hexadecimal

Here is an example of using repeated division to convert 1792 decimal to hexadecimal: The only addition to the algorithm when converting from decimal to hexadecimal is that a table must be used to obtain the hexadecimal digit if the remainder is greater than decimal 9.

Octal to Binary

Converting from octal to binary is as easy as converting from binary to octal. Simply look up each octal digit to obtain the equivalent group of three binary digits.

Octal to Hexadecimal

When converting from octal to hexadecimal, it is often easier to first convert the octal number into binary and then from binary into hexadecimal. For example, to convert 345 octal into hex:

Octal  =3 4 5

Binary =011 100 101= 011100101 binary �

Drop any leading zeros or pad with leading zeros to get groups of four binary digits (bits):Binary   011100101 = 1110 0101 �

Then, look up the groups in a table to convert to hexadecimal digits.

Therefore, through a two-step conversion process, octal 345 equals binary 011100101 equals hexadecimal E5.

OCTAL TO DECIMAL :-The conversion can also be performed in the conventional mathematical way, by showing each digit place as an increasing power of 8.

345 octal = (3 * 8 2 ) + (4 * 8 1 ) + (5 * 8 0 ) = (3 * 64) + (4 * 8) + (5 * 1) = 229 decimal

Hexadecimal to Octal

When converting from hexadecimal to octal, it is often easier to first convert the hexadecimal number into binary and then from binary into octal. For example, to convert A2DE hex into octal:

Hexadecimal = A 2 D E

Binary =1010 0010 1101 1110= 1010001011011110 binary

Add leading zeros or remove leading zeros to group into sets of three binary digits.

Binary: 1010001011011110 =   001 010 001 011 011 110

octal number is =121336 ( 1 2 1 3 3 6)

Therefore, through a two-step conversion process, hexadecimal A2DE equals binary 1010001011011110 equals octal 121336 .

Converting hexadecimal to decimal can be performed in the conventional mathematical way, by showing each digit place as an increasing power of 16. Of course, hexadecimal letter values need to be converted to decimal values before performing the math.

� A2DE hexadecimal : � = ((A) * 16 3 ) + (2 * 16 2 ) + ((D) * 16 1 ) + ((E) * 16 0 ) � = (10 * 16 3 ) + (2 * 16 2 ) + (13 * 16 1 ) + (14 * 16 0 ) � = (10 * 4096) + (2 * 256) + (13 * 16) + (14 * 1) � = 40960 + 512 + 208 + 14 � = 41694 decimal

Ones Complement

The complement (or opposite) of +5 is −5. When representing positive and negative numbers in 8-bit ones complement binary form, the positive numbers are the same as in signed binary notation i.e. the numbers 0 to +127 are represented as 00000000 2  to 01111111 2 . However, the complement of these numbers, that is their negative counterparts from −128 to −1, are represented by ‘complementing’ each 1 bit of the positive binary number to 0 and each 0 to 1.

For example:

+5 10  is 00000101 2 −5 10  is 11111010 2

Notice in the above example, that the most significant bit (msb) in the negative number −5 10  is 1, just as in signed binary. The remaining 7 bits of the negative number however are not the same as in signed binary notation. They are just the complement of the remaining 7 bits, and these give the value or magnitude of the number.

Twos Complement Notation

Twos complement notation solves the problem of the relationship between positive and negative numbers, and achieves accurate results in subtractions.

To perform binary subtraction, the twos complement system uses the technique of complementing the number to be subtracted. In the ones complement system this produced a result that was 1 less than the correct answer, but this could be corrected by using the ‘ end around carry ’ system. This still left the problem that positive and negative versions of the same number did not produce zero when added together.

The twos complement system overcomes both of these problems by simply adding one to the ones complement version of the number before addition takes place. The process of producing a negative number in Twos Complement Notation is illustrated in the example


  • The American Standard Code for Information Interchange ( ASCII) is a character-encoding scheme originally based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many more characters than ASCII does.
  • In recent past the computer activities were limited to specific languages and with the increase in works there was to be develop a slandered code . In 1991, the bureau of Indian standard develop common code called ISCII . this is a 8-bit code capable of coding 256 characters.
  • Unicode provides a unique number for every character,
  • No matter what the platform
  • No matter what the program.
  • No matter what the language .


The standard has incorporated Indian scripts under group name Asian scripts , includes Devnagari ,Bengali ,Tamil ,Malayalam.

Rules of Binary Addition

1 + 1 = 0, and carry 1 to the next more significant bit

For example,

Rules of Binary Subtraction

0 - 1 = 1, and borrow 1 from the next more significant bit

Rules of Binary Multiplication

1 x 1 = 1, and no carry or borrow bits

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1.1 Data Representation

Lesson resources.

Binary crossword

In the data representation topic students will study the use of binary and hexadecimal number systems. This includes their roles in computing systems, such as the use of hexadecimal in colour definitions (such as in HTML and CSS). The final part of section 1.1 studies different ways data can be represented and interpreted, covering common file formats for images and sound.

Note: CIE have made some minor changes to this section of the syllabus for the 2016 examinations: students will need to convert binary numbers to decimal numbers, and vice versa (for positive numbers only).

1.1.1 Binary systems

Binary tetris

Binary Tetris

Binary Tetris is a flash game designed to help teach students the binary number system. Players must flip bits to achieve the required number, or add up the bits to calculate the number being represented. I'd recommend asking students to turn their sound off before starting this!

Binary game

This simple game challenges players to flip the right bits to create the specified number. The current total is displayed as bits are changed, and there is a timer to complete against. Students may be surprised to learn this game was created using Scratch.

Binary to decimal conversion

Binary conversion activities

These two worksheets help students with decimal to binary conversion and vice versa . The activities were created by Gary Kacmarcik at the Computer Science & Engineering for K-12 site and are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license.

Binary lesson resources

Lesson - Data representation - binary

This download contains all lesson resources necessary to teach students binary. It includes explanations of the system and lesson activities.

This lesson is one of the many excellent resources provided under CC-NC-SA by Mr Colley .

Counting in binary worksheet

Counting in binary

This handy PDF serves as a good summary sheet for students learning to count in binary. It covers decimal numbers from 0 to 63 (5 bits). It is good for GCSE and younger students, although it can be useful for older students too.

The sheet was created by Gary Kacmarcik at the excellent cse4k12 site and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.

Image representation

CS Field Guide - Data representation

CS Field Guide is an absolutely fantastic resource filled with material that is well written, clear,and accessible. Each section comes with highlighted key points, extension points, and even interactives to help understand the concepts. The interactives are excellent as teaching resources (many of them are linked here), while the notes themselves make excellent revision resources - particularly for GCSE.

This section covers all aspects of data representation - numbers, text, images, and instructions.

Base 2 calculator

Base 2 calculator

This interactive doesn't actually calculate - instead it lets students flip bits in a byte and see the result calculated automatically. It is most useful when first explaining binary concepts to students.

Binary cards interactive

Binary cards interactive

An online version of binary cards that can be switched on and off to produce a binary number. These are most useful when teaching younger children how binary numbers work.

1.1.2 Hexadecimal

Hexadecimal game

Hexadecimal-binary matching game

This is a fun little matching pairs style game in which players must match decimal numbers with their hexadecimal equivalents. A good way of testing students' ability to quickly perform mental conversions. Click here to play .

HTML Color Picker

Color Picker

A simple HTML colour picker. This one shows a colour wheel plus both the hexadecimal colour values and the RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values. This should help students understand how hexadecimal is used to represent different colours.

Binary to hexadecimal conversion

Binary to hexadecimal

A worksheet that explains the "divide into groups of 4" method of converting binary numbers to hexadecimal numbers.

This was created by Gary Kacmarcik at the Computer Science & Engineering for K-12 site - an excellent site which I recommend you visit. They are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license.

Hexadecimal colour codes

Hexadecimal colour codes

Section 5.5.2 of this much bigger page on data representation covers the uses of hexadecimal numbers to represent colours in images. It explains the correlation between the hexadecimal digits and the number of bits available, and the effect the bit depth has on the appearance of the image. The excellent interactives really make the concept come alive and visually highlight these differences to students. A highly recommended resource.

Hexadecimal lesson

Lesson - Data representation - hexadecimal

This download contains all lesson resources necessary to teach students base 16 (hexadecimal). It includes PowerPoint presentations that cover the number system and converting to denary and binary. There are also some nice hex table handouts for students who may be struggling to grasp the concepts. how sound is represented in binary.

This lesson is one of the many excellent resources provided under CC-NC-SA by Mr Colley . I've added PDF versions of the .pub versions found in the original download, for those who don't have Microsoft Publisher.

Hexadecimal worksheet

Counting in hex

Similar to the binary sheet, this handy document covers decimal numbers 0 to 63. It is useful for teaching students who are new to binary, or as a quick recap for those revising it. The sheet was created by Gary Kacmarcik at the excellent cse4k12 site and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.

Binary lesson activities

Binary and Hexadecimal starter activities

Two lesson starter, plenary, or homework activities are the binary crossword and the matching quiz . They test students' ability to read binary and hexadecimal, and convert between these systems and denary.

1.1.3 Data storage

Image representation

Image Representation - Flash activity

This Flash activity lets students draw a simple bitmap image and represents it using a simple run-length encoding (RLE) algorithm in real time. Students can also important text representations of the compressed data and the application will draw the corresponding image. The web page is not in English but the application is still perfectly usable.

Image, audio, and text compression

Image, audio, and text compression

This very comprehensive page from the Computer Science Field Guide has extensive but clear notes on lossless and lossy compression. The page is well written and designed for a high school audience, with easy to understand examples, video, and even interactive sections. There are also extension "Extra for Experts" sections. The page covers image compression, audio compression, and text compression.

Network error detection

Parity and Checksums activity

The card flip 'magic' game is a great idea from Computer Science Unplugged. The teacher sets up a grid of black/white cards and asks students to turn over one card without the teacher seeing. Using parity rules, the teacher is able to 'magically' determine which card the students turned over. This is a really fun game which demonstrates how simple techniques like odd/even partity can be used to solve significant problems.

The Computer Science Unplugged page has a range of support material: instructions for teachers, videos of the activity being performed, and a PDF download with extension activities and details about check digits in ISBNs.

Text and image compression


A short Computerphile video which explains basic compression techniques and how they can be applied to text files and image files. The video also addresses the differences between lossy and lossless compression.

Lesson - text representation

Lesson - Data representation - text

This download contains all lesson resources necessary to teach students how ASCII is used to representation text in a computer system. The download includes several fun activities where students have to uncover 'secret' messages using their understanding of binary and ASCII. There are different worksheets for students of different levels.

Computer science sound representation

Lesson - Data representation - sound

This download contains all lesson resources necessary to teach students how sound is represented in binary. It includes PowerPoint presentations, worksheets, and sample sounds for students to play.

Text representation worksheet

Text representation worksheets

Gary Kacmarcik at the excellent cse4k12 site has created a set of sheets for a lesson activity on text representation. The first sheet is an ASCII table and the other two sheets ask students to encode a text message and decode a message respectively. Note that students are expected to encode and decode using hexadecimal rather than binary (although they could easily be asked to use binary instead).

Pixel viewer

Pixel colour code viewer

This pixel viewer can help students understand how images are created and represented. Zooming right into the image reveals the RGB values of each pixel, shown in decimal.

Run Length Encoding

Run Length Compression (RLE) interactive

This activity shows how a computer would represent a simple image when using Run Length Compression (RLE). Students can alter the image to see how the compression data would change. This is a good resource for helping students understand how lossless compression does not always result in significant size reduction.

JPEG Comparison

JPEG Compression comparison

A simple interactive that compares a highly compressed JPEG image with a less compressed image. A slide lets you view different parts of the image. JPEG banding is particularly visible in the sky but less so in other areas - the reasons for this make for interesting classroom discussions.

RGB Colour matcher

RGB Colour matcher

A colour matching tool that asks users to play with the RGB sliders to match a specified colour. This is a great way to help students understand how red, green, and blue are mixed to produce colours. What makes this colour matcher stand out is that it also represents the colour values in binary (24 bit) at the bottom. This makes it a useful companion for tools like Pixelization (see elsewhere on this page).

Valid HTML5!

Data Representation in Computer: Number Systems, Characters, Audio, Image and Video

  • Post author: Anuj Kumar
  • Post published: 16 July 2021
  • Post category: Computer Science
  • Post comments: 0 Comments

What is Data Representation in Computer?

A computer uses a fixed number of bits to represent a piece of data which could be a number, a character, image, sound, video, etc. Data representation is the method used internally to represent data in a computer. Let us see how various types of data can be represented in computer memory.

Table of Contents

Before discussing data representation of numbers, let us see what a number system is.

Number Systems

Number systems are the technique to represent numbers in the computer system architecture, every value that you are saving or getting into/from computer memory has a defined number system.

A number is a mathematical object used to count, label, and measure. A number system is a systematic way to represent numbers. The number system we use in our day-to-day life is the decimal number system that uses 10 symbols or digits.

The number 289 is pronounced as two hundred and eighty-nine and it consists of the symbols 2, 8, and 9. Similarly, there are other number systems. Each has its own symbols and method for constructing a number.

A number system has a unique base, which depends upon the number of symbols. The number of symbols used in a number system is called the base or radix of a number system.

Let us discuss some of the number systems. Computer architecture supports the following number systems:

Binary Number System

Octal number system, decimal number system, hexadecimal number system.

Number Systems

A Binary number system has only two digits that are 0 and 1. Every number (value) represents 0 and 1 in this number system. The base of the binary number system is 2 because it has only two digits.

The octal number system has only eight (8) digits from 0 to 7. Every number (value) represents with 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7 in this number system. The base of the octal number system is 8, because it has only 8 digits.

The decimal number system has only ten (10) digits from 0 to 9. Every number (value) represents with 0,1,2,3,4,5,6, 7,8 and 9 in this number system. The base of decimal number system is 10, because it has only 10 digits.

A Hexadecimal number system has sixteen (16) alphanumeric values from 0 to 9 and A to F. Every number (value) represents with 0,1,2,3,4,5,6, 7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E and F in this number system. The base of the hexadecimal number system is 16, because it has 16 alphanumeric values.

Here A is 10, B is 11, C is 12, D is 13, E is 14 and F is 15 .

Data Representation of Characters

There are different methods to represent characters . Some of them are discussed below:

Data Representation of Characters

The code called ASCII (pronounced ‘􀀏’.S-key”), which stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange, uses 7 bits to represent each character in computer memory. The ASCII representation has been adopted as a standard by the U.S. government and is widely accepted.

A unique integer number is assigned to each character. This number called ASCII code of that character is converted into binary for storing in memory. For example, the ASCII code of A is 65, its binary equivalent in 7-bit is 1000001.

Since there are exactly 128 unique combinations of 7 bits, this 7-bit code can represent only128 characters. Another version is ASCII-8, also called extended ASCII, which uses 8 bits for each character, can represent 256 different characters.

For example, the letter A is represented by 01000001, B by 01000010 and so on. ASCII code is enough to represent all of the standard keyboard characters.

It stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. This is similar to ASCII and is an 8 bit code used in computers manufactured by International Business Machine (IBM). It is capable of encoding 256 characters.

If ASCII coded data is to be used in a computer that uses EBCDIC representation, it is necessary to transform ASCII code to EBCDIC code. Similarly, if EBCDIC coded data is to be used in an ASCII computer, EBCDIC code has to be transformed to ASCII.

ISCII stands for Indian Standard Code for Information Interchange or Indian Script Code for Information Interchange. It is an encoding scheme for representing various writing systems of India. ISCII uses 8-bits for data representation.

It was evolved by a standardization committee under the Department of Electronics during 1986-88 and adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Nowadays ISCII has been replaced by Unicode.

Using 8-bit ASCII we can represent only 256 characters. This cannot represent all characters of written languages of the world and other symbols. Unicode is developed to resolve this problem. It aims to provide a standard character encoding scheme, which is universal and efficient.

It provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the language and platform be. Unicode originally used 16 bits which can represent up to 65,536 characters. It is maintained by a non-profit organization called the Unicode Consortium.

The Consortium first published version 1.0.0 in 1991 and continues to develop standards based on that original work. Nowadays Unicode uses more than 16 bits and hence it can represent more characters. Unicode can represent characters in almost all written languages of the world.

Data Representation of Audio, Image and Video

In most cases, we may have to represent and process data other than numbers and characters. This may include audio data, images, and videos. We can see that like numbers and characters, the audio, image, and video data also carry information.

We will see different file formats for storing sound, image, and video .

Multimedia data such as audio, image, and video are stored in different types of files. The variety of file formats is due to the fact that there are quite a few approaches to compressing the data and a number of different ways of packaging the data.

For example, an image is most popularly stored in Joint Picture Experts Group (JPEG ) file format. An image file consists of two parts – header information and image data. Information such as the name of the file, size, modified data, file format, etc. is stored in the header part.

The intensity value of all pixels is stored in the data part of the file. The data can be stored uncompressed or compressed to reduce the file size. Normally, the image data is stored in compressed form. Let us understand what compression is.

Take a simple example of a pure black image of size 400X400 pixels. We can repeat the information black, black, …, black in all 16,0000 (400X400) pixels. This is the uncompressed form, while in the compressed form black is stored only once and information to repeat it 1,60,000 times is also stored.

Numerous such techniques are used to achieve compression. Depending on the application, images are stored in various file formats such as bitmap file format (BMP), Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), Portable (Public) Network Graphic (PNG).

What we said about the header file information and compression is also applicable for audio and video files. Digital audio data can be stored in different file formats like WAV, MP3, MIDI, AIFF, etc. An audio file describes a format, sometimes referred to as the ‘container format’, for storing digital audio data.

For example, WAV file format typically contains uncompressed sound and MP3 files typically contain compressed audio data. The synthesized music data is stored in MIDI(Musical Instrument Digital Interface) files.

Similarly, video is also stored in different files such as AVI (Audio Video Interleave) – a file format designed to store both audio and video data in a standard package that allows synchronous audio with video playback, MP3, JPEG-2, WMV, etc.

FAQs About Data Representation in Computer

What is number system with example.

Let us discuss some of the number systems. Computer architecture supports the following number of systems: 1. Binary Number System 2. Octal Number System 3. Decimal Number System 4. Hexadecimal Number System

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Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Page 1: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Number System and Data Representation

By: H. Cruz

Source: Basic IT Foundation by Albano, et. al

Page 2: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Numbers System (intro) Computer circuits can respond only to binary

numbers. Therefore all data programs must be coded into binary form.

Binary are represented by base 2 number system: either 0 or 1

Decimal System are represented by base 10 number system from 0 to 9

Page 3: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

A. Number System Conversion

Decimal Number System or base 10 represented from 0 to 9

Each position is represented by its quantity Ex: 725 - 5 represent the ones place value

2 represented by tens one

7 represented by One hundred values

5 * 100 = 5

2 * 101 = 20

7 * 102 = 700

Page 4: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Binary number system – represented by base 2 number system: either 0 or 1

Each digit in binary notation is associated with quantity except that each position is TWICE as the quantity associated with the position to its right.

The right most represented with the quantity 1

The next position to the left is 2,

The next position is associated with 4;

The next position is association with 16

The next position is associated with 32

Page 5: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Binary to Decimal (conversion)

Representation Position’s quantity

One (20 = 1)

Two (21 = 2)

Four (22 = 4)

Eight (24 = 8)

Page 6: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Convert the ff binary into decimal

2. 11000 = 24

3. 01110 = 14

4. 10100 = 20

5. 110011 = 51

Page 9: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Conversion of Decimal to Binary

Quotient Remainder

Page 10: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Conversion of Decimal to Binary (cont.)

2. 37 = 100101

37 / 2 18 1

Page 11: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Convert the ff Decimal into binary number

Page 12: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Hexadecimal Number System Dump is the process of printing the actual

contents of the memory. The output of dump include strings of binary digits. (very tedious job)

Through hexadecimal notation, a string of bits maybe represented in a shortened for.

The base or radix of hexadecimal number is from 0 to 9, and letters A to F

Hexadecimal notation uses one character or symbol to represents 4 bits.

Page 13: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Hexadecimal to binary

0 0 2 A = One ( 160) 10 x 160 = 10

Sixteen (161) 2 x 161 = 32

Two hundred Fifty six (162) 0 x 162= 0

Four thousand ninety six (163) 0 x 163 = 0

Page 14: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Octal number system

A string of 12 bits can be represented by 4 octal systems. Represented from 0 to 7

7 1 5 = One ( 80 = 1 ) 5 x 80 = 5

Eight (81 = 8) 1 x 81 = 8

Sixty Four (82 = 64) 7 x 82 = 448

Page 15: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Table of Decimal, Binary, Hexadecimal and Octal

Decimal Binary Hexadecimal Octal 0 0000 0 0 1 0001 1 1 2 0010 2 2 3 0011 3 3 4 0100 4 4 5 0101 5 5 6 0110 6 6 7 0111 7 7 8 1000 8 10 9 1001 9 1110 1010 A 12 11 1011 B 13 12 1100 C 14 13 1101 D 15 14 1110 E 16 15 1111 F 17 16 10000 10 20

Page 16: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

B. Number System Operations

1. Decimal base to Binary base – continuous division by 2

Hexadecimal base or Octal Base System.

Page 17: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Study the given examples

1. What is 13 base 10 in _____ base 2? (continuous division by 2)

13 / 2 = 6 1

6 / 2 - 3 0

3 / 2 = 1 1

1 / 2 = 0 1

Answer: 1101

Exer: 129 base 10 is equal to 10000001 base 2

Page 18: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

What is 54 base 10 in base 161. What is 54 base 10 in base 16? 36

54 / 16 = 3 6

3 / 16 = 0 3

2. What is 108 base 10 in base 16?

Page 19: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

2. Binary Notation of Hexadecimal and Octal Notation

Hexadecimal Symbol represents the series of 4 bits, while Octal symbol represents a series of 3 bit

In order to convert binary to decimal, must arrange the binary digits into groups of 4

Starting from the right most, arrange the binary digits into groups of 4

Converts each groups into hexadecimal by multiplying it by its position value and get the sum of each.

Page 20: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Ex: 101010101011012 to _________16

1. 10 1010 1010 1101

2 10(A) 10(A) 13(B) = 2AAB

2. 11 0110 01112 = ____367_______16

11 0110 0111

Page 21: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Binary to Octal conversion

Convert 10101010 (base2) it octal equivalent

1. Arrange the binary digits into groups of 3

2. For each group, convert each digit to hexadecimal by multiplying by its position value

Page 22: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Binary to Octal(3 bit)1. How 17 base 8 represented in base 2

2 How 45 base 8 represented in base 2

Page 23: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Addition and Subtraction of Binary Numbers

+ 0 + 1 + 0 + 10 1 110

Ex: 11 1010 10110

+100 + 1100 + 10111

111 10110 101101

Page 24: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Addition of Hexadecimal

1. What is the result of ABC16 + 2AA16?

Solution: 1 1

ABC16 10 11 12

2AA16 2 10 10

Addition done by adding the given hexadecimal value.

If the added hexadecimal value exceeds the base radix, subtract the radix and get the result.

Add 1 to the next highest value of hexadecimal

Page 25: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

1. What is the result of 2DE16 + FED16?

2. What is the result of CADE +

3. What is the result of AE12 + FACADE

4FE16 4 15 14

+ 2ED16 2 14 13

Page 26: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Addition of Octal

1. What is the result of 7528 + 5678?

Add the given octal value.

If the added octal values exceeds the base or radix, subtract the radix, and get the results, then, add 1 to the next highest value of octal.

If there are extra decimal value to the next highest position, just bring down the remaining decimal value.

Page 27: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Octal Addition1. What is the result of

51078 + 655678?

+ 6 5 5 6 7

7 10 6 7 14

Page 28: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Binary Subtraction

0 0 1 1- 0 - 1 - 0 + 1

0 0borrow with 1 1 0

1. 1010(10) 2. 10000(16) 3. 100011- 100(4) - 1111(15) - 1111

110(6) 1 10100

Page 29: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Subtraction of Hexadecimal 1. What is the result of 5238 -

5 (4) 2(1+8) =9 (3+8 =11)- 3 5 7

Subtract the given hexadecimal value if the hexadecimal minuend is less than the hexadecimal borrow to the next hexadecimal position. If any results change those decimal digits to its corresponding letters.

Page 30: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

C. Fixed – Point Number Representation

A. BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Format

Is one which the decimal digits are stored in terms of their 4-bit binary equivalents. There are two (2) basic format:

1. Packed Format – the decimal digit is stored in a sequence of 4-bit groups.

The number 2004

0010 0000 0000 0100

Page 31: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Packed format (cont.)

In packed format, 1 byte represents a numeric values of 2 digits and the least significant 4 bits represents the sign.

The pattern for zero is 1100 – positive sign The pattern for one is 1101 - negative sign Ex: +689 0110 1000 1001 1100 Ex: -689 0110 1000 1001 1101

Page 32: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

2. Unpacked Format also called zoned-decimal format.

Unpacked format, a decimal digit is stored in the low-order part of an 8-bit group and what is put into the high-order part is unimportant.

Format stored as: 2004uuuu0010 uuuu0000 uuuu0000 uuuu0100

Page 33: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

The high order part is called zone-bits. In case of the EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) used in high end mainframes, the zone bits would store (1111) base 2. However the high order part of the least significant digit represents the sign. The assigned bits for positive 1100 and negative are 1101; respectively

Ex: +689 1111 0110 1111 1000 1100 1001

zone 6 zone 8 zone 9

bit bit bit

Page 34: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Ex: -689 1111 0110 1111 1000 1101 1001

Page 35: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

B. Positive IntegerDecimal number are usually converted first to the

binary equivalent. If we have an 8 bit register, it may express integer decimal numbers between 0 and 28 -1 or 255.

If we have a bit of 16 bit register, we can store integer decimal numbers between 0 and 216 -1 or 65536.

The magnitude of the number that can be stored in a register is 28 -1 where n is the number of bits with the register of memory cell.

Page 36: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

C. Negative number There are two (2) ways of representing negative

1. Absolute value representation – negative numbers can be represented by attaching an extra bit to indicate the sign bit (leftmost).

The resulting format is called sign-magnitude format

Ex: +16 = 0001 0000 (sign bit is 0 to indicate the plus sign)

-16 = 1001 0000 (sign bit is 0 to indicate the plus sign)

(This format representing negative numbers is seldom use)

Page 37: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

C. Negative number (cont.)

2. The complement representation of a number is the amount of necessary to add to a number to make it complete for a given number of system.

Thus is binary= 0 is complement of 11 is complement of 0

The one’s complement representation is where the bit is complemented:

Ex: the one’s complement of: 10011 is 01100

Page 38: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

C. Negative number (cont.) The two’s complement is obtained by adding one

to the one’s complement. 01001 10110


Page 39: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Determine the One’s complement of the ff:

1. 1101110012

2. 0011011102

3. 11010101012

Page 40: Lec 3 Number System and Data Representation

Determine the Two’s complement of the ff:

1. 1101110111101

2. 01011101

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number system conversions

Number System conversions

Sep 13, 2014

5.36k likes | 10.42k Views

Number System conversions. Number Systems. There are four systems of arithmetic which are often used in digital electronics. Decimal Number System Binary Number System Octal Number System Hexa Decimal System. Decimal Number system.

  • decimal number
  • octal number


Presentation Transcript

Number Systems • There are four systems of arithmetic which are often used in digital electronics. • Decimal Number System • Binary Number System • Octal Number System • Hexa Decimal System

Decimal Number system • Decimal number system contains 10 digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9; and that is why its base or radix is 10. • Here radix means total number of digits used in any system.

Decimal Number System • The decimal number system is a positional number system. • Example: • 5 6 2 1 1 X 100 = 1 • 103 102 101 100 2 X 101 = 20 • 6 X 102 = 600 • 5 X 103 = 5000

Binary Number System • The binary number system is also a positional numbering system. • Instead of using ten digits, 0 - 9, the binary system uses only two digits, 0 and 1.

Binary Number System • The binary number system is also known as base 2. The values of the positions are calculated by taking 2 to some power. • Why is the base 2 for binary numbers? • Because we use 2 digits, the digits 0 and 1.

Example • Binary number system: 11001010 11111111 00000000

Octal Number System • Also known as the Base 8 System • Uses digits 0 - 7 • Readily converts to binary • Groups of three (binary) digits can be used to represent each octal digit

Hexadecimal Number System • Base 16 system • Uses digits 0-9 & letters A,B,C,D,E,F • Groups of four bitsrepresent eachbase 16 digit

Binary Numbering Scale

Significant Digits Binary: 11101101 Most significant digit Least significant digit Hexadecimal: 1D63A7A Most significant digit Least significant digit

Converting From Decimal to Binary • Make a list of the binary place values up to the number being converted. • Perform successive divisions by 2, placing the remainder of 0 or 1 in each of the positions from right to left. • Continue until the quotient is zero. • Example: 4210 • 25 24 23 22 21 20 • 32 16 8 4 2 1 • 101010

DECIMAL TO BINARY CONVERTION • There are two methods to convert it:- • Revese of Binary-To-Digital Method • Decimal number write as the sum of square • 0 & 1 is write on the byte Example 1: Convert 4510 to the binary value Solve = 32 + 8 + 4 + 1 = 0 0 = 0 1 1 0 = 1 1 2

3 1 25 12 6 2 2 2 2 2 • Repeat division method • The numbers is divide by 2. • Balance for the question is written until the last answer. Example : convert 2510 to binary 2510 = ?2 Solve = = 12 balance 1 LSB = 6 balance 0 = 3 balance 0 = 1 balance 1 = 0 balance 1 MSB . . . Answer = 110012

Decimal to Binary Conversion • The easiest way to convert a decimal number to its binary equivalent is to use the Division Algorithm • This method repeatedly divides a decimal number by 2 and records the quotient and remainder  • The remainder digits (a sequence of zeros and ones) form the binary equivalent in least significant to most significant digit sequence

Division Algorithm Convert 67 to its binary equivalent: 6710 = x2 Step 1: 67 / 2 = 33 R 1Divide 67 by 2. Record quotient in next row Step 2: 33 / 2 = 16 R 1 Again divide by 2; record quotient in next row Step 3: 16 / 2 = 8 R 0 Repeat again Step 4: 8 / 2 = 4 R 0 Repeat again Step 5: 4 / 2 = 2 R 0 Repeat again Step 6: 2 / 2 = 1 R 0 Repeat again Step 7: 1 / 2 = 0 R 1 STOP when quotient equals 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 12

Decimal to binary (fractional) • Examples: • Convert the decimal number (12.0625)10 into binary number. Solution: Fractional part: 0.0625 x 2 = 0.1250 0 0.1250 x 2 = 0.2500 0 0.2500 x 2 = 0.500 0 0.500 x 2 = 1.000 1 (12.0625)10 = (1100.0001)2

Decimal to Octal Conversion Examples: • (315)10 = (473)8

5 359 44 8 8 8 DECIMAL TO OCTAL CONVERTION • Convert from decimal to octal by using the repeated division method used for decimal to binary conversion. • Divide the decimal number by 8 • The first remainder is the LSB and the last is the MSB. Example : convert 35910 to Decimal Value 35910 = ?8 Solve = = 44 balance 7 LSB = 5 balance 4 = 0 balance 5 MSB . . . Answer = 5478

Decimal to Octal Conversion Convert 42710 to its octal equivalent: 427 / 8 = 53 R3 Divide by 8; R is LSD 53 / 8 = 6 R5 Divide Q by 8; R is next digit 6 / 8 = 0 R6 Repeat until Q = 0 6538

Decimal to Octal (fractional) • Examples: • Convert the decimal number (225.225)10 into octal number. Solution: Fractional part: 0.225 x 8 = 1.800 1 0.800 x 8 = 6.400 6 0.400 x 8 = 3.200 3 0.200 x 8 = 1.600 1 0.600 x 8 = 4.800 4 (225.225)10 = (341.16314)8

Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion • Examples • (315)10 = (13B)16

Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion Convert 83010 to its hexadecimal equivalent: 830 / 16 = 51 R14 51 / 16 = 3 R3 3 / 16 = 0 R3 = E in Hex 33E16

Decimal to Hexadecimal (fractional) • Examples: • Convert the decimal number (225.225)10 into hexadecimal number. Solution: Fractional part: 0.225 x 16 = 3.600 3 0.600 x 16 = 9.600 9 (225.225)10 = (E1.39)16

Converting from Binary to Decimal • Example of a binary number and the values of the positions: • 1001101 • 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

Converting from Binary to Decimal • 1001101 1 X 20 = 1 • 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 0 X 21 = 0 • 1 X 22 = 4 • 20 = 1 24 = 16 1 X 23 = 8 • 21 = 225 = 320 X 24 = 0 • 22 = 426 = 640 X 25 = 0 • 23 = 81 X 26 = 64 7710

Binary to Decimal Conversion • The easiest method for converting a binary number to its decimal equivalent is to use the Multiplication Algorithm • Multiply the binary digits by increasing powers of two, starting from the right • Then, to find the decimal number equivalent, sum those products

Multiplication Algorithm Convert (10101101)2 to its decimal equivalent: Binary 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 Positional Values x x x x x x x x 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 128 + 32 + 8 + 4 + 1 Products 17310

Converting from Binary to Decimal Practice conversions: BinaryDecimal 11101 1010101 100111

Converting From Decimal to Binary Practice conversions: DecimalBinary 59 82 175

BINARY TO OCTAL CONVERSION • Can be converted by grouping the binary bit in group of three starting from LSB • Octal is a base-8 system and equal to two the power of three, so a digit in Octal is equal to three digit in binary system.

binary to hexadecimal system • Group the digits of the binary number by four starting from the right. • Replace each group of four digits by an equivalent hexadecimal digit. Convert 101101012 into a hexadecimal number. 1011 01012 = B516 B 5

Exercise • Convert 1010002 into a hexadecimal number. • Convert 111011112 into a hexadecimal number.

Octal to Decimal Conversion Convert 6538 to its decimal equivalent: Octal Digits 6 5 3 x x x Positional Values 82 81 80 384 + 40 + 3 Products 42710

OCTAL TO BINARY CONVERTION • Convert from octal to binary by converting each octal digit to a three bit binary equivalent • Convert from binary to octal by grouping bits in threes starting with the LSB. • Each group is then converted to the octal equivalent • Leading zeros can be added to the left of the MSB to fill out the last group.

Octal to Binary Conversion Each octal number converts to 3 binary digits To convert 6538 to binary, just substitute code: 6 5 3 110 101 011

Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion Convert 3B4F16 to its decimal equivalent: Hex Digits 3 B 4 F x x x x Positional Values 163 162 161 160 12288 +2816 +64 +15 Products 15,18310

HEXADECIMAL TO binary • To convert a hexadecimal to binary number, convert each hexadecimal digit to its 4 bit equivalent using the hexa number. • Example: (23.AB)16 = ()2 • Solution: (23.AB)16 = 2 3 . A B • 0010 0011 1010 1011 • (23.AB)16 = (00100011.10101011)2

HEXADECIMAL TO OCTAL CONVERTION • There is two ways to convert it:- • Hexadecimal – Decimal – Octal • Hexadecimal – Binary – Octal • Hexadecimal – Decimal – Octal

Hexadecimal – Binary – Octal

Hexadecimal Number System BinaryDecimalHexadecimalBinaryDecimalHex 0 0 0 1010 10 A 1 1 1 1011 11 B 10 2 2 1100 12 C 11 3 3 1101 13 D 100 4 4 1110 14 E 101 5 5 1111 15 F 110 6 6 111 7 7 1000 8 8 1001 9 9

Exercise • Practice conversions: BinaryDecimal Octal Hex 01111101 1110101 1101010111 • Practice conversions: DecimalBinaryOctalHex 72 92 185 • Convert 110111112 into a hexadecimal number.

Answer Exercise • Practice conversions: BinaryDecimal Octal Hex 01111101 125(10) 175(8) 7D(16) 1110101 117(10) 165(8) 75(16) 1101010111 855(10) 1527(8) 357(16) • Practice conversions: DecimalBinaryOctalHex 72 1001000(2) 110(8) 48(16) 92 1011100(2) 134(8) 5C(16) 185 10111001(2) 271(8) B9(16) • Convert 110111112 into a hexadecimal number. 11011111(2) = DF(16)

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a good thesis statement for football

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a good thesis statement for football

Football Gear Thesis Statement

Topic: Why football gear should be improved My Thesis Statement: Why football gear should be improved due to a drastic number of injuries that are easily avoidable. …show more content…

This is because the equipment does not protect the important parts of the body that are most vulnerable to injuries. Furthermore, they also don’t make football players hit or tackle other players correctly, leading to serious injury and some have even died, due to concussions or other serious injuries by one bad tackle,or a pad in the wrong spot. Why the NFL is not doing

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a good thesis statement for football

to Write Your Thesis compiled by Kim Kastens‚ Stephanie Pfirman‚ Martin Stute‚ Bill Hahn‚ Dallas Abbott‚ and Chris Scholz    I. Thesis structure | II. Crosscutting Issues | III. Editing Your Thesis |   | Title Page |   | What We Are Looking For |   | Copy Editing |   | Abstract |   | Planning Ahead for Your Thesis |   | Content Editing |   | Table of Contents |   | Writing for an Audience |   | Avoiding Ambiguity |   | List of Figures |   | Skimming vs. Reading |   | Thesis Length |  

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a good thesis statement for football

CLARKSON UNIVERSITY Title A Thesis /A Dissertation By Name Department of Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science‚ Doctor of Philosophy‚ Date Accepted by the Graduate School ___________‚ _______________________ Date‚ Dean of the Graduate School The undersigned have examined the thesis entitled ‘Write Thesis Title’ presented by WRITE NAME HERE‚ a candidate

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Football refers to a number of sports that involve‚ to varying degrees‚ kicking a ball with the foot to score a goal. The most popular of these sports worldwide is association football ‚ more commonly known as just " football " or "soccer". Unqualified‚ the word football applies to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears‚ including association football ‚ as well as American football ‚ Australian rules football ‚ Canadian football ‚ Gaelic football

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Thesis Abstract

Sindh. A typical example of a thesis structure  Title of your project.           Abstract Introduction Background Methodology Implementation Results & Evaluation Conclusion Future work References Appendices (optional). Don’t discuss technology in your thesis such as: what is VB‚ MS Office‚ Windows‚ Java‚ Oracle‚ PHP etc.  Your thesis must include all of the above mentioned contents except the optional. Any thesis missing this format will be rejected

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Frontier Thesis

An Examination of the “Frontier Thesis ” and the Revisionists Arguments Fredrick Jackson Turner delivered his “Frontier Thesis ” or also known as the “Turner Thesis ” in 1893 at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago‚ Illinois. It was in this essay‚ Turner delivered a thesis that would shape the interpretation of American history. “The frontier is the line of most rapid and effective Americanization‚" Turner declared. “American social development has been continually beginning over again on

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a good thesis statement for football

Thesis Guidelines

M.A. Thesis in Communication Step by Step Guide DRAFT: August 27‚ 2002 Part I: Committee Proposal 1. Get a copy of the UNC Thesis Manual from the graduate school. 2. Select an area of study within the communication discipline. 3. Read the literature in the area you have chosen. Focus your reading on communication journals. 4. Develop a thesis statement or research purpose statement. 5. Schedule an appointment during with faculty who have expertise in your chosen area

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The Thesis Statement

Center-LAC Rm.222 The Thesis Statement What is a Thesis Statement? A thesis statement is the main idea in a piece of writing. The thesis statement is typically placed in the introduction and should be comprised of two parts: a topic part‚ which states the topic‚ and a comment part‚ which makes an important point about the topic. Example: Recent studies of second-hand smoke (topic part) have determined that it is more damaging than originally thought (comment part). Thesis statements may vary depending

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Thesis Writing

Thesis Writing Prof. Dr. Armin Gruen Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich [email protected] ‚ www.photogrammetry.ethz.ch 1. Before you start writing 2. Guidelines and Tips 3. Nine steps in developing a draft manuscript 4. Checkpoints to consider 5. General advice 6. The best part of thesis writing Appendices: Literature‚ webpages‚ writing tips 1 Advice for students: How to do research Research: To know To know what to do To do it To make

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football camp

September 10 2013 Football Camp (Essay #1) Football camp this year was easy‚ especially for me. As a kicker and punter I did not do much hitting or running any drills or anything like that. I really just kicked and punted at the beginning of practice then sat on the bench for 2 hours and watched everyone else practice. The only very difficult part of camp was the conditioning test and the running‚ which was not bad at all. What I thought was interesting about football camp was the fact that

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as long as possible. The Ancient Greeks competed in a similar game entitled ‘Episkyros’‚ but both of these pursuits reflected rules closer to rugby than modern day soccer. The most relevant of these ancient games to our modern day ‘Association Football ’ is the Chinese game of ‘Tsu-Chu’ or ‘kick ball’ as it translates. Records of the game begin during the Tsin Dynasty (255-206BC) and represent a game in which soldiers competed in a training activity featuring a leather ball being kicked into a net

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thesis on nfl Essays

Bye week research paper.

The topic of the thesis I am going to be reviewing is what the title suggests, the effects that bye weeks have on a team’s performance within the NFL. The idea of this topic originally spanned from a Reddit conversation I was involved in that discussed the advantages teams have due to the disparity in their strengths of schedule. NFL scheduling is not due to any random process but rather it is carefully pre-determined months in advance by executives and analysts within the NFL organization in order

Taking A Stand For The National Anthem

hero’s. Taking a stand is really important because there is a lot of people that are not saying anything that is happening in front of them. That is what's wrong with people thesis days they're not trying to make a stand for anything and not speaking up. Like the NFL isn’t standing for the national anthem anymore.“The NFL said on Friday it has no plans to mandate players stand for the US national anthem”. There's people laying the lives down for them and so this country

Football Players and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)

Thesis Statement What does Jovan Belcher, Ray Esterling and O.J. Murdock Have in common? They all were famous football players who commented suicide. Each player had something called chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE. This is a condition where sufferers have had repeated hits to the head that leads to concussions and ultimately head trauma. In this research paper, we will go over the data about the NFL to see could they have prevented CTE in these players if they had placed the player’s

First American Football Cause And Effect

Introduction and thesis On November 9, 1869, rutgers university faced Princeton university in what is know as the first american football game. But there was many different types of football before american football. One type of football was mob football, where anyone could join any time they wanted. The field was a small town where each team would be able to do anything to in order to score, unless it ended in manslaughter or murder. Also the first footballs were inflated pig bladders. Anyway,

Persuasive Essay On Football Concussions

game in 2016, the author Austin Murphy dated the article September 7,2036. In this article Murphy talks about the factors that led to the end of one of the U.S’s beloved sports. Factors like the AIG not protecting athletes against head injuries in the NFL, Pop Warner settling a death with the family of a former football player who committed suicide at the age of 25 from CTE caused by hits to the head, and the 10% rise in football concussions. A woman whose son had passed away from a motorcycle accident

Why Football Gear Should Be Upgraded

gear should be upgraded My Thesis Statement: Why football gear be upgraded due to a large amount of injuries that are not unavoidable also, are easily avoidable.

Speech Persuasive Speech On Concussions

decrease the number of concussions in football. Introduction I. Attention Getter: Football, specifically the NFL, is the most watched sport in America. It attracts an audience by being a game of high intensity and big plays. But the harsh reality of football is the dangerous head injuries. II. Introduce Topic: Concussions are a serious part of football and need to be better prevented. III. Thesis/Argument: In order to decrease the occurrence of concussions, stricter rules need to be applied in all levels

The Concussion Problem in Professional and Amateur Football

Thesis Statement The number of concussions in professional and amateur football has been rising and has sparked much controversy in recent years. These concussions are most likely linked with disease and even the deaths of some pro and semi-pro football players. New research is attempting to solve the problem but the issue is still prevalent in football today. Concussions To understand the issue of concussions in the NFL we must first understand exactly what a concussion is. A concussion is a minor

Michael Vick Argumentative Essay

football league is split into many categories. The first two are called the national football conference and the second one is called the american football conference.There are thirty two teams in the national football league or for short the nfl.My thesis statement is how Jarvis Landry got famous, how did Michael Vick become a all star qb, how did Deion Sanders become a hall of famer cornerback ,and last of all how did Jason Taylor become a hall of famer defensive end.The teams they had played for

Ray Lewis Thesis Statement

Topic:Ray Lewis was exonerated from murder charges based on his football fame. Thesis Statement: About Thirteen years ago, Ray Lewis a Baltimore Ravens linebacker was involved in an disagreement outside a nightclub in Atlanta where Jacinth Baker and Richard Lollar were stabbed to death. Ray Lewis and his fellow associates left the scene. With blood found on his white suit Lewis would later be blamed for the murder charges of Jacinth Baker and Richard Lollar while pleading guilty to a misdemeanor

A Man of Greatness: Philip Rivers

A Man of Greatness Philip Rivers is undoubtedly a man with extreme talent. An NFL quarterback who is underestimated and underrated. Neither Philip Rivers nor the Chargers have received a Super Bowl win; should that take away from the countless awards and records he has broken? Does a Super Bowl make or break a player’s true status? {THESIS} The History of Philip Rivers Philip Rivers was born on December 8, 1981 in Decatur, Alabama. A small town on the outskirts of Birmingham, Alabama. Philip’s parents

Racism In Baseball

ninety-six percent of all of those who identify themselves as football fans have never been to a professional football game (Barra). According to 2008 attendance rates, MLB and minor league teams had over 100 million people attend games compared to the NFL’ s 17 million (Curtis). Baseball continues to remain popular because more people can attend baseball games compared to football. Also, baseball allows for more connections between fans. According to Messenger: “Time in baseball is measured in generations

Persuasive Essay On Domestic Abuse

Introduction to the issue This progression of abuse has gone on far too long. I have witnessed this string of events in my own family. Starting with a shouting match, escalating to a slight push and ultimately ending in me rushing to the emergency room at 2 am. I will never forget that look on her face; a swollen left eye, bruises the size of tennis balls that covered her arms and upper body, the inside of her hands with cuts that look like defense wounds. She jumped when I ran in the room where

John Carlos And Tommie Smith Statue Analysis

here "Just like you and other brave ladies have done in the media, and stepped into basically the no-fly zone, it's given girls that dream. Because they can look at you in media and picture, 'I want to be like her someday.' They can look at me on an NFL sideline coaching these guys and be like, 'I want to be like her someday.” . Her quote from the interview also alludes to the importance of females in the media in the past decades, although that will not be addressed in this

Murray Sperber Beer And Circus Summary

Brooke Martin Economics Book Review Sperber, Murray A. Beer and Circus: How Big-time College Sports Is Crippling Undergraduate Education. New York: H. Holt, 2000. Print. The book “Beer and Circus” was written by Murray Sperber who is an English and American studies professor at Indiana University. He has published six other books on college sports which have won awards, including “Beer and Circus” which was placed on the list of Sports Illustrated “100 Best Sports Books of All-time.” Sperber

The Hometown Hero

Speech Title: The Hometown Hero Public Figure:          Mike Alstott General Purpose:     To inform + To persuade= To praise Specific Purpose:     To praise Mike Alstott to my classmates as a role model and hero to the Tampa Bay area. Thesis:     Mike Alstott is a true warrior, a role model, and an example of a hometown hero. I.     Introduction: A.     He hasn’t stood in the face of danger for his country. He hasn’t started a new religion. He’s not a Mother Teresa and he doesn’t have his own

Emma And Clueless

grounded foundation to fully grasp the whole concept of the passage or article. Although Emma is a two century-old novel about a woman’s encounters with love, people continue to incorporate its message and plot into everyday life. (add a stronger thesis here) One of Emma’s most prominent features is its overwhelming usage

Toulmin's Argument Analysis

circumstantial and assuming. As we discussed in class, often times the best strategy when arguing is to play into the emotions. For me personally, this article clearly does that. I spent the greater part of my sophomore year of college gambling on NFL and NBA games on an overseas account. I can’t remember a more exciting and oftentimes enjoyable part of my life. I would bet on numerous NBA games every night and be glued to my computer constantly checking stats, injury reports, and anything available

The Ethics Of Physical Contact Sports

recurring concussion has “an increased risk of suffering additional complications after their first concussion.” The severity of this problem can be illustrated the four thousand athletes that took legal suits against the National Football League (NFL), and the $870 million settlement they received for letting the players continue to play after experiencing a con... ... middle of paper ... ...abilitation, in which Dr. Randall Benson studies show how “Many manufacturers have attempted to create

Sports Payrolls

My thesis would be “While some may believe professional athletes overpaid, I in fact say no they are not”. I would use these two articles in my body paragraphs to support that the revenues produced by major sporting leagues are so absurd that the players are


Thesis Statement On Sports And Child Development

The pros and cons of youth sports.

Children who participate in sports are less likely to be overweight or obese, have higher self-esteem on average, and are generally more invested in their academics. Sports are oftentimes seen as a gateway to academic opportunity, particularly for kids with fewer resources. While this logic is inherently problematic, it is true that high schoolers who were involved with organized sport were more likely to be enrolled in college later on. Youth sports also give children a place to develop socially by teaching them about teamwork, leadership, and compromise. Team sports in particular can provide children with a sense of belonging to a group, and therefore increase their self-esteem and improve their social competence. There are dozens of reasons why youth sport is important and beneficial to a child’s development, and with millions of participants each year in the United States alone, it doesn’t look like youth sports will be going anywhere anytime

Children Need For Play, Not Compete, By Jessica Statsky

In “Children Need to Play, Not Compete,” Jessica Statsky argues that younger children should not be involved in overly competitive sports. Statsky wrote that organized competitive sports were to the disadvantage of children both physically and psychologically. In youth athletics, some parents and coaches put their own dreams in front of their children 's’ well-being by stressing winning. Statsky concludes “all organized sports activities” to be remade as a more enjoyable game regardless of each athlete’s ability and athleticism. The author states many issues that kids have when they are forced to play a sport just to win or that they don’t enjoy. Some kids just don 't enjoy sports, but their parents force it on them. Certain organized sports programs promote winning over physical skills and self-esteem. Statsky brings up valid points that early childhood shouldn’t involve intense physical competition, which is associated with the risk of injury to the body and mind.

Summary Of Mark Hyman's Until It Hurts

Competitive sports in some cases are becoming very unhealthy for children. Most children would rather play on a losing team than sit on the bench of a winning team. Youth sports are a great idea to get children up and active, as well as improve their social skills. Just like every other thing in life it is important to practice and work hard to achieve success. However it is unhealthy to push for results over the needs or wants of the child. Aside from the mental stress that young athletes may experience from intense training and physical play long lasting injures is now a growing concern. Fact is competitive sports is a double edge sword if done right it is the greatest thing world, but if done wrong it can be very unhealthy for a child.

Pros And Cons Of Youth Sports

Each year in the United States, more than 36 million school-aged children participate in an “organized sport” (“Youth Sports Statistics”). Especially over the past few years, many studies have proved or disproved the idea that sports are beneficial for young kids. Those studies have found that youth sports have both positive and negative effects on young children, and research shows parents and coaches have the greatest effect on a child’s experience.

Persuasive Essay On Youth Sports

Sports can be viewed as a learning environment that helps individuals learn life lessons, foster strong work habits and develop core values all the while learning a sport skill. Youth sports that truly benefit young athletes should be structured to emphasize participation more than just competition. Children enjoy a sport more when they are able to have fun (Humpries). Despite many excesses some sport programs still manage to promote important virtues like self- confidence, teamwork, personal responsibility, coping skills, and persistence. Through sports kids can learn to stay organized and learn how to prioritize (Ferguson). Sports enables development of physical skills and increasing proficiency makes kids feel good about themselves. It teaches kids that failure is something to overcome and and not to fear (Meyerhoff 8-9). Youth sports has many aspects that are truly benefiting for children, but these benefits are slowly being clouded by the negatives that are prominent in today's youth sports.

Young Children in Competitive Sports Essay

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Have you ever been put in a life or death situation? Hopefully not! However, some things you do may feel like “life or death” situations at the time, especially for young children. Competitive sports can help with conquering those fears. There will be times when you feel pressure; as if you’re under a spotlight. Moments when it seems like people are almost daring you to fail. By participating in competitive sports, children are prepared for these moments. These are the times where you go back to what you have learned, all the hours you put in to learn a skill. These are the times worth living for because by putting in the work, you have trained yourself to expect success. Competitive sports have a positive impact on children and teach

Summary: Should Kids Play Competitive Sports

An issue that is hotly debated is, should kids play competitive sports or not. It’s clear that the overall people feel that competitive sports are good for kids. Competitive sports teaches kids life lessons, makes them more responsible and teaches them healthy habits. Millions of American children and teenagers are overweight. This obesity epidemic has made the early onset of health problems such as diabetes, are more common. Over forty millions of boys and girls were participating in organized competitive sports in 2008, and this will help bring down the obesity rate.

Social Benefits Of Physical Education Essay

Team sports for example not only provide physical activity for children. They also introduce them to the meaning of “teamwork” and ability

Sports Personal Philosophy

Sport is incredible in how it can increase confidence, self-esteem, and overall health while teaching children a new ability of working with others as a team, taking direction, and doing things they never thought possible. I want to be able to show what sports is capable of teaching and the rewards that come along with it. The concept of team reveals what is achievable through solidarity that would be impossible in solitary.

I Am Not Having Fun By Jessica Statsky

In light of Jessica Statsky’s book ‘Children need to play, not compete’, she argued that, with the vivid increase of sporting competition lately in the United States, children have been exposed to the adults hard and rigorous training by devoted parents and coaches at their tender age making a game that is supposed to be fun and joy look hectic and strenuous to them due to the standard of training they are made to go through and also the belief that they must always win thereby making them lose the spirit of sportsmanship, and neither gaining satisfaction nor benefiting from them. In as much as sports are good for physical, mental and emotional growth, it should be organized in a manner that the youths will enjoy the game at the end of it rather than the fear of being hurt or defeated by the other competitors.

Parental Pressure on Children Playing Organized Sports Essay

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These days, there is too much pressure on children who participate in organized sports because of the unnecessary parental involvement they experience. A growing concern amongst those involved in youth sports is that certain aspects of parental involvement become detrimental to the development and experiences of young athletes. Early emphasis on winning, making money, and the disruption of education can exceedingly affect ones desire to further participate in a sport later on in his/her life.

Positive Impact of Sports on Children Essays

I believe that sports have a positive impact on children. Sports can improve children’s health,

Children and Sports Essay

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Children who participate in sports are developing rapidly in sports skills, sportsmanship, and psychologically, but does this come from organized sports are just nature’s process. Children develop emotional and social benefits from participating in sports. Children experience character and leadership development through peer relations leading to an increase in self-esteem and a decrease in anxiety levels. Children will get opportunities to experience positive and negative emotions throughout their practice and games trials. It is important for the coach to understand the “psychology of youth sports and physical activity participation” (Weinberg & Gould, 2011 p.516).

Persuasive Essay About Youth Sports

Organized youth sports are extremely popular among youth and their families, with approximately 45 million children and adolescent participating in the US. There are many characteristics children can develop while playing youth sports such as confidence, self-esteem, leadership, respect, independence, assertiveness, and conflict resolution. Competition can help kids learn more, improve faster and reach a higher level of excellence than they would be able to without the ongoing challenge. Competitive sports can help keep kids active and health as they grow, and other distractions increase that may lead to an unhealthy lifestyle. People argue that it can destroy self-esteem and lead to resentment. Programs and coaches overemphasizing

Essay on Youth and Sports

Raising children in today’s society is not for the faint of heart. Raising children has never been easy, but it is especially difficult in youth sports today. Coaches and parents are putting a lot of pressure on our young sons and daughters. The pressure to succeed in sports at

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Thesis Statement On Why Football Gear Should Be Upgraded

a good thesis statement for football

Show More ?Topic: Why football gear should be upgraded My Thesis Statement: Why football gear be upgraded due to a large amount of injuries that are not unavoidable also, are easily avoidable.

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Writing Prompts about Football

  • 🗃️ Essay topics
  • ❓ Research questions
  • 📝 Topic sentences
  • 🪝 Essay hooks
  • 📑 Thesis statements
  • 🔀 Hypothesis examples
  • 🧐 Personal statements

🔗 References

🗃️ football essay topics.

  • The evolution of football from its origins to modern-day football.
  • The social Impact of football: How the sport has shaped societies and cultures around the world.
  • The role of football in the global economy: How football generates revenue and drives economic growth.
  • The art of football: How creativity and skill can make a difference on the field.
  • Football and national identity: The relationship between football and national pride.
  • The science of football: How data analytics and technology have revolutionized the game.
  • The psychology of football: The mental aspects of the game and its impact on players and teams.
  • The financial side of football, including transfers, contracts, and sponsorship deals.
  • The intersection of football and political issues, including racism, sexism, and nationalism.
  • The future of football: Predictions and trends for the future of the sport.
  • The influence of the media on football and its players.
  • Discussion: should college athletes be paid?
  • Football and health: The physical demands of the sport and its impact on player health.
  • The history of football rivalries: From classic matchups to modern-day grudges.
  • Women’s football: The growth and evolution of women’s football around the world.
  • The business of football stadiums: The design, construction, and management of football stadiums.
  • Football and education: How football can be used to teach life skills and values.
  • The role of football in developing young players and promoting physical activity.
  • The relationship between football and religious practices.
  • Football and sportsmanship: The importance of fair play and sportsmanship in football.
  • How football has become a form of entertainment and escapism for millions of people around the world.

❓ Football Research Questions

  • What is the impact of football on the development of social skills in children?
  • How does the use of technology affect football players’ performance and decision-making during matches?
  • What are the benefits and risks of using different types of football shoes for different playing surfaces?
  • How has the role of the goalkeeper in football evolved over time?
  • What are the psychological factors that contribute to a team’s success or failure in football?
  • How has football fandom changed with the rise of social media and online communities?
  • What is the impact of football on the economy of a country or region?
  • How do different coaching styles affect football players’ motivation and performance?
  • What is the role of physical fitness in football, and how can players improve their fitness levels?
  • How have football tactics and strategies evolved over the years?
  • What is the impact of football on players’ mental health, and how can mental health be improved within the sport?
  • How does the media coverage of football affect public perception of the sport and its players?
  • What is the role of football in promoting diversity and inclusion, and how can this be improved within the sport?
  • What is the impact of football on local communities, and how can this be maximized for positive social outcomes?
  • How do football clubs manage their finances and maintain financial stability in the long term?

📝 Topic Sentences on Football

  • Football is more than just a sport; it is a cultural phenomenon that has the power to unite and inspire people across the globe.
  • From the physical demands of the game to the complex tactics and strategies employed by coaches, football is a sport that requires both physical and mental prowess.
  • The social and economic impact of football cannot be overstated, as it generates billions of dollars in revenue and has the ability to shape national and global identities.

🪝 Hooks for Football Paper

📍 definition hooks on football.

  • Football is a game that defies simple definition, encompassing a complex array of physical, mental, and emotional elements that make it one of the most thrilling and beloved sports in the world.
  • At its core, football is a game of strategy, teamwork, and physical prowess, demanding an unwavering commitment to excellence and a willingness to push oneself to the limit in pursuit of victory.

📍 Statistical Hooks about Football for Essay

  • According to recent data, football is the most popular sport in the world, with an estimated 3.5 billion fans across the globe.
  • The economic impact of football is staggering, with the sport generating over $30 billion in revenue each year and providing jobs for millions of people worldwide.

📍 Question Hooks for Essay on Football

  • What makes football such a beloved and enduring sport, captivating the hearts and minds of millions of fans around the world?
  • How do the physical demands and mental challenges of football shape players both on and off the field, and what can we learn from their experiences?

📍 Quotation Hooks about Football

  • As legendary football coach Vince Lombardi once said, “Football is a game of inches, and sometimes those inches can mean the difference between winning and losing.”
  • In the words of Brazilian football superstar Pelé, “Success is no accident. It is hard work, perseverance, learning, studying, sacrifice, and most of all, love of what you are doing or learning to do.”

📑 Good Football Thesis Statements

✔️ argumentative thesis about football.

  • While football has faced criticism for its physical risks and concerns over player safety, the sport continues to be an important cultural and economic institution, and efforts should be made to mitigate these risks while preserving its positive impact.
  • Despite its status as the most popular sport in the world, football still struggles with issues of inequality and discrimination, and it is the responsibility of players, coaches, and fans alike to work toward creating a more inclusive and equitable football community.

✔️ Analytical Thesis Examples on Football

  • By examining the strategic and tactical elements of football, we can gain a deeper understanding of the sport’s complexity and the ways in which players and coaches work together to achieve success.
  • Through an analysis of football’s social and cultural impact, we can explore the ways in which the sport reflects and reinforces broader societal attitudes and values, both positive and negative.

✔️ Informative Thesis Samples about Football

  • This essay will provide an overview of the history of football, from its earliest origins to its current status as the world’s most popular sport.
  • By exploring the science behind the physical and mental demands of football, this essay will shed light on the factors that contribute to success on the field and the strategies players and coaches can use to improve their performance.

🔀 Football Hypothesis Examples

  • Professional football players who have sustained multiple concussions are at a higher risk of developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) later in life.
  • Teams that prioritize possession and ball control over direct, aggressive play are more likely to succeed in international football tournaments due to their ability to maintain control of the game and create more scoring opportunities.

🔂 Null & Alternative Hypothesis about Football

  • Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference in the performance of football teams playing on natural grass versus artificial turf.
  • Alternative Hypothesis: Football teams playing on artificial turf will perform better than those playing on natural grass due to the consistent playing surface and increased speed of play.

🧐 Examples of Personal Statement about Football

  • As someone who grew up playing football and watching it with my family every weekend, the sport has been an integral part of my life for as long as I can remember. From the thrill of scoring a game-winning touchdown to the camaraderie of bonding with my teammates, football has taught me important lessons about leadership, teamwork, and perseverance that I carry with me to this day.
  • While I never played football myself, I have always been fascinated by the sport and its ability to bring people together from all walks of life. As a researcher, I am interested in exploring the ways in which football reflects broader societal trends and values, from issues of race and gender to the role of sports in our economy and culture.
  • Football and the Brain: Lifestyle Impacts Health
  • Prevention of Football Injuries
  • Women’s football: more needs to be done to ensure diversity from the grassroots
  • The effects of repeated backward running training on measures of physical fitness in youth male soccer players
  • Examining the mental health status of referees in the turkish professional football league

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Formulate Questions

Once you have selected an initial topic, the next step is to develop research questions.  You'll do this by using probing questions, such as what, why, when, how, would/could, should.

Phrasing your topic in the form of questions helps direct the research process.

a good thesis statement for football

WHY questions ask for an explanation of something--why something happened, why it did not happen, or why one thing is better than another. For instance, why do some people with traumatic brain injury develop post concussion syndrome, while others do not?

WHEN questions focus on timing or history.  When did the NFL acknowledge that playing football is linked to traumatic brain injury?  When did awareness of traumatic brain injury begin?

WHERE questions focus the topic on a location, either geographical or other.  Where, or in which particular sports, are traumatic brain injuries most prevalent?

HOW questions focus aspects of the topic, on a process, or on the origin.  How do traumatic brain injuries affect someone in the long-term? How do traumatic brain injuries affect someone in the short-term?

a good thesis statement for football

WOULD / COULD questions focus on possibilities.   Could football helmet design decrease the incidence of traumatic brain injuries?

SHOULD questions focus on the appropriateness of a particular action, policy, procedure, or decision.  Should the government regulate how the NFL responds to concussions?

Source:  Mike Palmquest.   Bedford Researcher .   Colorado State University.

A good research question will lead to your thesis statement.

For example, the question...

a good thesis statement for football

...might lead to the following thesis:

"Long-term effects of traumatic brain injury may include thinking and cognitive deficits, visual-motor disturbances, depression, suicide, progressive dementia and Parkinsonism."

Strong   thesis statements

  • Answer a question
  • Are engaging 
  • Can be challenged or opposed, thus also defended

a good thesis statement for football

or "why should I care?" test

  • Are supported by your paper
  • Are neither too broad nor too vague

Source:  Thesis Statements.  George Mason University. 

Thesis Generator

  • Thesis Generator May be of help--but use with caution.

a good thesis statement for football

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a good thesis statement for football

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Writing a thesis statement can be one of the most challenging parts of writing an essay. A thesis statement is a sentence that summarizes the main point or argument of an essay. It should be clear, concise, and to the point.

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a better body image and being less likely to engage in risky behaviors such

Flynn's argument of why “Football Does a Body Good” is extremely unconvincing.

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football team. Thesis: Declarative Sentence. A good thesis statement is a

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Nepali Essay Topics Lists | Nibandha Lekhan

Nepali essay topics, nibandha lekhan

Here I have put some Nepali essays (nibandha) which are frequently asked in exams:

Here are your tips to write an essay.

Here is the topic list of Nepali Essay :

1 नेपाल

2 मेरो देश

3 सगरमाथा

4 मेरो देश मेरो गौरव

5 नेपालको राष्ट्रिय झण्डा

6 नेपालको राष्ट्रिय जनवार

7 तिज

8 दशैँ

9 तिहार

10 होली

11 नेपाली चाडपर्वहरु

12 नेपालको सस्कृति

13 पुस्तकालय

14 गाउँले जीवन

15 सहरिया जीवन

16 शिक्षाको महत्व

17 मेरि आमा

18 मेरो बुबा

19 मेरो परिवार

20 मेरो मिल्ने साथी

21 मेरो विद्यालय

22 मेरो घर

23 मेरो गाउँ

24 पानीको महत्व

25 हाम्रो स्वास्थ्य

26 स्वास्थ्य नै धन हो

27 वाताबरण

28 विधार्थी जीवन

29 अनुशासन

30 विधार्थी जीवनमा अनुशासनको महत्व

31 भ्रष्टाचार

32 लोकतन्त्र

33 प्राविधिक शिक्षाको महत्व

34 विज्ञान र प्रबिधि

35 संचार प्रविधि

36 सरस्वती पुजा

37 गाईको बारेमा निबन्ध

38 कुकुर बारेमा निबन्ध

39 महिला हिंसा

40 मेरो जन्मस्थान

41 फूलबारी

42 इन्टरनेट

43 मोबाइल

44 टेलिभिजन

45 फुटवल

46 क्रिकेट

47 मेरो जीवनको लक्ष्य

48 नेपालको विकाशमा पर्यटनको महत्व

49 प्राकृतिक स्रोतहरु

50 मनपर्ने खेल

51 मनपर्ने खानेकुरा

52 नेपालको राजनीतिक अवस्था

53 वायु प्रदूषण

54 नेपालको भौगोलिक अवस्था

Also read:   मेरो विद्यालय।

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Essay on Nepali Culture

Students are often asked to write an essay on Nepali Culture in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Nepali Culture

Introduction to nepali culture.

Nepali culture is like a beautiful garden with many kinds of flowers. It is a mix of traditions, values, and customs. This culture comes from the people of Nepal, a country in South Asia. It is known for its mountains, like Mount Everest, and its history.

Language and Religion

In Nepal, many people speak Nepali, but there are over 120 other languages too. Religion is important, with Hinduism and Buddhism being the most followed. Many festivals come from these religions, which people celebrate with joy.

Festivals and Food

Nepali festivals are colorful and full of life. Dashain and Tihar are the biggest ones. People eat special foods, play music, and enjoy dances. The food in Nepal is tasty and includes dishes like dal bhat (rice and lentils) and momo (dumplings).

Traditional Clothing

In Nepal, traditional clothes are worn with pride. Men wear a daura-suruwal and women wear a sari or kurta. These clothes are often made with bright colors and fine materials, showing the beauty of Nepali handwork.

Art and Music

Art and music are important in Nepal. Paintings and sculptures show stories of gods and daily life. The music is made with instruments like the madal and sarangi, creating tunes that are both happy and sad.

250 Words Essay on Nepali Culture

Nepali culture is like a beautiful garden with many kinds of flowers. It is rich with traditions, festivals, music, and dances. Nepal is a country in South Asia, home to the tall Mount Everest and many other mountains. The people living there come from different backgrounds and speak many languages, but they all share the culture of Nepal.

Festivals and Celebrations

One of the most important parts of Nepali culture is festivals. Dashain is the biggest festival where families come together, enjoy food, and children get gifts. Tihar, another festival, is when people light up their homes with candles and lamps. They also honor animals like crows, dogs, and cows. These festivals show how Nepalese people love family, nature, and animals.

Food in Nepal

The food of Nepal is tasty and unique. Dal Bhat, which is rice and lentil soup, is a common meal. Momos, which are like dumplings filled with meat or vegetables, are very popular too. The food is not just about eating; it is a way for families to sit together and share their day.

In Nepal, people wear special clothes that are part of their culture. Men often wear a dress called Daura-Suruwal and a cap named Dhaka Topi. Women wear beautiful long skirts called Gunyu Cholo. These clothes are not just for daily wear but also for special occasions to show respect to their culture.

In conclusion, Nepali culture is full of life, colors, and joy. It brings people together through festivals, food, and clothing. Even though it has many different parts, they all fit together to make the culture of Nepal special and interesting for everyone, especially for students learning about new places in the world.

500 Words Essay on Nepali Culture

Nepali culture is like a beautiful garden with many kinds of flowers. It is rich with traditions, art, festivals, and music. Nepal is a small country between China and India. Yet, it has a big heart filled with cultural treasures. People from different backgrounds live together in Nepal, sharing their customs and beliefs.

In Nepal, many languages are spoken. Nepali is the main language, but people also speak Maithili, Bhojpuri, and dozens of other languages. This shows how diverse the country is. Religion is a big part of life in Nepal. Most people follow Hinduism or Buddhism. The two religions mix in many ways, showing respect and peace among the people.

Nepal is known for its colorful festivals. Dashain is the biggest festival. It is a time when families come together, share food, and give blessings. Tihar, also known as the festival of lights, is another important celebration. People light up their homes and honor animals like dogs and cows. These festivals show the joy and kindness in Nepali culture.

Food and Cuisine

Food in Nepal is tasty and unique. Dal Bhat, a dish of lentils and rice, is eaten almost every day. Momos, which are dumplings filled with meat or vegetables, are a favorite snack. The food is not just about taste; it is also about bringing family and friends together to share a meal.

The clothes in Nepal are bright and beautiful. Women often wear sarees or a long skirt called a ‘gunyu cholo’. Men wear a ‘daura suruwal’, which is a shirt and trousers with a Nepali style. These clothes are worn with pride, especially during festivals and important events. They are a symbol of the Nepali way of life.

Music and Dance

Music and dance are important in Nepal. They tell stories of the land and its people. Traditional instruments like the ‘madal’ and ‘sarangi’ make music that touches the heart. Folk dances are performed during festivals. They are full of energy and smiles, showing the happiness of the Nepali spirit.

Arts and Crafts

Nepali arts and crafts are famous for their beauty. Paintings, pottery, and sculptures are made with great skill. Many of these items show scenes from religion and nature. They are not just things to look at; they are pieces of the soul of Nepal.

Nepali culture is a wonderful mix of people, traditions, and nature. It is like a colorful painting that tells a story of harmony and friendship. The culture is deep and alive, touching everyone who experiences it. It is a treasure that the people of Nepal share with the world, and it makes the country a special place full of warmth and beauty.

That’s it! I hope the essay helped you.

If you’re looking for more, here are essays on other interesting topics:

  • Essay on Nepal
  • Essay on Neolithic Revolution
  • Essay on Gardening With Family

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नेपालीमा काइटको बारेमा निबन्ध

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Essay on Nepal – My Country My Pride For Kids & Students Of Schools and Colleges

Nepal is amazingly beautiful. The unmatched beauty of the majestic Himalayas fills the visitors with great awe. Not only the natural beauty but the romantic, spiritual and omnipresent spirituality capture tourists and provide Nepal with a magical atmosphere that makes it a special and unique travel destination.

Jay Nepal

In this article, we will present some of the essays on Nepal for you and your friends. We’ll mention some popular facts, information, and attractive places in the Nepal essay. After reading this article you should have a clear idea about the essay about Nepal. Here are some of the top selected essays on Nepal.

Table of Contents

Essay about nepal: my country my pride [500 words].


My country Nepal is situated between two large countries China and India. According to the census of 2011 A.D., 26,494,504 people living in my country.

The area of Nepal is 147,181 SQ.K.M. the density of population in urban regions is higher than in rural regions. Similarly, valleys and plains are more densely populated than the hilly region.

The national flag of Nepal is unique to them all. It is the only flag in the world that is not rectangular. The flag is crimson red which signifies the rhododendron which is the national flower of Nepal. The border is blue which signifies peace and harmony.

I Love My Country Nepal

Until 1962, the flag’s emblems, the sun, and the crescent moon had human faces which signify the unity of the country. The national flower and bird, rhododendron and Danfe respectively, the flag was a plumed crown worn by the kings and crossed Kukhris carried by the Gurkhas for their bravery. Nepal followed a monarchy system until the people movement in 2063 BS.

Nepal is an agro-based country. About 80 percent of the people depend on agriculture. Some of the educated people are employed in other sectors such as teaching, office work, business, etc.

Although people belong to various social groups and religions, the real practice of ‘unity is diversity. Most of the people in Nepal followed the Hindu religion but people enjoy a right to other religions too.

People speak different languages and enjoy different modes of culture and traditions. In Nepal people respect each other’s religion and culture as well.

It is said that ‘Hario ban Nepal ko Dhan’. Nepal seems to be beautiful because of the green forest. In the forest, there are wild animals. Many tourists come to watch them which helps to increase the foreign currency.

A Lady Traveller is travelling Nepal himalayas

Nepal is famous for its natural beauty and gifts. Although Nepal is landlocked, people from foreign countries are fond of visiting in Nepal. Nepal is famous for its mountains, rivers, lakes, etc.

The highest mountain peak in the world, Mt. Everest , lies in Nepal. Many tourists visit her every year. Through tourism, Nepal can earn foreign currency which can be used for development. Nepal is rich in water resources.

Many rivers flow from high mountains twisting and turning around the hills and moving through Terai.  Many brooks and streams serve people in many ways. They are advantageous for irrigation, transportation, rafting, running hydroelectricity projects, and so on.

The most amazing fact about Nepal is that it does not greet another person with a handshake or a hello, it rather joins their hand and says Namaste which means I respect you as a person.

Nepal is the neighboring country of India, thus Indians do the same when they meet one another. Another amazing fact about Nepal is related to food. If you ever come to Nepal as a tourist, you must try the famous food called ‘ momo ’.  It is a delicious dumpling made from flour and water filled with meat filling.

And how can we ever forget the birthplace of Lord Buddha? Lord Buddha was born in Lumbini in 500BC. It is a founder of the religion Buddhism which covers 9% of the total population.

He had four noble truths about pain and sorrow. Also, he had eight right paths about how to live a proper life. He is still regarded as the one who found peace and how the world then has become.

Nepal is developing a country. About 70 percent of the people are literate. The farmers are provided with the facilities of irrigation, modern fertilizers, improved seeds, and a modern method of farming. The facilities of electricity health care and other facilities are also increasing.

I feel proud to be a citizen of Nepal. We, Nepali people, respect each other. I do feel most of the people love the nation. We feel that mother and motherland are the same. I do hope that our country Nepal will be the most famous in the world.

This Essay on Nepal – My Nation My Pride is written by Susan Basel

Essay on Nepal – My Nation My Pride [1000 words]

My nation, Nepal, is extremely a heaven. The main imperfection is that it has no ocean to get to; it’s a landlocked nation. I adore my nation more than anything else on the planet.

What has my nation not got? It is one of the most extravagant nations on the planet in bio-assorted variety; hydropower or water assets; arrival structure and the amicable idea of individuals and their customs and culture.

My nation, Nepal has numerous activities and numerous things to see. Drifting, boating, mountaineering, paragliding, bouncing, and trekking are regular things to see, as well. Mountains, lakes, national parks , streams, and old structures are ladies’ viewing.

Even though an incredible number of the general population are under destitution line and uneducated; they are sufficiently cognizant to safeguard their traditions and societies.

They are politically mindful, as well. My nation’s present need is instructive and financial advancement, and vote-based standards and qualities. I cherish my nation.

I was conceived for it and I’ll bite the dust for it. In general, Nepal is such a  land of mine where I can live cheerfully.

It is the guests ‘heaven where nature is alive. It is such s put a reality where its single touch revives everybody.

Nepal lies in the southern piece of Asia between China and India. It is a landlocked nation. It has a territory of 1,47,181 square km. The capital city is Kathmandu . Nepal can be partitioned into three natural zones.

The Himalayan districts, the Hilly area, and the Terai locale. The Himalayan locale covers 15% of the land region, the Hilly district has 68% and the Terai district has 17% of the land territory.

Nepal’s standard time is 5 hours and 45 minutes quicker than the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), which is London time. Nepal is separated into 5 advancement locales, 14 zones, and 77 district areas. Nepal has almost 25 million of the populace.

Nepal is wealthy in regular assorted variety. It has numerous types of plants and creatures. Nepal is additionally reached in hydro control. It has numerous great waterways like Koshi, Gandaki, and Karnali.

Nepal is a heaven for vacationers. They can do numerous things like trekking, boating, and mountaineering.

In this way, enterprises in light of tourism ought to be built up here with the goal that each Nepali gets utilized. In addition, Nepal will turn into the goal of the voyagers.

Nepal is honored with one of the most extravagant societies on the planet. The announcement holds especially valid if there should arise an occurrence in Nepal where each part of life, sustenance, dress , and even occupations are socially guided.

The way of life of Nepal incorporates the codes of conduct, dress, dialect, customs, standards of conduct, and frameworks of conviction.

The way of life of Nepal is an exceptional blend of custom and curiosity. The conventions are taken after as they were and new traditions are made to keep pace with the evolving times. Culture in Nepal is a gathering of music, design, religion, and writing.

The mountain kingdom of Nepal is multi-ethnic and multi-lingual. The land is rich with special social gatherings like Tharu, Yadav, Ahir, Newars, and others.

Nepalese are among the most accommodating hosts. This is the explanation behind why travelers from distant locations abroad appreciate coming to Nepal over and over.

Nearby Nepalese are for the most part country individuals who welcome the visitors to their homes for tea, espresso, or dinner. Nepalese are socially warm, cordial, and tender hosts who put their hearts over their heads.

Nepalese model with newari traditional dress

Party is the equivalent word in the Nepalese Culture. For the Nepalese, celebrations are not just the early scenes, but rather additionally are a living piece of their rich social legacy.

Celebrations viably tie together the Nepalese individuals of various social foundations and convictions into one country. Most Nepalese celebrations are identified with various Hindu and Buddhist divinities. They are commended on days sanctified for them by religion and convention

Nepal is regarded as a standout amongst the most extreme social orders on the planet. The declaration holds particularly substantial if there ought to emerge an event in Nepal where each piece of life, sustenance, dress, and even occupation are socially guided.

The lifestyle of Nepal consolidates the sets of accepted rules, dress, lingo, traditions, norms of direction, and structures of conviction.

Better than average to Know that the lifestyle of Nepal is a remarkable mix of custom and interest. The traditions are taken after as they were and new conventions are made to keep pace with the developing circumstances.

The gathering is the proportional word to the Nepalese Culture. For the Nepalese, festivals are not only yearly scenes but instead moreover are a living bit of their rich social heritage. Festivities suitably integrate the Nepalese people of different social establishments and feelings into one nation.

Most Nepalese festivals are related to different Hindu and Buddhist divinities. They are praised on days blessed for them by religion and tradition.

Tihar : This celebration of lights that falls between October/November is the second greatest celebration after Dashain . This celebration goes on for five days and individuals venerate Laxmi – the Goddess of Wealth.

Dashain Nepal

Every one of the houses is cleaned and beautified with the conviction that Goddess Laxmi will go into the house that is the cleanest and individuals lit candles, oil lights, and different lights and the entire place looks enlightening.

Amid the five days, crows, canines, and bovines are revered and regarded with vermilion, wreath, and heavenly sustenance for what they have done in the lives of people.

Crows are viewed as the flag-bearers that brought news notwithstanding amid the circumstances when there were no postmen and no postal administrations. Pooches are the most devoted creatures and they protect our home as obvious gatekeepers.

Dairy animals are additionally an image of riches in Hinduism and she is likewise the rational creature of Nepal. Amid Tihar, the Newari people group in Nepal additionally watches Mha puja – a custom of loving one’s own body and life.

On this very day, the Newari New Year which is otherwise called Nepal Sambat starts. The celebration closes with Bhai Tika – siblings’ day when his sisters adore him for his long and sound life to shield the lives of his sisters. This is additionally a betting time in Nepal as betting isn’t unlawful during this celebration.

This Long Essay on Nepal, My Nation My Pride is written by Abhishek Raj Jha

Essay on Nepal MY COUNTRY MY PRIDE [1500 words]

Mother and country are more prominent than paradise. It is a genuine proclamation. We are born in this nation that is brimming with characteristic delights.

We are exceptionally nationalist. We adore the country more than our soul. Nation resembles a paradise for me. My nation’s name is Nepal. It is gotten from two supernatural words ‘Ne’ and ‘Pala’.

The word Nepal implies a nation of peace and love. This is where Master Gautama Buddha ‘ the light of Asia’ was born. This is a nation of Bir Gorkhalies. The most noteworthy crest on the planet Mt. Everest is situated in a nation that makes a nation the best.

There are numerous mountains in my nation along these lines it is called a precipitous nation. Numerous waterways spill out of the mountain to the slopes and plain place where there is Terai.

My nation Nepal is isolated into three geological districts and seven advancement areas called provinces. Nation national bloom is the rhododendron, the national fowl is Daphne, the national color is a smirk and the national weapon is khukuri.

My nation Nepal is little on the planet outline, but for me, my nation whether it is little or enormous is a world. Numerous national identities are born in nation life: Prithivi Narayan Shah, Bahadur Shah, Rajendra Laxmi, etc. The history of the nation Nepal is great.

Every one of the pages of history is loaded with the hot and red blood of national legends. My nation Nepal is the Yam between two major stones. I mean it is between the two greatest nations India and China. Nation Nepal is separated into numerous ethnic gatherings.

The nation is multi-rank, multi-culture, multi-convention, and multi-religious. They are of various positions yet they are living in ‘solidarity of assorted variety’ without battling for the sake of culture, religion, rank, and so forth. They are living in a tranquil condition.

People of diverse religions and beliefs are the dominant features of my country’s society. Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity are the major religions that are practiced in my country.

People have a sense of unity, though living in diversity. Mostly, Brahmins and Chhetris are regarded as Hindu believers and people from the Mongoloid community are taken as Buddhist devotees, but they have good respect for each other in the course of cultural exchange.

A Hindu has a distinct tradition of sacrificing animals to the goddess because they are the symbol of having ferocious power and need the blood of a living being to be satisfied. Lord Shiva is considered to be the supreme God in Hinduism.

The way of life in my country is a collection of music, engineering, religion, and writing. Our mountain kingdom is multi-ethnic and multi-lingual. The land is rich with interesting social gatherings like Tharu, Yadav, Ahir, Newars, and others.

Culture is inserted in the high pinnacles of our country, convention streams with its waterways, workmanship crosses through its valleys and religion lies in the core of its kin. Our country is a place where craftsmanship, culture, and religion are a piece of the life of the occupants. Individuals praise each minute with the smell, adding curiosity to the customs without influencing their quintessence.

Further, the craftsmanship and engineering of my country are profoundly impacted by religion. Exceptional craftsmanship can be found in sanctuaries, engineering, sanctums, wellsprings, and the outline of religious articles.

Craftsmanship and religion are so profoundly interlocked that it is difficult to isolate one from the other. All artistic expressions express both Hindu and Buddhist iconography.

Along the line of culture, we Nepalese have our unique way of celebrating festivals, It is a blend of multilingual and multicultural measurement.

More than 60 ethnic gatherings have been recorded and numerous are as yet investigated, who are prosperous with their dialect, ensembles, and conventions.

They have their remarkable celebrations of festivity. In my country, individuals praise national celebrations and nearby reasonable for the entire year in various months.

MagheSakranti is praised in January, on the principal day of Magh as indicated by the Nepali timetable. Individuals eat different dishes of heavenly nourishment such as ghee, laddoo and Chaku, and sweet potatoes. Hitched little girls go to their folks to join the joy.

Fagupurnima is a beautiful celebration, celebrated amid the long stretch of March on a full moon day. Individuals praise this celebration by tossing hues and water to each other. It is flawlessly celebrated in the Terai areas of Nepal.

MahaShivratri festivity is devoted to Lord Shiva, celebrated on the no-moon night by the Hindus by and large in March. A major reasonable held in the Pashupatinath territory by a huge number of Hindu aficionados. Sadhus paint their bodies with the fiery debris and love Shiva all through the entire night.

Ghodejatra is otherwise called a pony race festivity, for the most part, celebrated toward the finish of March (15 Chaitra). It is a breathtaking festival at Tundikhel by amassing the ponies of police and armed force. Ordinarily, the visitors are the senior government authorities and high personnel.

Gai Jatra is held in August, particularly celebrated inside the Kathmandu Valley. The members are from those families who have lost they’re any of their relatives or closest ones.

It was begun by King Pratap Malla to support his significant other, who was especially stunned by the passing of a child. It demonstrated that it isn’t just an illustrious family who lost their dearest one yet, in addition, to numerous families.

The Indra Jatra is praised to pay tribute to the lord of rain Indra, in August for eight days. It is commended by a mass of individuals pulling the chariot.

Buddha Jayanti is the festival of Lord Buddha’s birthday. Buddhist and Hindu fans walk rallies and visit Buddhist Stupas and attempt to spread the message of peace on the planet.

Losar is Tibetan New Year. Individuals commend it for a few days on singing, moving, and eating delectable substances. Tibetans accumulate around the Stupa with their outfits.

Chhath  is a festival by venerating the rising and setting sun by sinking half of the body in the water. For the most part, it is commended in the Terai area by wedded ladies. They remain to fast amid the celebration and sing people melodies.

Teej  is a celebration celebrated by Hindu ladies for three days. It regularly falls in August or early September. This celebration is commended to wish the long existence of the spouse.

Dashain is the longest celebration in Nepal, praised for15 days. It falls between September-October. The Hindu individuals adore goddess Durga for nine days and put on Tika and Jamara on the tenth day till the fifteenth day alongside the gift of the senior citizens.

Deepawali is known as the Tihar celebration celebrated for five days amid harvest time. It is the celebration of lights. On the fifth day, sisters put tika and wreaths on their siblings and sibling offered some sort of presents. It is known as the celebration, making a great connection between siblings and sisters.

Along the line of these festivals, the mood, beats, and bob of Nepali conventional people, and established music are sufficiently otherworldly to soothe you and sufficiently engaging to cheer you.

Music is related to each occasion in Nepal, at that point be it birth, marriage, celebrations, or national occasions. You will be surprised to find a piece of various unique music full of rhythm in every culture that is sufficient enough to blow your mind and demand the music for a long time.

If one moves away from our rich culture and diversity within it, if one can take one’s eye away from these, one will be surprised by the natural beauty my country possesses.

With top eight in the top ten 8000-meter high mountains in the world in its lap, my country shines every morning to make people over here smile with it.

Apart from these White Mountains, green mountains are all over the mountain region to make one sparkle within yourself with its astonishing beauty.

Within these green mountains, we have a large landscape of forest where one will be able to find the scenario of 500 various types of butterflies and 600 types of the indigenous plant family.

My country, Nepal is an overall package of beauty, diversity, history, and on top of that unity among people. I am certainly proud to be a part of this beautiful creation.

This Short Essay on Nepal, My Nation My Pride is well written by  Hari Adhikari.

Essay on Nepal – Our country, our pride [200 words] 

There is a widely famous statement that “Mother and motherland are greater than heaven.” This quote is so true without any doubt. We are born in a country that is filled with natural beauty.

The feeling of patriotism flows in the blood of every Nepalese citizen. We love the nation more than our soul. Our country is like heaven for us. Our country’s name is Nepal.

The word Nepal signifies a country of peace and love. Nepal is a country where Lord Gautam Buddha also known as the ‘light of Asia’ was born. Nepal is a country of Bir Gorkhali soldiers. The highest peak in the world i.e. Mt. Everest is located in our country Nepal.

There are various mountains in our country therefore Nepal is also globally known as a mountainous country. Our country Nepal is divided into three geographical regions and five development regions.

The national flower of Nepal is the rhododendron, the national bird is Daphne, the national color is the smirk and the national weapon is khukuri. Our country Nepal is very small on the world map but for us, whether it is small or big it is the world.

Nepalese can see the whole world in their homeland. Many national personalities are born in our country. For instance Prithvi Narayan Shah, Bahadur Shah, Rajendra Laxmi, and so on.

The history of the country Nepal is very powerful. All the pages of the past are crammed with hot as well as pure dark red blood of our national heroes. Our country Nepal is the Yam between two big stones.

This means Nepal lies in the middle of two leading countries i.e. India and China. Country Nepal is divided into many ethnic groups. The country is multi-caste, multi-culture, multi-tradition, and multi-religious.

Nepalese are living in a very peaceful environment. Nepal is loved by many tourists numbers of tourists is increasing day by day. Tourists are attracted by countries by which country can move ahead in their economic status.

Foreign currency which tourists left in the country helps to make the country more developed. We, Nepalese people, do not need big buildings, expensive things, etc. We are happy by the smell of rhododendron.

We are happy with the natural beauties which are located in the country. We all are well known for the saying, “Hario ban Nepal ko Dhan”. It is true as every green forest in Nepal is wealth for our country.

More than 80% of the total population of the whole country depends upon agriculture therefore country can be said as an agricultural country also. Many rivers, green forests, mountains, lakes, etc. make the country at the top.

Our country Nepal is heaven for us. Our country which is full of natural beauty is everything for me that I want. We all Nepalese are ready to sacrifice souls to our country Nepal. We feel very proud to be Nepali. Thus, we say that our country is a pride for us. We feel proud to say that we are Nepali.

By Saugat Thapa

Essay on Nepal – My Country My Pride (Essay in 300 words)

Nepal is known for its natural beauty in the world. There is no sea linked with this country but yet people like to see mountains, hills, forests, rivers, lakes and so many other things. Everyone knows Nepal as the country with the highest mountain in the world.

This is the only country where people have found innumerable kinds of birds which live in high mountains as well as in low Terai. Most people enjoyed mountain climbing, trekking, rafting in the rivers and lakes, and having a wonderful view of wild animals.

Mountains speak their beauty, golden view in the morning, the sun playing in those regions. Bright red light can be observed in the west on the horizon at the sunset. Probably the sun looks playing with young people of the land.

Rivers flow from the high mountains twisting and turning around the hills and through the Terai and reaching the other’s land. The murmuring brooks (rivers) refresh the human heart and mind. Sals, pines, and other trees where rhododendrons smile in full bloom. Leaves and branches move in the gentle breeze.

Lophophorus sing beautiful songs in higher flights. Lovely flowers bloom and. smile in rainbow colors. The cuckoo is seen sitting on branches and calling the spring with rapturous songs. Mechi, Koshi, and Karnali run far in distance carrying calls from Nepalese people for foreigners.

Mechi is in the east. Kali in the west making borders of the country. Mountains in the north and Terai in the south join with neighboring countries. Southern plain lands speak their own words. Green crops and harvest produce their delights. During the plow, planting, and harvesting one can enjoy the songs sung by the farmers.

Temples and pagodas ring the bells and gongs (large bells) to invite the foreigners. Wild animals living in the dense forest make a beautiful show for the people. Who will miss the beauties of Nepal? Who’ll not have the desire to see once the real beauty of Nature?

This very short Essay on Nepal My Nation My Pride is emailed by By Prasun Singh

There are many websites where you can order to write an essay.  Feel free to visit this website where you can get a custom essay and someone will write your essay about Nepal from scratch. CustomWritings is a good solution for students who need help writing essays online.

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Guest Essay

The Key to a Happy, Stable Marriage

A close-up of the clasped hands of a man and a woman.

By Rhaina Cohen

Ms. Cohen is the author of “The Other Significant Others: Reimagining Life With Friendship at the Center.”

When Bert Ellison experienced intense mood swings, the first person he turned to was usually not his wife but Dan Driscoll, his close friend of more than two decades. During the first year of his Ph.D. program, Mr. Ellison was an emotional yo-yo, one day telling his wife that he wanted to quit, the next that all was well. Mr. Driscoll suggested that Mr. Ellison take the concerns to him first, easing the stress on their marriage.

“I didn’t make a vow to Dan on my wedding day,” Mr. Ellison told me, “but I’m able to uphold my vows, I think, more fully because I can process some stuff with my best friend before I bring a more polished version to my wife.”

Research has affirmed Mr. Ellison and Mr. Driscoll’s approach. A study measuring the stress hormone cortisol in married people found that spouses who felt satisfied with the social support they had outside marriage showed less physiological stress from day-to-day marital conflicts than those who weren’t as satisfied. Just as in finance, in our social life, it’s wise to diversify our portfolio .

I’ve reaped these rewards from my own living situation: I share a home with my husband, two close friends and their two children. Our friends’ perspectives, passions and social communities have made my and my husband’s lives fuller and more dynamic. Sharing a space with friends has also created opportunities for me to discover different dimensions of my husband. One afternoon, I noticed him happily engrossed on the living room floor with our housemates’ toddler, who was repeatedly uncapping and recapping markers. My husband was fascinated, he said, by how the toddler had developed, and in that moment, I admired his exquisite patience and attentiveness.

Through our setup, I’ve arrived at a clearer sense of what an ideal marriage looks like to me: not one in which my husband and I are cocooned, gazing into each other’s eyes — as lovers are so often depicted — but looking outward, anchored in a circle of people we love.

This is something the ancient Romans would have understood. Some classicists argue that friendship played the central role in ancient Roman society that marriages do today. A Roman might refer to a friend in terms that people now use only for a spouse, such as “half of my soul” or “the greater part of my soul.” In the Byzantine Empire, pairs of male friends (who, in some cases, may have also been lovers) would enter Christian churches to be ritually turned into brothers, united for life. Some were buried together.

But as mores shifted, a spouse took on the role once played by a friend. During the Victorian era, an increased emphasis on romantic love encouraged young people to expect more from marriage, not just pragmatic benefits but also deep connection and companionship.

Since then, expectations of marriage have continued to balloon. Now movies, songs and books tell us that a spouse should be not just your greatest love but your “ everything ,” as the Michael Bublé song goes — your confidant, soul mate and best friend.

It’s only in recent years that we’ve come to understand just how harmful this kind of approach can be. Sociologists have found that married people have weaker relationships with neighbors, relatives and friends than single people do. We end up undermining romantic relationships by expecting too much and weakening friendships by expecting too little.

But there’s a way to fix this. Start by trying a simple drawing exercise: Get a piece of paper, write your name in the middle and draw circles that represent the most important people in your life. Closer relationships — like a dear friend or romantic partner — should sit closer to your name, and relationships that take up more space in your life should have a bigger circle. If you’re left with one enormous circle for a romantic partner and small bubbles in the distance, it’s a sign that the romantic relationship may be taking on too much significance.

Consider establishing a routine to ensure you see your friends regularly. A close friend and I have a standing date every other week to hang out at her house after her baby goes to sleep. A pair of best friends I know dedicate Friday mornings to coffee and conversation together, a ritual they now consider sacred.

Friendships enrich romantic relationships. But of course, they’re also an end in themselves, providing deep meaning and connection — far deeper than most of us have been told is possible. By opening up space to prioritize our friends, both types of relationships become more satisfying.

So if you have plans with a romantic partner this Valentine’s Day, savor the time together. Then make your next date night with a friend.

Rhaina Cohen ( @rhainacohen ) is a producer and editor for NPR’s “Embedded” podcast and the author of “The Other Significant Others: Reimagining Life With Friendship at the Center.”

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

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essay on friends in nepali

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essay on my country Nepal

Essay on My Country Nepal For Students

If there is a country’s flag that stands out among all other countries it is the flag of Nepal . Our flag is very unique and cannot be compared to other countries’ flags due to its shape. It also has a hidden meaning behind it which represents the country’s peace-loving and friendly nature, bravery, and immortal history.

My country Nepal is situated between two countries, India and China. Although it is sandwiched between international powers, conflicts have not happened between any, and peace remains. Nepal is a country of various castes and cultures. In other words, it is like a beautiful garden of flowers with people of different ethnicities and backgrounds.

My country Nepal is not only unique for its flag but also its geographical terrain, the variety of castes and cultures you can find, and the rich history of it. It is the land of various great places and important figures that people know far and wide. The temperature here spans from cool to hot and is a heaven for residing in.

There are about 126 castes in Nepal each with its own rich history and culture which makes Nepal a rich place for culture. Some dating back to the millenniums. Not only that, our country is very rich in its geographical terrain. From the lowest point of just 70 Meters from sea level to the world’s highest peak Mt. Everest (8848.86 meters) , we have temperature scales that vary from place to place. It is divided into three regions, Terai, Hilly, and Himalayas each according to their altitude and geographical differences.

Himalayan regions have high and mighty Himalayas that are breathtaking to look at. Out of the world’s top 10 highest peaks, 8 of them fall in my country. It is already a great pride to have come from such a country. The diverse flora and fauna, beautiful landscapes, lush and green jungles, historical and religious places in Nepal are enough to gather the attention of foreigners and locals too. People from all over the world pay thousands of dollars just to see our country’s snow-capped mountains, rivers, cliffs, waterfalls, other beautiful landscapes, the rich flora and fauna, and sites of great religious and historical importance. It just doesn’t end there.

📌 Read –   Essay on the Importance of English Language

Our country ranks in the top 5 for the richest in water resources. With just a small country with an area of 1,47,181 sq kilometers, it has the potential to fuel hydropower worth 2% of the entire world. It may look small in number but taking our country’s small area in context, it is a potential incomparable to all. The Terai region holds fertile land and smooth flowing waters that are excellent for farming and cultivating.

Nepal is also known as an agricultural country where 60% of the people here follow agriculture as their work. Our country also has huge historical importance. Gautama Buddha the founder and preacher of Buddhism which is practiced worldwide was also born in Nepal. Buddhism is known to preach peace and non-violence and to love everyone. King Janak is also an important figure who holds great importance to communities in Nepal.

Other personalities include Bhrikuti, Araniko, etc. Our country is also known for its bravery. Our country never has to celebrate Independence day as we were never under the rule of any other. We stood and fought against the Britans and other Mongol countries. Brave Gorkhalis were united after a long struggle and fought their way to preserve their country. The courage and bravery of Nepali people are also know world wide. Many brave Gorkhalis went to fight under countries in world wars and won various colors and medals. This brought our country so much respect that we even enjoy it for granted to date.

Although our country’s history, culture, terrains, and achievements make anyone feel proud, the power struggle for the politicians, previous kings, and presidents have made the country weak and fall in the developing country category. Our rich natural resources have not been utilized and we have fallen way behind. Corruption is widely prevalent in our country and the loans we have taken from other countries are in a large number. The amount of food and other materialistic consumption has made Nepal import more and export less.

Our country is poor but the people here are rich. This is because of the corruption and the illegal working/trading that has been done. The government has not made significant progress and the people aren’t responsible. Although I feel proud to be A Nepali, the condition of my country makes me feel bad. People should feel responsible and carry out their duties and not just complain about the government.

The government too should implement proper policies and rules and enforce them accordingly. Utilization of our natural resources should be done in an effective way and social evils such as discrimination according to castes and genders, other superstitions should be slowly removed. Centralized development should stop and we should control the people moving out to other countries with their skills that are wasted abroad. This way we can slowly develop our country.

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28 thoughts on “ essay on my country nepal for students ”.

essay on friends in nepali

Thank you so much sir for helpful essay.

essay on friends in nepali

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essay on friends in nepali

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essay on friends in nepali

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essay on friends in nepali

You are great sir 😚✌️🤞🙏

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essay on friends in nepali

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essay on friends in nepali

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essay on friends in nepali

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Am proud to be nepali ❤️❤️❤️🇳🇵🇳🇵🇳🇵🇳🇵 so I knew about the history of our country it’s like a story ❤️❤️🇳🇵🇳🇵🇳🇵

essay on friends in nepali

Ya it’s really good to visit in Nepal. Nepal has most beautiful place to look.

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India: politics/public policy.

  • History/Culture
  • Language Study Resources
  • Newspapers/Periodicals
  • Politics/Public Policy
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Politics/Public Policy--India

  • Amnesty International India AI India site
  • Asian Centre for Human Rights--India India page of ACHR, New Delhi
  • Asian Human Rights Commission--India AHRC India page
  • Business & Human Rights Resource Centre--India India country page
  • Centad Consortium for Trade & Development. NGO which aims at influencing policies with a focus to drive gender neutral human resource development with an emphasis on overall socioeconomic development. Resources include climate briefs, trade briefs, & working papers.
  • Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS)--India "Strategic insights and bipartisan policy solutions"
  • Central Tibetan Administration "Restoring freedom for Tibetans" Dharamsala, India. Media center includes press releases, periodicals, publications, news archive, photo galleries, and Tibet TV videos
  • Centre for Policy Research Public policy think tank dedicated to conducting research that contributes to better policies, and a more robust public discourse about the structures and processes that shape life in India. Includes lists of publications (some full text).
  • Centre for Social Sciences and Humanities (CSH) The overall objective of the CSH is to examine the various transition processes that affect India and the South Asian region along with the impacts of globalization. The research fields cover the entire spectrum of social sciences and humanities. Includes lists of publications and a few full text articles and newsletters.
  • Centre for Study of Society and Secularism CSSS was founded in 1993 in Mumbai by Asghar Ali Engineer, George Ninan and K N Pannicker. To establish a just and peaceful society where all individuals respect each others' religio-cultural views, diversity, uphold the dignity of all and ensure social justice and development for empowerment of the most deprived and marginalized. Includes e-books links.
  • Centre for Women's Development Studies An autonomous research institute supported by the Indian Council of Social Sciences Research (ICSSR). Includes links to pulications and occasional papers
  • Chennai Centre for China Studies (C3S) Carries out in-depth studies of developments relating to China with priority to issues of interest to India. Includes some full text articles and abstracts of book publications.
  • Consumer Unity & Trust Society (CUTS International) Established in 1983 as a voice of the poor to express their developmental needs and aspirations, CUTS International is a leading Southern voice and face of consumer empowerment through its rights-based approach and activities for influencing the process and content of inclusive growth and development. The organisation's vision is "consumer sovereignty.' Based in Jaipur, India; with branches in Kolkata, Chittorgarh, and New Delhi; additional branches in Ghana, Kenya, Zambia, Vietnam, and Switzerland.
  • Council on Foreign Relations--India An independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher.
  • Council on Foreign Relations--Kashmir An independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher.
  • Council on Foreign Relations--Tibet An independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher.
  • Foundation for Agrarian Studies Charitable trust based in India, which facilitates theoretical and empirical enquiry in the field of agrarian studies in India and elsewhere in less-developed countries. Publication links include the Review of Agrarian Studies .
  • Housing and Land Rights Network (HLRN), India Works for the recognition, defence, promotion, and realisation of the human rights to adequate housing and land, which involves securing a safe and secure place for all individuals and communities, especially marginalized communities, to live in peace and dignity. Includes fact-finding reports , and other resources.
  • Human Rights Watch--China and Tibet China & Tibet page
  • Indus Science & Technology CASI. At a time when, India has emerged as an IT global hub, various areas are covered here including India’s adaptation to the emerging area of biotechnology, the use of IT in the banking and communication sectors, and advances in space technology. The informational links are updated on a continual basis and covered in chronological order.
  • Human Rights in India 1988-2004. A collection on microfiche produced by the Library of Congress field office in New Delhi, this series reproduces pamphlets and publications from organizations such as the Association for Protection of Democratic Rights, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, Ganatantrika Adhikara Raksha Samiti, Indian People's Human Rights Commission, Naga Peoples Movement for Human Rights, Peoples Union for Democratic Rights, and the Punjab Human Rights Organisation
  • Human Rights Law Network (HRLN) A collective of lawyers and social activists dedicated to the use of the legal system to advance human rights, struggle against violations, and ensure access to justice for all
  • Human Rights Watch--India India country page
  • The Hunger Project A global movement of individuals and organizations in 22 countries worldwide working in authentic partnership for the sustainable end of hunger. Regions include Bangladesh and India .
  • India Policy Foundation A non-profit Think Tank, established in 2008, dedicated to exploring constructive solutions to contemporary problems. Includes links to monographs, reports, and research papers.
  • Indian Citizenship Amendment Act Protest Movements Web Archive Documents the widespread social justice movements and anti-CAA organizations to support them, as well as the allied movements mobilizing women and students with them, including groups of freedom fighters, oppressed castes, transgender people, and other marginalized communities. The Archive also contains documentation of the government crackdowns and violent suppression of these protests.
  • Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research (IGIDR) An advanced research institute established and fully funded by the Reserve Bank of India for carrying out research on development issues from a multi-disciplinary point of view. Includes links to publications (some full text).
  • Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) A non-partisan, autonomous body dedicated to objective research and policy relevant studies on all aspects of defence and security. Includes links to publications (monographs and occasional papers).
  • Institute for Social and Economic Change ISEC is is an All India Institute for Interdisciplinary Research and Training in the Social Sciences, established in 1972 in Karnataka. Full text links to working papers; abstracts of monographs.
  • Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (ICPS) Promotes alternative approaches to security issues, with emphasis on opinions of the young generation from across South Asia. ICPS was founded in 1966. Includes full text publications.
  • National Bureau of Asian Research--India India region links
  • National Institute of Advanced Studies Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bengaluru, India. The current aims of NIAS are to integrate the findings of scholarship in the natural and social sciences as well as technology, the humanities and arts through multi-disciplinary research on the complex issues that face Indian and global society. Links to publications.
  • National Institute of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj (NIRD & PR) To examine and analyse the factors contributing to the improvement of economic and social well-being of people in rural areas on a sustainable basis with focus on the rural poor and the other disadvantaged groups through research, action research and consultancy efforts. Full text publications include Journal of Rural Development, Research Reports Series and Rural Development Statistics.
  • Observer Research Foundation ORF research and analysis is rooted in independent, objective inquiry, and covers the fields of foreign policy, economy and development, governance, strategy, traditional and non-traditional security, and the social sector. Geography search facets include India and The Pacific, East and Southeast Asia .
  • The Prajnya Trust A non-profit centre for research, public education and networking working on issues related to peace, justice and security, based in Chennai, India. Includes links to publications.
  • Programme on Women's Economic Social and Cultural Rights An international advocacy and educational initiative to promote women’s human rights, especially in the context of economic, social and cultural rights, by bringing a gender framework to policy, law and practice at local, national, regional and international levels, through ever-evolving strategies and activities. Includes links to publications.
  • ReliefWeb--India Disaster and crisis updates and analysis.
  • RESA (Regulatory reforms in Electricity sector in South Asia) Project A pilot project on capacity building on electricity reforms in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Links to briefing papers, newsletters, reports, training manuals, and documentary videos.
  • Right to Food Campaign An informal network of individuals and organisations committed to the realisation of the right to food in India. includes primers, articles, survey reports, court orders, campaign tools, and other resources.
  • Society for the Study of Peace and Conflict (SSPC) An independent, non-profit, non-partisan research organization based in New Delhi, disseminating information through commentaries and analyses on a broad spectrum of issues relating to peace, conflict and human development.
  • South Asia Analysis Group Advance strategic analysis and contributes to the expansion of knowledge of Indian and International security and promotes public understanding. In so doing, the SAAG seeks to address the decision makers, strategic planners, academics and the media in South Asia and the world at large. The group holds the concept of strategy in its broadest meaning-including mobilization and application of all resources to understand national and international security.
  • The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) TERI assigns primacy to sustainable development and environmental governance. Includes links to research papers and policy briefs.
  • Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy A registered non-governmental human rights organisation established in January 1996 in Dharamsala (India) with the mission to protect the human rights of the Tibetan people in Tibet and promote the principles of democracy in the exile Tibetan community. Resources include human rights updates, publications, and multimedia.
  • Tibetan Women's Association Based in North India. Resources include books and reports, Dolma magazine, newsletters, Tibet news, photos, and videos.
  • Transparency International India A non-government, non-party and not-for-profit civil society organization of Indian citizens with professional, social, industrial or academic experience seeking to promote transparent and ethical governance and to eradicate corruption. Resources include publications and photographs
  • UNICEF--India India country site
  • United Nations Development Programme in India UNDP is the UN's global development network. Use search box and links to locate documents
  • World Food Programme--India

Politics/Public Policy (Cross-Regional)

  • Amnesty International See countrys and regions list for geographical sub-links
  • The Asan Forum An online publication for in-depth interpretation of rapid changes across the Asia-Pacific region.
  • Asian Centre for Human Rights Dedicated to promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the Asian region.
  • Asian Human Rights Commission The AHRC is an independent, non-governmental body, which seeks to promote greater awareness and realisation of human rights in the Asian region, and to mobilise Asian and international public opinion to obtain relief and redress for the victims of human rights violations. AHRC promotes civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights. Includes links to reports, news updates, country websites. Based in Hong Kong.
  • Business & Human Rights Resource Centre--Asia & Pacific Tracks the human rights policy and performance of over 6000 companies in over 180 countries, making information publicly available. Free weekly update e-newsletter.
  • Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS)--Asia A bipartisan, nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. Links to publications and multimedia.
  • Childtrafficking.com Digital Library Online library addressing child trafficking. Swiss Foundation of Terre des hommes. Includes country reports search facets for Asia , Oceania and Australia , and other regions.
  • Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) CSDS is an institute for research in the social sciences and humanities, operating since 1963. Site includes links to archived video and audio lectures.
  • The Commonwealth iLibrary The Commonwealth Secretariat’s publications are a key part of the organisation’s mission to work as a trusted partner for all Commonwealth people as a force for peace, democracy, equality and good governance; a catalyst for global consensus-building; and a source of assistance for sustainable development and poverty eradication. Each year, The Commonwealth publishes around 30 new titles on a range of topics in which it has particular insight and expertise, especially concerning small states, including globalisation and multilateral trade issues export and enterprise development, education, gender, public service, management and reform, law and human rights. Columbia University selectively subscribes to this database, so pdf downloads will not be available for all materials.
  • Council on Foreign Relations--Asia and Pacific An independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher. Links to publications, among other resources
  • DCAF The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces is an international foundation whose mission is to assist the international community in pursuing good governance and reform of the security sector. See Asia region and publications links.
  • Delhi Policy Group An independent think tank (founded in 1994) with primary focus on strategic issues of critical national interest to India. Includes links to full text publications.
  • EHRAF world cultures . This link opens in a new window A collection of full-text primary source materials on ca. 400 different cultural, ethnic, religious and national groups in the following regions of the world: Asia, Europe, Africa, Middle East, North America, Oceania, Eurasia and South America. Access is via keyword, as well as through geographic (OWC) codes and a topical (OCM) classification scheme. more... less... EHRAF world cultures .
  • FIDH--Asia FIDH is an international human rights NGO federating 178 organizations from 120 countries. Since 1922, FIDH has been defending all civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights as set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • Global Conflict Tracker An interactive guide to ongoing conflicts around the world of concern to the United States. The interactive covers nearly thirty conflicts with background information and resources on each conflict.
  • Global Social Responses to Covid-19 Web Archive Created in March 2020, at the onset of the pandemic, the Archive documents regional, social responses to the pandemic, which are critical in understanding the scope of the pandemic’s humanitarian, socioeconomic, and cultural impact.
  • Human Development Reports United Nations Development Programme. Includes links to country profiles, data, and publications.
  • Human Rights Watch Use countries menu for country specific content.
  • ICIMOD--Information Resources The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development ( ICIMOD ) is a regional intergovernmental learning and knowledge sharing centre serving the eight regional member countries of the Hindu Kush Himalayas – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan – and based in Kathmandu, Nepal. ICIMOD collates, shares, and links to information on a multitude of topics relevant to mountain development, especially in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Links to all ICIMOD's publications online, HimalDoc , mountain geoportal , regional database system, stories, and other various information.
  • IFAD The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), a specialized agency of the United Nations. Use search menu for country or region specific links.
  • Institute of Development Studies A global institution based at the University of Sussex, UK. Search publications by "Country & Region" for Asia specific resources.
  • International Crisis Group Presents reports prepared by political analysts for the International Crisis Group (ICG), a private, multinational organization. ICG analysts use field research techniques to gather information about various international crises. Reports are distributed to foreign ministries and international organizations. One can sign up for customized briefings alerts.
  • Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre Policy research institute and think take in Islamabad, Pakistan. Includes links to annual Human Development in South Asia " target="_blank">Human Development in South Asia report, and other publications.
  • Migration Policy Institute--Asia and the Pacific MPI is an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit think tank in Washington, DC dedicated to analysis of the movement of people worldwide. The research here focuses in particular on how the labor-sending countries of the region, notably the Philippines and other Colombo Process countries, manage these migration flows, engage in bilateral and multilateral cooperation with migrant-receiving nations, and engage their diasporas. The recruitment process and regulation of recruitment agencies also represent a strand of the work offered here.
  • National Bureau of Asian Research NBR conducts advanced independent research on strategic, political, economic, globalization, health, and energy issues affecting U.S. relations with Asia. The institution organizes its research around three broad topics: politics and security; trade, economics, and energy; and international health.
  • National Centre of Competence in Research Research Partnerships for Sustainable Development, headquartered in Switzerland. The NCCR North-South programme formally ended in June 2014 so the website is no longer being updated. Search interface includes filters for publications on South Asia and on Southeast Asia .
  • New Asia Forum Networking for an Asian economic community. Links to full text publications.
  • Overseas Development Institute ODI is the UK's leading independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues. Publications database includes country/region search facet.
  • Pathways of Women's Empowerment An international research and communications programme established in 2006 with the aim of understanding and influencing efforts to bring about positive change in women’s lives. The South Asia Hub (based at BRAC University, Bangladesh) is one of four regional centers, and offers a comparative intra-regional enquiry into countries with a common majority Muslim identity.
  • Refugees, relief and resettlement : forced migration and World War II Archives of the Central British Fund for World Jewish Relief, 1933-1960 -- Records of the Department of State relating to the problems of relief and refugees in Europe arising from World War II and its aftermath, 1938-1949 -- Refugee files from the records of the Foreign Office, 1938-1950 -- Refugee records from the general correspondence files of the political departments of the Foreign Office, record group 371, 1938-1950 -- Refugee records from the public and judicial department collections of the British India Office, 1939-1952 -- Refugee records from the War Cabinet, the Colonial Office, the Home Office and the War Office, 1935-1949.
  • ReliefWeb A specialized digital service of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). A leading source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters. Includes browse by countries search.
  • SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Includes links to digital library.
  • Sarcajc Research in Journalism Advertisement & Cartoon South Asian Research Centre for Advertisement, Journalism & Cartoons
  • South Asia Strategic Forum SASFOR is an Online Think Tank for rigorous and comprehensive studies of the internal and external challenges to the political, socio-economic and military capabilities and complexities of this region and their impact on the geo-political scenario.
  • South Asian Alliance for Poverty Eradication (SAAPE) SAAPE’s main focus is poverty eradication through policy research, advocacy, lobbying and campaign works, focusing on food sovereignty, gender justice and demilitarization, democratisation and social justice issues in South Asia.
  • South Asian Born-Digital NGO Reports Collection Project An NYU project to identify, prioritize, archive, preserve and make discoverable and accessible to scholars curated elements of documentation from and about South Asia produced by government agencies, NGOs, think tanks, community organizations, research centers, underground groups, religious sects, political parties, women’s groups, social activists, human rights organizations, LGBTQ advocacy groups, and other content creators.
  • South Asian Gender and Sexuality Web Archive Documents and preserves the work of activists, grassroots organizations, and social justice movements committed to promoting the visibility and experiences of LGBTQAI+ people and women in South Asia and its diasporas.
  • South Asian Intelligence Review: weekly asessments & briefings SAIR is a project of the South Asia Terrorism Portal.
  • South Asia Terrorism Portal A project by the Institute for Conflict Management , an autonomous, non-governmental, non-profit society set up in 1997, based in New Delhi, India.The Institute is committed to the task of evaluating terrorist and violent movements which threaten the fabric of modern states in South Asia and recommend solutions.
  • Strategic Foresight Group A think - tank (founded in 2002) engaged in crafting new policy concepts that enable decision makers to prepare for a future in uncertain times. Works within three areas of focus: 1. Water Diplomacy 2. Peace, Conflict and Terrorism 3. Global Foresight.
  • Swiss Peace--Asia An associated Institute of the University of Basel and member of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences. Swisspeace is a practice-oriented peace research institute. It analyses the causes of violent conflicts and develops strategies for their peaceful transformation.
  • Terrorism Research & Analysis Consortium : TRAC. This link opens in a new window Created by The Beacham Group, LLC, Terrorism Research & Analysis Consortium (TRAC) is a resource for the study of political violence of all kinds. more... less... Terrorism Research & Analysis Consortium : TRAC.
  • UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization website. Resources include publications, media, statistics, and a UNESCO Web Archive site.
  • UNICEF--South Asia South Asia regional office site
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) UNDP works in nearly 170 countries and territories, helping to achieve the eradication of poverty, and the reduction of inequalities and exclusion.
  • United Nations ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. The regional development arm of the United Nations for the Asia-Pacific region. Includes subregional office links, publications, and ESCAP statistical database.
  • U.S. bilateral relations fact sheets Part of the US State Department's Bureau of Public Affairs website. Each fact sheet presents overview information on an individual country concerning their relationship to the United States.
  • USAID's Development Experience Clearinghouse (DEC) Search a half century of U.S. international aid records. Holds USAID's institutional memory, spanning over 50 years; including documents, images, video and audio materials.
  • Women's studies international. This link opens in a new window Provides citations and some abstracts to the core areas of Women's studies. Includes material from Women studies abstracts (1984-present), Women's studies bibliography database, Women's studies database (1972-present), New books on women and feminism (1987-present), Women of color and southern women (1975-present), The history of women and science, health, and technology: a bibliographic guide to the professions and disciplines (1970-1995), Women's health and development: an annotated bibliography (1995), Women, race, and ethnicity: a bibliography (1970-1990), WAVE: Women's audiovisuals in English: a guide to nonprint resources in women's studies (1985-1990) and the MEDLINE subset on women (1964-2000). Covers journals, newspapers, newsletters, bulletins, books, book chapters, proceedings, reports, theses, dissertations, NGO studies, websites and grey literature. annually. more... less... Women's studies international.
  • World Development Report The World Bank. Published annually since 1978, each report provides in-depth analysis and policy recommendations on a specific and important aspect of development—from agriculture, the role of the state, transition economies, and labor to infrastructure, health, the environment, and poverty.
  • World Food Programme The world's largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide.
  • World Health Organization Includes links to country pages, data, and publications

Farmers Rally, Bhopal, India

Women at farmers rally, Bhopal, India, November 2005

Government Sites India

  • AP State Portal Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. Also see APOnline .
  • Civil List, Indian Administrative Service Browesable and searchable list of IAS officers
  • Districts of India An endeavour to provide a one-stop source for all the information about Districts of India at one place on the web. Links to village level mapping of demography and amenities (External website that opens in a new window) maps on the GIS based website. This enables dynamic generation of choropleth maps for rural India for more than 160 parameters of Primary census abstract 2001 and data, provided by Registrar General of India. Also links to the website of Survey of India.
  • india.gov.in National Portal of India Single window access to the information and services being provided by the Indian Government for citizens and other stakeholders
  • Indian Parliament Includes links to President of India, Rajya Sabha (Council of States), and Lok Sabha (House of the People) websites
  • Labour Bureau, Government of India Includes links to reports and to reports archive .
  • Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India Includes latest news , video briefings, and media center among other resources.
  • Ministry of Finance, Government of India Links to documents, reports (annual, mid-year and quarterly), speeches and webcasts.
  • Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India Includes link to Annual reports and North East newsletter , among other resources.
  • Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India The main responsibility of the Ministry is to protect and safeguard the interests of workers in general and those who constitute the poor, deprived and disadvantage sections of the society, in particular. Includes links to Annual reports (under "Documents"), and other resources.
  • Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, India Links to Statistical Data, Monitoring Data, and Reports & Publications.
  • National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India. Broadly the core activity of NISCAIR will be to collect/store, publish and disseminate S&T information through a mix of traditional and modern means.
  • NITI Aayog (National Institute for Transforming India), Government of India Links to documents, e-books, statistics, a knowledge hub, and media.
  • Planning Commission, Government of India The Planning Commission, Government of India website is archived . Since January 2015, it is succeeded by the NITI Aayog website .
  • Planning & Development Department, Government of Punjab Links to digital resources include budget, census, economic survey, Punjab development, statistical reports, etc.

India Political Party Sites

  • Bharatiya Janata Party BJP site includes downloadable media resources.
  • Indian Parliament & Legislative Assemblies search engine Custom Google search engine , by S. Vivek, that will scan the websites of Indian Parliament and most legislative assemblies.
  • Parliament of India: Lok Sabha: House of the People Includes links to members biographical sketches, legislative questions and debates, pending legislation, and LS Television. Part of the Indian Parliament website.
  • Parliament of India: Rajya Sabha: Council of States Includes links legislative questions and debates, and Rajya Sabha TV. Part of the Indian Parliament website.
  • President of India Includes links to speeches, press releases, etc. Part of the Indian Parliament website.
  • Parliamentary debates: official report Rajya Sabha official report. Print format issues in Butler Stacks. See also Parliamentary debates : official report. Appendix . Also see CRL holdings for Parliamentary debates: official report .
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Home Thematic Issues 3 Studying Elections in India: Scie...

Studying Elections in India: Scientific and Political Debates

Election studies (which are here defined as scholarly work focusing on the major phases of the electoral process, i.e. the campaign, the vote, the announcement of results and subsequent government formation) constitute a distinct sub-genre of studies on democracy, which focuses, so to speak, on the ‘mechanics’ more than on the ‘substance’ of representative democracy. This sub-genre, being relatively more visible than other studies of representative democracy, has specific implications, in the academic but also in the political arena, which are the focus of this critical review of the literature on Indian elections since the 1980s. The paper argues that election studies are really in between science and politics, and that it is important, therefore, to contextualize them.

Index terms

Keywords: .

1 Studying elections in the largest democracy in the world is bound to be a challenge: given the size of the country and of its population, Indian national elections have been the largest electoral exercise in the world ever since the first national elections in 1952. Moreover the cultural, linguistic, ethnic and religious diversity of the Indian society, as well as the federal nature of the Indian state, make this event a particularly complex one. What, then, have been the methodologies and approaches deployed to study this major political event? What have been the disciplines and foci of election studies? Who have been the main authors? In what form have these studies been publicized, and what type of readership have they targeted? Reading the available literature with these questions in mind, I have tried to identify some major shifts over time, and to grasp their meaning and implications; a few interviews with specialists of the field have allowed me to test some of the interpretations suggested by the readings. Through a review of the literature on Indian elections since the 1980s, this paper aims at mapping the scientific and political debates around election studies.

  • 1 Most works considered here deal with national elections, but some of them also focus on state elect (...)
  • 2 I owe this formulation to Amit Prakash, whose comments on a previous version of this paper were ver (...)

2 Election studies are here defined as scholarly work focusing on the major phases of the electoral process, i.e. the campaign, the vote, the announcement of results and subsequent government formation. 1 This is a restrictive definition: elections are obviously a central institution of representative democracy, and as such they are connected to every aspect of the polity. Yet election studies constitute a distinct sub-genre of studies on democracy, which focuses, so to speak, on the ‘mechanics’ more than on the ‘substance’ of representative democracy. 2 This sub-genre, being relatively more visible than other studies of representative democracy, has specific implications, in the academic but also in the political arena, which will be the focus of this critical review. This paper will argue that election studies are really in between science and politics, and that it is important, therefore, to contextualize them.

3 The paper starts with a quick overview of the different types of election studies which have been produced on India, and goes on to analyze a series of dilemmas and debates attached to election studies, which highlight the intricate nature of the political and scientific issues at stake.

The study of Indian elections: an overview

4 At least three previous reviews of election studies have been realized, by Narain (1978), Brass (1985), and Kondo (2007). Both Narain and Kondo provide a fairly exhaustive list of publications in this field, and discuss their relevance and quality. Brass’ review also offers a detailed discussion of the advantages and limitations of ecological approaches, to which I will later return.

5 There is no need to repeat this exercise here. But in view of situating the debates described in the next section of the paper, I simply want to sketch a broad typology of election studies published since the late 1980s—a moment which can be considered as the emergence of the new configuration of the Indian political scene, characterized by (i) the importance of regional parties and regional politics; (ii) the formation of ruling coalitions at the national and regional levels; and (iii) the polarization of national politics around the Congress, the BJP, and the ‘third space’.

6 All three reviews of the literature highlight the diversity of disciplines, methods, authors, institutions, and publication support of studies of Indian elections. But a major dividing line appears today between case studies and survey research (which largely match a distinction between qualitative and quantitative studies), with a number of publications, however, combining elements of both.

Case studies

7 Case studies analyze elections from the vantage point of a relatively limited political territory, which can be the village (for instance Somjee 1959), the city (or, within the city, the mohalla , the basti ), the constituency, the district, or the state. The major discipline involved in this type of research has been political science. Indeed elections have been the object par excellence of political science worldwide. In India as elsewhere, as we will see below, election studies reveal characteristic features of this relatively recent discipline, insofar as they embody some tensions between science and politics.

  • 3 Another example is a study of parliamentary and state elections in a village in Orissa at the end o (...)

8 Paul Brass developed the case study method in the course of his long interest for politics in Uttar Pradesh. His monograph on the 1977 and 1980 elections focuses on Uttar Pradesh (he justifies this choice saying that this election was largely decided in North India). His research is based on fieldwork in five selected constituencies whose ‘electoral history’ is minutely recalled. Here the choice of the unit of analysis is linked to pedagogical considerations: ‘Each constituency chosen illustrates a different aspect of the main social conflicts that have been prominent in UP politics’, he writes (Brass 1985: 175). Indeed in the case study approach, the detailed observation of elections in a particular area aims at uncovering processes and dynamics which are relevant for a much wider territory. 3

  • 4 In the early years of independent India, the Indian Council for Social Science Research (ICSSR) com (...)
  • 5 One must note that among the various disciplines producing case studies, anthropology uses the larg (...)

9 Beside political science, anthropology has also approached elections in a manner close to case studies. 4 But anthropological studies are usually focused on a more limited political territory (typically, the village), and more importantly, they are centered on a questioning of the meaning of the electoral process 5 for voters: why do people vote? More precisely, why do they bother, what is the meaning of voting for them? Thus anthropologists often focus on the symbolic dimension of elections:

From this [symbolic] perspective, democracy is really an untrue but vitally important myth in support of social cohesion, with elections as its central and regular ritual enactment that helps maintain and restore equilibrium (Banerjee 2007: 1556).

10 Taking the ritual as a central metaphor in their accounts of elections, anthropologists help us see the various ‘ceremonies’ and ‘performances’ that constitute the electoral process:

To define [the] cultural qualities of Indian democracy, it is important to view the ritual of the election process through four consecutive ceremonies [:] Party endorsement […], the actual campaign […], the day of polling [and the] public announcement [of winners] (Hauser & Singer 1986: 945).

11 On the basis of their observations of two elections in Bihar in the 1980s, Hauser and Singer define the electoral process as a ‘cycle’. They describe the successive phases of this cycle, and draw parallels with religious rituals, noting for instance that the electoral process involves a series of processions. Their likening of the electoral campaign to a ‘pilgrimage’ manifesting the ‘inversion of power from the hands of the politicians back to the hands of the voters’ (Hauser & Singer 1986: 947) goes a long way in explaining the festive dimension of Indian elections.

12 Anthropological studies of elections also clearly show how elections precipitate, or at least highlight, otherwise latent political dynamics. The long fieldwork characteristic of the discipline makes it possible to concretely demonstrate how elections render visible otherwise subtle, if not invisible, relationships of influence:

[…] election day was when the complexity of the village’s social life was distilled into moments of structure and clarity, when diffuse tensions and loyalties were made unusually manifest (Banerjee 2007: 1561).

13 For Banerjee, who studied politics from the standpoint of a village in West Bengal, an election is a celebration in two ways: (i) it is a festive social event; (ii) it involves a sense of democracy as sacred. Therefore she understands ‘elections as sacred expressions of citizenship’ (Banerjee 2007: 1561).

14 For all their evocative strength, one can regret that anthropological studies of Indian elections deal mostly with villages and with traditional electoral practices. However one must also note that elections elsewhere have attracted even less attention from anthropologists. Indeed, a recent issue of Qualitative Sociology deplored that ‘at a time when few, if any, objects are beyond the reach and scrutiny of ethnographers, it is quite surprising that politics and its main protagonists (state officials, politicians and activists) remain largely un(der)studied by ethnography’s mainstream’ (Auyero 2006: 257).

Other approaches

15 A number of articles and books on Indian elections combine different methodological approaches. Thus some of Banerjee’s conclusions are shared by the political scientists Ahuja and Chibber ( n.d. ), in an interesting study combining quantitative and qualitative methods ( i.e. election surveys (1989-2004) and a series of focus group discussions) in three large Indian states. In order to understand the particular pattern of electoral turnout described by Yadav as characteristic of the ‘second democratic upsurge’ (Yadav 2000), Ahuja and Chibber identify three broad social groups, defined by three distinct ‘interpretations’ of voting. They argue that ‘differences in the voting patterns of opposite ends of the social spectrum exist because each group interprets the act of voting differently’. Thus the act of voting is considered as a ‘right’ by the groups who are on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum—the ‘marginalized’; as an ‘instrument […] to gain access to the state and its resources’ by those in the middle of that spectrum—the ‘State’s clients’; and as ‘civic duty’ by those at the top—‘the elite’ (Ahuja & Chibber 2009: 1-9).

  • 6 One must also mention the ‘Chronicle of an Impossible Election’— i.e. the 2002 Assembly election in (...)

16 Among the ‘other approaches’ of elections, one also finds a number of monographs devoted to a single election 6 . For instance Myron Weiner’s study of the 1977 election constitutes an interesting, contemporary account of the beginning of the end of Congress dominance over Indian politics, with the first part devoted to the campaign and the second part to the analysis of results, on the basis on a medley of methods typical of political science:

In four widely scattered cities – Bombay […], Calcutta, Hyderabad, and New Delhi […]—[the author] talked to civil servants, candidates, campaign workers, newspaper editors, and people in the streets, attended campaign rallies and visited ward offices, collected campaign literature, listened to the radio, and followed the local press (Weiner 1978: 21)

17 In the 1990, a series of collective volume were published on parliamentary elections (for instance Roy & Wallace 1999). Often based on aggregate data such as those published by the Election Commission of India, they offer a series of papers that are interpretative, speculative, critical in nature.

  • 7 This is in sharp contrast with France, where electoral geographers such as André Siegfried have bee (...)

18 I have found one single book of electoral geography (Dikshit 1993), 7 which presents election results (crossed with census data) as a series of maps. This particular method highlights unexpected regional contrasts and similarities, which stimulates the production of explanatory hypotheses.

  • 8 This inventory of ‘ other’ election studies, that is, studies of elections that fall neither in the (...)

19 Finally, a recent book by Wendy Singer (2007) makes a case for an application of social history to elections. Going through a large material relating to elections (national, state, local) from 1952 to the 1990s, she shows how some details of the electoral process reveal important social changes over time. 8

20 The gathering of the above mentioned writings in a single, residual category is not meant to suggest that they are less effective than case studies or survey research in describing and explaining elections. On the contrary, the variety of methodologies that they mobilize shows the richness of elections as an object of scientific enquiry. But these studies eschew the strong methodological choices which define the other two categories and which point to the political stakes specific to election studies.

Survey research

21 Survey research has been dominating election studies since the 1990s for a variety of reasons. I will here use Yadav’s definition of this particular method:

[…] a technique of data gathering in which a sample of respondents is asked questions about their political preferences and beliefs to draw conclusions about political opinions, attitudes and behavior of a wider population of citizens (Yadav 2008: 5).

9 Eric Da Costa founded the Journal of Public Opinion .

  • 10 The CSDS was meant, in Kothari’s own words: ‘One, to give a truly empirical base to political scien (...)
  • 11 The CSDS did not even study the 1977 election, on which we fortunately have Myron Weiner’s monograp (...)

22 Survey research exemplifies the close relationship between the media and political science. It was introduced in India in the late 1950s by an economist turned journalist, Eric Da Costa, considered ‘the father of opinion polling in India’ (Butler et al. 1995: 41), 9 who went on to work with the Indian Institute of Public Opinion (IIPO) created in 1956—but it was political scientists such as Bashiruddin Ahmed, Ramashray Roy and Rajni Kothari who gave it a scientific grounding. In his Memoirs (2002), Kothari recalls how he went to Michigan University—which had developed an expertise in psephology, i.e. the statistical analysis of elections - to get trained in survey research. When he came back to India, Kothari applied this new method in his work at the Delhi-based Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS), which he had founded a few years earlier, in 1963. 10 The first election to which he applied this newly acquired expertise was the Kerala state election in 1965 (Lokniti team 2004: 5373). The CSDS team then went on to study general elections in 1967, 1971 and 1980, but it seems to have progressively lost interest for election studies—hence the gap between this first series 11 and the new series which started in 1996—in a new political context, as we will see further.

23 The renaissance, so to speak, of electoral surveys, came from another academic turned journalist: Prannoy Roy. An economist by training, Roy learnt survey research in the United Kingdom. After coming back to India in the early 1980s, he applied this method to Indian elections. He co-produced a series of volumes, with Butler and Lahiri, he conducted a series of all India opinion polls for the magazine India Today, but more importantly in 1998 he founded a new television channel, New Delhi Television (NDTV) on which he anchored shows devoted to the statistical analysis of elections—thus popularizing psephology.

  • 12 The CSDS entered into a stable partnership with the new channel six months before it went on air, w (...)

24 The link between these two pioneering institutions of psephology, CSDS and NDTV, was provided by Yogendra Yadav, a young political scientist who was brought from Chandigarh University to the CSDS by Rajni Kothari. Yadav revived the data unit of the CSDS and went on to supervise an uninterrupted series of electoral studies which have been financially supported and publicized by the print media, but also by NDTV. Yadav’s expertise, his great ability to explain psephological analyses both in English and Hindi, made him a star of TV shows devoted to elections, first on NDTV, and then on the channel co-founded by the star anchor Rajdeep Sardesai after he left NDTV: CNN-IBN. 12 In 1995, the CSDS team around Yogendra Yadav created Lokniti, a network of scholars based in the various Indian states, working on democracy in general and on elections in particular. The Lokniti network has been expanding both in sheer numbers and in terms of disciplines, and it has consistently observed elections since 1996.

25 In a landmark volume published in 1995 by Roy along with two other scholars, David Butler and Ashok Lahiri, the authors had made a strong statement in favour of psephology, even while acknowledging its limits: ‘This book […] offers the ‘What?’ of the electoral record; it does not deal with the ‘Why?’’ (Butler et al. 1995: 4). In this regard, the CSDS data unit has strived, from 1996 onwards, to improve its data gathering in order to capture more of the ‘Why?’, i.e. to capture with increasing accuracy the electoral behaviour of Indians and its explanatory factors. More generally, it has aimed ‘to use elections as an occasion or as a window to making sense of trends and patterns in democratic politics’ (Lokniti Team 2004: 5373).

  • 13 The ‘notes on elections’ published in Electoral Studies favour a strongly institutional perspective (...)

26 The CSDS election studies have also been published in academic supports such as the Economic and Political Weekly (EPW) in India, or Electoral Studies on the international level 13 , and they have been used by a large number of academic works in political sociology (for instance Jaffrelot (2008) on the vote of the urban middle classes). Recently, the Lokniti network has published a series of state election studies in Hindi and in English, with academic publishing houses (Mohan 2009, Shastri 2009).

Scientific and political debates

27 Debates around the study of Indian elections involve political and scientific arguments which are sometimes difficult to disentangle. These debates underline that no method is politically neutral, and they illustrate the particularly problematic relationship of one discipline, political science, with the political sphere and with the media.

Scientific dilemmas

28 The opposition between case studies and survey research can be broken into a series of dilemmas and choices.

29 The first dilemma concerns the most relevant unit of analysis: should one privilege width or depth? The central difficulty here is often to combine feasibility and relevance. In his introduction to a series of case studies done in the 1960s and 1970s, Shah writes:

A major limitation of the survey method is its inability to capture the influence of local politics on the electoral behavior of small communities. A questionnaire administered to individual voters can elicit information about individual attitudes and opinions but cannot capture the larger reality of events involving a collectivity of individuals acting over a longer period of time. A fieldworker who knows the community is better equipped to capture that reality (Shah 2007: 12).
  • 14 Both Brass (1985) and Palshikar (2007) make a forceful argument in favour of taking the constituenc (...)

30 As we saw, case studies, focusing on a limited area, 14 do offer historical depth, for example in Brass (1985). The anthropological brand of case studies also offers ‘cultural’ depth, through a wealth of concrete details which suggest the multiple meanings of elections for voters. However survey research allows generalizations; and it contextualizes results by identifying patterns, linked to regions or social groups.

31 The second dilemma concerns quantitative vs. qualitative methods. This opposition cannot be reduced to the use of figures vs. words. While many case studies involve some quantified description of the vote, they are deeply qualitative in nature, insofar as they aim at uncovering the qualities of particular political trajectories—of a community, a party, a constituency, a state etc. Survey research on the contrary aims at revealing general patterns. Here again the question of feasibility is central: while surveys are expensive, case studies are time intensive.

  • 15 For instance, the first National Election Study, conducted by the CSDS in 1967, did not take women (...)

32 An important dimension of that dilemma relates, again, to the capacity of these two types of methods to capture the meaning of elections for voters. Survey research, functioning with closed questions, conveys only the meanings that the survey design has anticipated, and risks perpetuating the prejudices of its authors. 15 By contrast, qualitative methods such as open interviews and direct observation are more likely to bring out unexpected interpretations.

33 However one large consensus appears to bridge the divide between survey research a la CSDS and case studies: the ‘ecological’ approach is preferred to the ‘strategic’ approach of elections. Ecological analyses ‘correlate electoral with other kind of aggregate data’ (Brass 1985: 3). They focus on ‘the sociological characteristics of voters, which determine the construction of their representation of politics and their social solidarity’ (Hermet et al. 2001: 31), whereas the ‘economical’ or strategic approach is based on methodological individualism and the problematic of the rational voter. Already in 1985 Paul Brass argued that ‘ecological analyses had a ‘useful place in India electoral studies’ ( ibid )—indeed he expanded on their advantages and limitations, through a detailed discussion of the methodological issues arising from the difficulty of relating electoral and census data, and of the technical solutions found by a number of works which he reviewed.

34 The evolution of National Election Studies (NES) conducted by the CSDS since 1996 shows an attempt to develop increasingly ecological types of analysis, by introducing more and more variables in their considerations. Indeed the latest surveys come close to meeting the advantages of ecological approaches as explained by Brass: ‘Identifying the underlying structural properties of party systems, […] presenting time series data to discover trends in voting behaviour, […] identifying distinctive regional contexts in which voting choices occur, and […] discovering unthought of relationships through the manipulation of available data’ (Brass 1985: 4).

35 A recent exception vis-à-vis this consensus is Kanchan Chandra’s work on ‘ethnic voting’ (Chandra 2008), which analyses electoral mobilization as a mode of negotiation used by marginal groups. Chandra argues that the poorer groups in India use their vote as ‘their primary channel of influence’. In a description of ‘elections as auctions’, she argues that the ‘purchasing power of small groups of voters’ depends ‘upon the degree to which electoral contests are competitive’ (Chandra 2004: 4). Her interpretation of the relatively high turnout in Indian elections, even as one government after the other fails the poor, is a materialist one:

16 Emphasis mine. When survival goods are allotted by the political market rather than as entitlements, voters who need these goods have no option but to participate. […] Voters do not themselves have control over the distribution of goods. But by voting strategically and voting often, they can increase their chances of obtaining these goods (Chandra 2004: 5). 16

Academic rivalries

36 The above dilemmas are extremely widespread, but in the Indian context they also correspond, to some extent, to academic rivalries between scholars and institutions, which might explain their persistence over time.

  • 17 The debate on the scientific legitimacy of survey research as opposed to more theoretical, or more (...)
  • 18 The preference for qualitative methods actually extends to other disciplines among social sciences (...)
  • 19 In this regard, Mukherji’s account of State elections in the early 1980s in a constituency of West (...)

37 One can identify, to start with, an implicit rivalry between political science and psephology—even though the latter can be considered as a sub-discipline of the former. 17 A few texts, but also interviews, reveal a mutual distrust, both in scientific and political terms. Indian political science values theoretical work more than empirical research; qualitative more than quantitative methods; 18 politically, it favours a radical critique of the political system. 19 Survey research, of course, is essentially empirical, quantitative and ‘status quoist’. Yogendra Yadav thus sums up the situation that prevailed in the late 1980s:

The label ‘ survey research’ stood for what was considered most inappropriate in the third world imitation of American science of politics: it was methodologically naïve, politically conservative and culturally inauthentic (Yadav 2008: 3).

38 Even today, quantitative methods, which are much fashionable in American (and more lately in French) political science, are hardly taught in the political science curriculum of Indian universities. Thus Kothari’s endeavour to launch a ‘so-called ‘new political science’’ in the CSDS in the 1960s—this was the time of the behaviorist revolution in social sciences—was a lonely one. He describes this ambition thus:

[It] was mainly based on the empirical method leading to detailed analytical understanding of the political processes […] The ‘ people’ came within that framework, as voters and citizens with desires, attitudes and opinions; our task as academics was to build from there towards a macro-theory of democracy, largely through empirical surveys of political behavior (by and large limited to electoral choices) but also through broader surveys of social and political change (Kothari 2002: 60-61).

39 This project actually seems to be realized through the Lokniti network which links the CSDS data unit with a number of colleges or universities across the country (and thus contributes to training an increasingly large number of students who are then hired as investigators for National and State Election studies).

40 As far as the political agenda of survey research is concerned, Yadav makes a passionate plea for ‘transfer as transformation’ (Yadav 2008: 16) i.e. for an adaptation of survey research to the political culture of countries of the global South, with a double objective: (i) to make survey research more relevant scientifically; (ii) to use it as a politically empowering device, that is ‘[…] to ensure that subaltern and suppressed opinions are made public’ (Yadav 2008: 18).

41 Much of the latent opposition between psephologists and other political scientists is probably due to the disproportionate visibility of psephologists when compared to other social scientists working on elections. But the close connection between psephology and the media is a double edged sword. On the one hand, it offers researchers a much needed financial support:

Some of the leading media publications like the Hindu, India Today, Frontline and the Economist supported [National Election Studies] between 1996 and 1999 (Lokniti team 2004: 5375).
  • 20 Thus in spite of the continuing efforts of NES to improve its methods, it failed to accurately pred (...)

42 On the other hand, it forces them to engage with the scientifically dubious, and economically risky, exercise of predicting results, 20 or explaining them immediately after their publication. However, the consistent transparency and critical self-appraisal of surveys conducted by the CSDS goes a long way in asserting their scientific credibility:

Within India, the NES series has sought to distinguish itself from the growing industry of pre-election opinion polls […] The difficulties of obtaining independent support for NES made the Lokniti group turn to media support which in turn required the group to carry out some pre-election opinion polls and even exit polls linked to seats forecast. The experiment yielded mixed results, some reasonably accurate forecasts along with some embarrassing ones (Lokniti team 2004: 5380)
  • 21 See, for instance, Lokniti Team 2004, in which the methodological flaws and evolutions (in terms of (...)

43 A more explicit and constructive debate has been taking place, lately, between psephology and anthropology. Notwithstanding his refusal to ‘participate in methodological crusades on social sciences’ (Yadav 2008: 4), Yadav has consistently sought to situate, explain, improve and diffuse his brand of survey research on elections 21 . His call for a ‘dialogue’, elaborated upon by Palshikar (‘how to integrate the methods and insights of field study and survey research’ 2007: 25) has been answered by Mukulika Banerjee, who is currently directing, along with Lokniti, an unprecedented project of Comparative Electoral Ethnography, which aims at ‘bringing together the strengths of large-scale and local-level investigations’ ( www.lokniti.org/comparative_electoral_ethnography.html accessed in May 2009) .

Political issues

44 One can distinguish three types of relationship between elections studies and politics, which correspond to three distinct, if related, questions. Firstly, how do elections studies meet the need of political actors? Secondly, to what extent are they an offshoot of American political science? And thirdly, what representation of democracy do they support?

45 Firstly, the development of survey research is directly linked to Indian political life:

In the 1950s there were virtually no market research organizations in India. The dominance of the Congress diminished any incentive to develop political polls (Butler et al . 1995: 41).

46 At the time of the second non-Congress government at the Centre (1989-1991), political parties started commissioning surveys which they used to build their electoral strategy (Rao 2009). Indian elections have been decided at the state level since the 1990s, and the proliferation of national pre-poll survey from the 1991 election onwards can be linked to the uncertainty of the electoral results in a context of increasing assertion of regional parties (Rao 2009). The fact that the CSDS resumed its elections series in 1996 is doubtlessly linked to the transformations that have been characterizing the Indian political scene since the beginning of that decade. The rise to power of the Bahujan Samaj Party in Uttar Pradesh and its emergence in other North Indian states, and more generally the fragmentation of political representation, with new parties representing increasingly smaller social groups, has made it increasingly necessary to know who votes for which party in which state—and why.

47 Furthermore the decentralization policy adopted in 1992 has generated a lot of interest both from actors and observers of Indian politics. Today the newfound interest for ethnographic, locally rooted types of election studies may well have to do with the fact that the national scale is increasingly challenged as the most relevant one to understand Indian politics.

48 Secondly, a more covert, but no less important aspect of the debate relates to what could be roughly called the ‘Western domination’ of survey research. Methods have been learnt by leading Indian figures in the United States or in the United Kingdom (even in the 2000s, CSDS members get trained in the summer school in survey research in Michigan University). Authors are often American (or working in the American academia). Funding often involves foreign funding agencies.

  • 22 This problem is not restricted to survey research alone: thus Mitra evokes the ‘Americanisation of (...)
  • 23 Linz, Stepan and Yadav 2007 represents a good example of the changing status of the Indian case in (...)

24 See Fauvelle 2008.

49 More importantly, the key concepts of survey research are often drawn from the rich field of American election studies, 22 and particularly from behaviourism, a school of thought which is rejected by part of the Indian academia. Lastly, the general (and often implicit) reference to which the Indian scenario is compared is actually the United States and Western Europe. On the one hand, these comparative efforts 23 testify to the fact that India is not an outsider any more as far as democracies are concerned. On the other hand, one can regret an excessive focus, in comparisons, on the West, insofar as it skews the assessment of the Indian case (for instance the Indian pattern of voter turnout, which is qualified as ‘exceptional’ by Yadav because it breaks from the trend observed in North America and Western Europe, might appear less so if it was compared, say, to post-Apartheid South Africa). 24

50 Thirdly, all election studies support a (more or less implicit) discourse on Indian democracy; they can always be read as a ‘state of democracy report’ (Jayal 2006). In this regard, one of the criticisms addressed to psephological studies is that their narrow focus tends to convey a rosy picture, since elections are usually considered as ‘free and fair’ in the Indian democracy, which is often qualified as ‘procedural’, i.e. which conforms to democratic procedures (regular elections and political alternance, a free press) but not to democratic values (starting with equality). The sheer magnitude of the logistics involved in conducting national elections is bound to evoke admiring appraisals, which tend to obliterate the limits of procedural democracy. Thus Jayal criticizes the ‘the fallacy of electoralism’:

The scholars who subscribe to the limited, proceduralist view of democracy, are generally buoyant about Indian democracy... Their analyses emphatically exclude the many social and economic inequalities that make it difficult for even formal participation to be effective (Jayal 2001: 3).

51 Moreover the huge costs involved in conducting sample surveys on ever larger samples imply that the funders—which include the media—can put pressure on the team conducting the survey. And one can see two reasons why survey research is so media friendly: one, its (supposed) ability to predict results makes it an indispensable component of the horse-race, entertaining aspect of elections; two, it contributes to the ‘feel good’ factor as it shows, election after election, that the turnout is high and that results are unpredictable; it thus gives credit to the idea of democratic choice.

52 To this positive assessment, some Indian political scientists oppose the more critical vision offered by case studies of Indian politics focusing not on the mainstream, but on the margins. Here anthropology offers a way out, since the informed perspective of the long time fieldworker allows a simultaneous perception of the mainstream and of the margins. Thus the works of Hauser and Singer or that of Banerjee, offering a minute description of the various ‘ceremonies’ that together constitute the election process from the vantage point of voters, highlight both the empowering and the coercive dimensions of voting. Their studies suggest that when it comes to elections, the relationship between celebration and alienation is a very subtle one.

53 Elections are a complex, multi-dimensional social and political event which can be captured only through a variety of methods: this literature review underlines how the different approaches complete each other and are therefore equally necessary. While Indian election studies, at least at the national and state levels, have been dominated, since the 1990s, by survey research, the Lokniti based project of ‘Comparative Electoral Ethnography’ should contribute to restoring some balance between various types of studies. Also, academic debates around the scientific and political implications and limitations of election studies seem to lead to a convergence: while questionnaire-based surveys evolve towards a finer apprehension of the opinions and attitudes of Indian voters, anthropological studies strive to overcome the limitations of fieldwork based on a single, limited area.

  • 25 For instance anthropological studies tend to focus on the short period comprised between the beginn (...)

54 One can regret that studies of Indian elections, by all disciplines, tend to focus exclusively on the vote, which certainly is a climactic moment of the electoral process, but by no means the only interesting one. 25 Indeed a recent attempt by the CSDS team to understand participation beyond voting, in order to qualify the ‘second democratic upsurge’ (Yadav 2000) through a state wise analysis of the 2004 Lok Sabha elections, suggests that a broader definition of the electoral process might significantly contribute to solving the ‘puzzle of Indian democracy’ (Chibber & Petrocik 1989, Lijphart 1996). They conclude that ‘comparison across social sections shows that a broader entry of the underprivileged into the political arena is much more limited, even today, than the entry of the more privileged social sections’ (Palshikar & Kumar 2004: 5414). The complementarities of different approaches are here glaring: ethnographic work is much needed to understand the implications of the fact that ‘over the years there is a steady increase in the number of people who participated in election campaign activity’ (Palshikar & Kumar 2004: 5415).

55 One wishes also that anthropological studies of future elections deal not only with the traditional elements of voting (the campaign procession, the inking of the finger etc.), but also with newer elements of the process: what has been the impact of the model code of conduct, or of the increasing use of SMS and internet in the campaign, on electoral rituals? What about the collective watching of TV shows focusing on elections, both before and after the results are known?

56 Finally, at a time when election surveys have acquired an unprecedented visibility, due to their relationship with the mass media, one can only lament the absence of rigorous studies on the role of the media, both print and audio-visual, in funding, shaping and publicizing election studies.

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Chandra, Kanchan (2004) ‘Elections as Auctions’, Seminar , 539.

Chandra, Kanchan (2008) ‘Why voters in patronage democracies split their tickets: Strategic voting for ethnic parties’, Electoral Studies , 28, pp. 21-32.

Chhibber, Pradeep; Petrocik, John R.K. (1989) ‘The Puzzle of Indian Politics: Social Cleavages and the Indian Party System’, British Journal of Political Science , 19(2), pp. 191-210.

Dikshit, S.K. (1993) Electoral Geography of India, With Special Reference to Sixth and Seventh Lok Sabha Elections , Varanasi: Vishwavidyalaya Prakashan.

Eldersveld, Samuel; Ahmed, Bashiruddin (1978) Citizens and Politics: Mass Political Behaviour in India , Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fauvelle-Aymar, Christine (2008) ‘Electoral turnout in Johannesburg: Socio-economic and Political Determinants’, Transformation, Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa , 66/67, pp. 142-67.

Hauser, Walter; Singer, Wendy (1986) ‘The Democratic Rite: Celebration and Participation in the Indian Elections’, Asian Survey , 26(9), pp. 941-58.

Hermet, Guy; Badie, Bertrand; Birnbaum, Pierre; Braud, Philippe (2001) Dictionnaire de la science politique et des institutions politiques , Paris: Armand Colin.

Jaffrelot, Christophe (2008) ‘‘Why Should We Vote? ’ The Indian Middle Class and the Functioning of the World’s Largest Democracy’, in Christophe Jaffrelot & Peter Van der Veer (eds.), Patterns of Middle Class Consumption in India and China , Delhi: Sage.

Jayal, Niraja Gopal (2001) ‘Introduction’, in Niraja Gopal Jayal (ed.), Democracy in India , Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-49.

Jayal, Niraja Gopal (2006) ‘Democratic dogmas and disquiets’, Seminar , 557.

Kondo, Norio (2007) Election Studies in India , Institute of Developing Economies: Discussion Paper n°98.

Kothari, Rajni (2002) Memoirs. Uneasy is the Life of the Mind , Delhi: Rupa & Co.

Lijphart, Arend (1996) ‘The Puzzle of Indian Democracy: A Consociational Interpretation’, The American Political Science Review , 90(2), pp. 258-68.

Linz, Juan; Stepan, Alfred; Yadav, Yogendra (2007) ‘‘Nation State’ or ‘State Nation’—India in Comparative Perspective’, in Shankar K. Bajpai (ed.), Democracy and Diversity: India and the American Experience , Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 50-106.

Lokniti Team (2004) ‘National Election Study 2004: An Introduction’, Economic and Political Weekly , 18 December, pp. 5373-81.

Lyngdoh, James Michael (2004) Chronicle of an Impossible Election: The Election Commission and the 2002 Jammu and Kashmir Assembly Elections , Delhi: Penguin/Viking.

Mitra, Subrata K. (1979) ‘Ballot Box and Local Power: Electoral Politics in an Indian Village’, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics , 17(3), pp. 282-99.

Mitra, Subrata K. (2005) ‘Elections and the Negotiation of Ethnic Conflict: An American Science of Indian Politics?’, India Review , 24, pp. 326-43.

Mohan, Arvind (ed.) (2009) Loktantra ka Naya Lok , Delhi: Vani Prakashan.

Mukherji, Partha N. (1983) From Left Extremism to Electoral Politics: Naxalite Participation in Elections , New Delhi: Manohar.

Narain, Iqbal; Pande, K.C.; Sharma, M.L.; Rajpal, Hansa (1978) Election Studies in India: An Evaluation , New Delhi: Allied Publishers.

Palshikar, Suhas; Kumar, Sanjay (2004) ‘Participatory Norm: How Broad-based Is It?’, Economic and Political Weekly , 18 December, pp. 5412-17.

Palshikar, Suhas (2007) ‘The Imagined Debate between Pollsters and Ethnographers’, Economic and Political Weekly , 27 October, pp. 24-8.

Rao, Bhaskara (2009) A Handbook of Poll Surveys in Media: An Indian Perspective , Delhi: Gyan Publications.

Roy, Ramashray; Wallace, Paul (1999) Indian Politics and the 1998 Election: Regionalism, Hindutva and State Politics , New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, London: Sage Publications.

Saez, Lawrence (2001) ‘The 1999 General Election in India’, Electoral Studies , 20, pp. 164-9.

Shah, A.M. (2007) ‘Introduction’, in A.M. Shah (ed.), The Grassroots of Democracy: Field Studies of Indian Elections , Delhi: Permanent black, pp. 1-27.

Shastri, Sandeep; Suri, K.C.; Yadav, Yogendra (2009) Electoral Politics in Indian States: Lok Sabha Elections in 2004 and Beyond , Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Singer, Wendy (2007) ‘A Constituency Suitable for Ladies’ And Other Social Histories of Indian Elections , New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Somjee, A.H. (1959) Voting Behaviour in an Indian Village , Baroda: M.S.University.

Sundar, Nandini; Deshpande, Satish; Uberoi, Patricia (2000) ‘Indian Anthropology and Sociology: Towards a History’, Economic and Political Weekly , 10 June, pp. 1998-2002.

Weiner, Myron (1978), India at the Polls. The Parliamentary Elections of 1977 , Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

Yadav, Yogendra (2000) ‘Understanding the Second Democratic Upsurge: Trends of Bahujan Participation in Electoral Politics in the 1990s’, in Francine R. Frankel; Zoya Hasan; Rajeev Bhargava; Balveer Arora (eds.), Transforming India: Social and Political Dynamics of Democracy , Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Yadav, Yogendra (2007) ‘Invitation to a dialogue: What work does ‘fieldwork’ do in the field of elections?’, in A.M. Shah (ed.), The Grassroots of Democracy: Field Studies of Indian Elections , Delhi: Permanent black, pp. 345-68.

Yadav, Yogendra (2008) ‘Whither Survey Research? Reflections on the State of Survey Research on Politics in Most of the World’, Malcom Adiseshiah Memorial Lecture, Chennai.

1 Most works considered here deal with national elections, but some of them also focus on state elections.

2 I owe this formulation to Amit Prakash, whose comments on a previous version of this paper were very helpful.

3 Another example is a study of parliamentary and state elections in a village in Orissa at the end of Emergency, in which S. Mitra describes the caste dynamics in the village and the way it plays out during electoral times to show how ‘elections are used as instruments by various sections of the society to convert their political resources and power into authority’ (Mitra 1979: 419).

4 In the early years of independent India, the Indian Council for Social Science Research (ICSSR) commissioned a series of case studies, some of which are reviewed by Narain (1978). A more recently published volume offers a sample of such studies, conducted in the late 1960s by the sociology department of Delhi University under the supervision of M.N.Srinivas and A.M.Shah (Shah 2007).

5 One must note that among the various disciplines producing case studies, anthropology uses the largest definition of political participation, to include not only voting, but also participating in meetings, supporting the campaign of a particular party or candidate etc.

6 One must also mention the ‘Chronicle of an Impossible Election’— i.e. the 2002 Assembly election in Jammu and Kashmir - as told by the then Chief Election Commissioner, J.M. Lyngdoh (2004), which provides an insider’s view of how election procedures are the result of a series of (sometimes minute) decisions—aiming at asserting that the Election Commission does not represent the Indian government.

7 This is in sharp contrast with France, where electoral geographers such as André Siegfried have been the founding fathers of political science. For an illustration of how geography enriches our understanding of elections, see Lefèbvre and Robin in this volume.

8 This inventory of ‘ other’ election studies, that is, studies of elections that fall neither in the ‘case study’ nor in the ‘survey research’ type, would obviously become much more complex and large if we were to include in it the large body of literature on the party system, or on the federal structure as they evolve over time in India. However that literature does take elections as its main focus, and has therefore not been considered here.

10 The CSDS was meant, in Kothari’s own words: ‘One, to give a truly empirical base to political science [...] Two, to engage in a persistent set of writings through which our broad conceptualisation of democracy in India was laid out [...] And three, institutionalise not just the Centre as a place of learning but as part of the larger intellectual process itself’ (Kothari 2002: 39-40). Over the years, the CSDS has retained a unique place in the Indian academia, as it remains distinct from universities even while engaging in a number of collaborations with their faculty—Lokniti being a case in point.

11 The CSDS did not even study the 1977 election, on which we fortunately have Myron Weiner’s monograph.

12 The CSDS entered into a stable partnership with the new channel six months before it went on air, which testifies to the saleability of this brand of research. One week before the results of the Fifteenth election were announced, huge signboards bore a picture of the star anchor of CNN-IBN along with Yogendra Yadav, asserting the latter’s increasing popularity.

13 The ‘notes on elections’ published in Electoral Studies favour a strongly institutional perspective, concerned almost exclusively with political parties (the alliances they form, the issues they raise, the candidates they select etc.) Interestingly, nothing is said about voters.

14 Both Brass (1985) and Palshikar (2007) make a forceful argument in favour of taking the constituency as a unit of analysis.

15 For instance, the first National Election Study, conducted by the CSDS in 1967, did not take women voters into account! (Lokniti team 2004: 5374).

16 Emphasis mine.

17 The debate on the scientific legitimacy of survey research as opposed to more theoretical, or more qualitative, approaches is by no means restricted to India. Political science is a relatively young discipline, defined more by its objects than by its methods, and by a scientific community that strives to assert its scientific credentials. In this regard, electoral surveys have an ambiguous record. On the one hand, the highly technical aspect of quantitative methods gives an image of ‘scientificity’; on the other hand, the proximity (in terms of sponsors, institutions and publication supports) of electoral surveys to opinion polls (characterized by a large margin of error, and a close association with marketing techniques) maintains a doubt on the scientificity of this sub-discipline.

18 The preference for qualitative methods actually extends to other disciplines among social sciences in India: ‘A tabulation of articles in Contributions to Indian Sociology and the Sociological Bulletin [...], though not a comprehensive account of scholarship in sociology and social anthropology, did nevertheless seem to substantiate the fact that ethnographic methods far outpaced any other kind of research method’ (Sundar et al. 2000: 2000).

19 In this regard, Mukherji’s account of State elections in the early 1980s in a constituency of West Bengal dominated by Naxalites is an exception among monographic studies of elections. The book offers a candid evocation of the methodological dilemmas, constraints and solutions inherent in studying elections, and particularly of the political agenda behind election studies (in this particular case, the author, engaged in a study of the Naxalite movement, presents himself early on as a Naxalite) (Mukherji 1983).

20 Thus in spite of the continuing efforts of NES to improve its methods, it failed to accurately predict the results of elections, both in 2004 and in 2009.

21 See, for instance, Lokniti Team 2004, in which the methodological flaws and evolutions (in terms of sample size, number of languages used, decentralization of data entry and analysis etc.) of National Election Studies are discussed in detail.

22 This problem is not restricted to survey research alone: thus Mitra evokes the ‘Americanisation of [the study of] ethnic politics in the Indian context’ (Mitra 2005: 327)

23 Linz, Stepan and Yadav 2007 represents a good example of the changing status of the Indian case in comparative studies of democracy—from an exception to a major case.

25 For instance anthropological studies tend to focus on the short period comprised between the beginning of the electoral campaign and the announcement of results. A larger timeframe is needed if we are to understand how clientelism operates through the electoral process.

Electronic reference

Stéphanie Tawa Lama-Rewal , “ Studying Elections in India: Scientific and Political Debates ” ,  South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal [Online], 3 | 2009, Online since 23 December 2009 , connection on 14 December 2023 . URL : http://journals.openedition.org/samaj/2784; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/samaj.2784

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African Politics

  • The Role of Youth Movements in African Politics
  • Assessing the Impact of Neocolonialism on African Nations
  • Conflict Resolution Strategies in African States
  • Corruption and Governance Challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Women’s Participation in African Political Leadership
  • Comparative Analysis of Post-Colonial African Constitutions
  • Environmental Policies and Sustainability in African Governments
  • The African Union’s Role in Regional Stability
  • Ethnic Conflict and Politics in East Africa
  • Human Rights Violations and Accountability in African Nations
  • The Influence of International Aid on African Politics
  • Media Censorship and Press Freedom in African Nations
  • Ethnicity and Identity Politics in West Africa
  • Healthcare Access and Quality in African Countries
  • Indigenous Governance and Rights in African Societies
  • Political Economy and Resource Allocation in Oil-Producing Nations
  • The Impact of Globalization on African Economies
  • The Legacy of Apartheid in South African Politics
  • The African Diaspora’s Influence on Homeland Politics
  • Environmental Conservation and Natural Resource Management in Africa

American Politics

  • The Role of Third Parties in American Elections
  • Analyzing the Influence of Lobbying on U.S. Policy
  • The Impact of Social Media on Political Campaigns
  • Immigration Policies and the American Dream
  • Gerrymandering and Its Effects on Electoral Outcomes
  • The Role of the Electoral College in Presidential Elections
  • Gun Control and Second Amendment Debates
  • Healthcare Policy and Access in the United States
  • Partisanship and Polarization in American Politics
  • The History and Future of American Democracy
  • Supreme Court Decisions and Their Political Implications
  • Environmental Policies and Climate Change in the U.S.
  • Media Bias and Political Discourse in America
  • Political Conventions and Their Significance
  • The Role of Super PACs in Campaign Financing
  • Civil Rights Movements and Their Impact on U.S. Politics
  • Trade Policy and Global Economic Relations
  • National Security and Counterterrorism Strategies
  • Populism and Its Influence on American Politics
  • Electoral Reform and Voting Rights in the United States

Asian Politics

  • China’s Belt and Road Initiative and Global Politics
  • Democracy Movements in Hong Kong and Taiwan
  • India’s Foreign Policy and Regional Influence
  • The North Korea Nuclear Crisis
  • Environmental Challenges in Southeast Asian Nations
  • Ethnic Conflict and Identity Politics in South Asia
  • Economic Growth and Inequality in East Asian Countries
  • ASEAN’s Role in Regional Security
  • Japan’s Approach to Pacifism and Defense
  • Cybersecurity and Cyber Warfare in Asia
  • Religious Extremism and Political Stability in the Middle East
  • China-India Border Dispute and Geopolitical Implications
  • South China Sea Disputes and Maritime Politics
  • The Rohingya Crisis and Humanitarian Interventions
  • Political Reform and Authoritarianism in Central Asia
  • Technological Advancements and Political Change in Asia
  • The Belt and Road Initiative and Its Impact on Asian Economies
  • Environmental Conservation Efforts in Asian Nations
  • Geopolitical Rivalries in the Indo-Pacific Region
  • Media Censorship and Freedom of Expression in Asia
  • Comparative Politics
  • Comparative Analysis of Political Regimes: Democracies vs. Authoritarian States
  • Theories of State Formation and Governance
  • Electoral Systems Around the World
  • Social Welfare Policies in Western and Non-Western Societies
  • The Role of Civil Society in Political Change
  • Political Parties and Their Impact on Governance
  • Analyzing Political Culture in Diverse Societies
  • Case Studies in Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding
  • Federal vs. Unitary Systems of Government
  • Gender and Political Representation Across Countries
  • Immigration Policies and Integration Strategies
  • Indigenous Rights and Self-Determination Movements
  • Environmental Policies and Sustainability Practices
  • Populist Movements in Contemporary Politics
  • The Impact of Globalization on National Identities
  • Human Rights Violations and Accountability Mechanisms
  • Comparative Analysis of Welfare States
  • Ethnic Conflict and Power Sharing Agreements
  • Religious Diversity and Its Political Implications
  • Social Movements and Political Change Across Regions
  • Constitutions and Constitutionalism
  • The Evolution of Constitutional Law: Historical Perspectives
  • Judicial Review and Constitutional Interpretation
  • Federalism and State Powers in Constitutional Design
  • Comparative Analysis of National Constitutions
  • Human Rights Provisions in Modern Constitutions
  • Constitutional Amendments and Reform Efforts
  • Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
  • Constitutional Design in Post-Conflict Societies
  • Constitutionalism and Indigenous Rights
  • Challenges to Constitutional Democracy in the 21st Century
  • Constitutions and Cultural Pluralism
  • Environmental Provisions in Constitutions
  • The Role of Constitutional Courts in Political Systems
  • Social and Economic Rights in Constitutions
  • Constitutionalism and the Rule of Law
  • The Impact of Technological Advancements on Constitutional Governance
  • Constitutional Protections for Minority Rights
  • Constitutional Referendums and Public Participation
  • Constitutional Provisions for Emergency Powers
  • Gender Equality Clauses in National Constitutions
  • Democracy and Democratization
  • The Role of Civil Society in Democratization
  • Democratic Backsliding: Causes and Consequences
  • Comparative Analysis of Electoral Systems and Democracy
  • The Impact of Media on Political Awareness and Democracy
  • Political Parties and Their Role in Democratic Governance
  • Women’s Political Participation and Representation in Democracies
  • Democratic Transitions in Post-Authoritarian States
  • Youth Movements and Their Influence on Democratization
  • Populism and Its Effect on Democratic Norms
  • Comparative Analysis of Direct vs. Representative Democracy
  • Democratization and Economic Development
  • Indigenous Peoples’ Rights and Democratization
  • The Role of International Organizations in Promoting Democracy
  • Religious Diversity and Democracy in Multiethnic Societies
  • The Challenges of Democratic Consolidation
  • Media Freedom and Democratization in the Digital Age
  • Human Rights and Democratic Governance
  • Democratization and Conflict Resolution in Divided Societies
  • Civil-Military Relations in Emerging Democracies
  • Assessing the Quality of Democracy in Different Countries

Political Corruption

  • The Impact of Corruption on Political Stability
  • Corruption and Economic Development: A Comparative Analysis
  • Anti-Corruption Measures and Their Effectiveness
  • Corruption in Public Procurement and Government Contracts
  • Political Scandals and Their Influence on Public Opinion
  • The Role of Whistleblowers in Exposing Political Corruption
  • Corruption and Its Impact on Foreign Aid and Investments
  • Political Patronage and Nepotism in Government
  • Transparency and Accountability Mechanisms
  • Corruption and Environmental Exploitation
  • Cultural Factors and Perceptions of Corruption
  • Corruption in Law Enforcement and the Judiciary
  • The Role of Media in Investigating Political Corruption
  • Corruption and Political Party Financing
  • Comparative Analysis of Corruption Levels in Different Countries
  • Ethnicity and Corruption: Case Studies
  • Political Corruption in Post-Conflict Societies
  • Gender, Power, and Corruption
  • Corruption and Human Rights Violations
  • Strategies for Combating Political Corruption

European Politics

  • The European Union’s Role in Global Governance
  • Brexit and Its Implications for European Politics
  • European Integration and Supranationalism
  • Euroscepticism and Anti-EU Movements
  • Immigration and European Identity
  • Populist Parties in European Elections
  • Environmental Policies in European Countries
  • The Eurozone Crisis and Economic Governance
  • EU Enlargement and Eastern European Politics
  • Human Rights and European Integration
  • Nationalism and Secession Movements in Europe
  • Security Challenges in the Baltic States
  • EU-US Relations and Transatlantic Cooperation
  • Energy Policies and Dependency on Russian Gas
  • The Common Agricultural Policy and Farming in Europe
  • European Social Welfare Models and Inequality
  • The Schengen Agreement and Border Control
  • The Rise of Far-Right Movements in Western Europe
  • EU Environmental Regulations and Sustainability
  • The Role of the European Court of Justice in Shaping European Politics
  • Comparative Analysis of Federal Systems
  • Fiscal Federalism and Taxation in Federal States
  • Federalism and Ethnic Conflict Resolution
  • The Role of Governors in Federal Systems
  • Intergovernmental Relations in Federal Countries
  • Federalism and Healthcare Policy
  • Environmental Federalism and Conservation Efforts
  • Federalism and Immigration Policies
  • Indigenous Rights and Self-Government in Federal States
  • Federalism and Education Policy
  • The Role of Regional Parties in Federal Politics
  • Federalism and Disaster Response
  • Energy Policy and Federal-State Relations
  • Federalism and Criminal Justice Reform
  • Local Autonomy and Decentralization in Federal Systems
  • The Impact of Federal Systems on Economic Development
  • Constitutional Reform and Changes in Federalism
  • Federalism and Social Welfare Programs
  • The European Model of Federalism
  • Comparative Analysis of Dual and Cooperative Federalism
  • Foreign Policy
  • Diplomatic Strategies in International Relations
  • The Influence of Public Opinion on Foreign Policy
  • Economic Diplomacy and Trade Negotiations
  • The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Foreign Policy
  • Conflict Resolution and Peacekeeping Efforts
  • International Human Rights Advocacy and Foreign Policy
  • Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy
  • Nuclear Proliferation and Arms Control
  • Cybersecurity and Foreign Policy Challenges
  • Climate Diplomacy and Global Environmental Agreements
  • Refugee and Migration Policies in International Relations
  • The Impact of International Organizations on Foreign Policy
  • Energy Security and Geopolitical Strategies
  • Regional Alliances and Security Agreements
  • Terrorism and Counterterrorism Strategies
  • Humanitarian Interventions and Responsibility to Protect
  • The Role of Intelligence Agencies in Foreign Policy
  • Economic Sanctions and Their Effectiveness
  • Foreign Aid and Development Assistance
  • International Law and Treaty Negotiations
  • Gender and Politics
  • Gender Representation in Political Leadership
  • The Impact of Women’s Movements on Gender Policy
  • Gender-Based Violence and Political Responses
  • Intersectionality and Identity Politics in Gender Advocacy
  • Gender Mainstreaming in Government Policies
  • LGBTQ+ Rights and Political Movements
  • Women in Conflict Resolution and Peace Negotiations
  • The Gender Pay Gap and Labor Policies
  • Female Political Empowerment and Quotas
  • Masculinity Studies and Political Behavior
  • Gender and Environmental Justice
  • The Role of Men in Promoting Gender Equality
  • Gender Stereotypes and Political Campaigns
  • Reproductive Rights and Political Debates
  • Gender, Race, and Political Power
  • Feminist Foreign Policy and Global Women’s Rights
  • Gender and Healthcare Policy
  • Gender Disparities in Education Access
  • Gender, Technology, and Digital Divide
  • Patriarchy and Its Effects on Political Systems
  • Globalization and Politics
  • The Impact of Globalization on National Sovereignty
  • Trade Agreements and Their Political Implications
  • Globalization and Income Inequality
  • Environmental Policies in the Globalized World
  • Cultural Diversity in a Globalized Society
  • Globalization and Labor Movements
  • Global Health Governance and Pandemics
  • Migration and Political Responses to Globalization
  • Technology and Global Political Connectivity
  • Globalization and Political Populism
  • Human Rights in a Globalized Context
  • Globalization and the Spread of Political Ideas
  • Global Supply Chains and Political Vulnerabilities
  • Media and Information Flow in Global Politics
  • Globalization and Terrorism Networks
  • Transnational Corporations and Political Influence
  • Globalization and Political Identity
  • The Role of International Organizations in Managing Globalization
  • Globalization and Climate Change Politics
  • Globalization and Post-Pandemic Political Challenges
  • Political Ideologies
  • Liberalism and Its Contemporary Relevance
  • Conservatism in Modern Political Thought
  • Socialism and Its Variations in Different Countries
  • Fascism and the Rise of Far-Right Ideologies
  • Anarchism and Political Movements
  • Marxism and Its Influence on Political Theory
  • Environmentalism as a Political Ideology
  • Feminism and Its Political Manifestations
  • Populism as an Emerging Political Ideology
  • Nationalism and Its Role in Contemporary Politics
  • Multiculturalism and Political Pluralism
  • Postcolonialism and Its Impact on Global Politics
  • Postmodernism and Its Critique of Political Discourse
  • Religious Political Ideologies and Fundamentalism
  • Libertarianism and Minimalist Government
  • Technological Utopianism and Political Change
  • Eco-Socialism and Environmental Politics
  • Identity Politics and Intersectional Ideologies
  • Indigenous Political Thought and Movements
  • Futurism and Political Visions of Tomorrow

Checks and Balances

  • The Role of the Executive Branch in Checks and Balances
  • Congressional Oversight and Accountability
  • The Separation of Powers in Parliamentary Systems
  • Checks and Balances in Local Government
  • Media and Public Opinion as Checks on Government
  • Bureaucratic Agencies and Their Role in Oversight
  • The Balance of Power in Federal Systems
  • The Role of Political Parties in Checks and Balances
  • Checks and Balances in Authoritarian Regimes
  • The Role of Interest Groups in Government Oversight
  • The Influence of Lobbying on Checks and Balances
  • The Role of the Courts in Presidential Accountability
  • Checks and Balances in Times of National Crisis
  • The Use of Veto Power in Checks and Balances
  • Checks and Balances and the Protection of Civil Liberties
  • The Role of Whistleblowers in Exposing Government Misconduct
  • Checks and Balances and National Security Policies
  • The Evolution of Checks and Balances in Modern Democracies
  • Interest Groups and Lobbies
  • The Influence of Corporate Lobbying on Public Policy
  • Interest Groups and Campaign Finance in Politics
  • Advocacy Groups and Their Impact on Legislative Agendas
  • The Role of Unions in Interest Group Politics
  • Environmental Organizations and Lobbying Efforts
  • Identity-Based Interest Groups and Their Political Power
  • Health Advocacy Groups and Healthcare Policy
  • The Influence of Foreign Lobbying on U.S. Politics
  • Interest Groups and Regulatory Capture
  • Interest Groups in Comparative Politics
  • The Use of Social Media in Interest Group Campaigns
  • Gun Control Advocacy and Interest Group Dynamics
  • Religious Organizations and Political Lobbying
  • Interest Groups and Human Rights Advocacy
  • Farming and Agricultural Interest Groups
  • Interest Groups and Education Policy
  • LGBTQ+ Advocacy and Political Representation
  • Interest Groups and Criminal Justice Reform
  • Veterans’ Organizations and Their Political Clout
  • Interest Groups and Their Role in Shaping Public Opinion
  • International Relations
  • Theories of International Relations: Realism, Liberalism, Constructivism
  • Power Politics and International Security
  • The Role of Diplomacy in Conflict Resolution
  • Multilateralism vs. Unilateralism in International Relations
  • International Organizations and Their Influence on World Politics
  • Global Governance and Challenges to Sovereignty
  • Humanitarian Interventions and the Responsibility to Protect
  • Non-State Actors in International Relations
  • International Law and Its Application in Conflict Zones
  • Arms Control Agreements and Nuclear Proliferation
  • International Trade Agreements and Economic Diplomacy
  • International Environmental Agreements and Climate Change
  • Cybersecurity Threats in the Digital Age
  • Refugee Crises and Forced Migration on the Global Stage
  • Geopolitics of Energy Resources
  • Peacekeeping Operations and Conflict Prevention
  • Global Health Diplomacy and Pandemic Response
  • The Role of Intelligence Agencies in International Relations
  • The Changing Dynamics of U.S.-China Relations

International Security

  • Cybersecurity Threats and Global Security
  • Arms Control and Nuclear Non-Proliferation
  • Regional Conflict and Security Implications
  • Humanitarian Interventions and Security Dilemmas
  • Intelligence Sharing and National Security
  • Environmental Security and Resource Conflicts
  • Non-State Actors in Global Security
  • Maritime Security and Freedom of Navigation
  • The Role of International Organizations in Global Security
  • Military Alliances and Collective Defense
  • Space Security and Militarization of Outer Space
  • Cyber Warfare and State-Sponsored Hacking
  • Security Challenges in Post-Conflict Zones
  • Refugee Crises and Security Implications
  • Emerging Technologies and Security Risks
  • Energy Security and Geopolitical Tensions
  • Food Security and Global Agricultural Policies
  • Biological and Chemical Weapons Proliferation
  • Climate Change and Security Threats

Latin American Politics

  • Populism in Latin American Politics
  • Drug Trafficking and Security Challenges
  • Political Instability and Regime Changes
  • Indigenous Movements and Political Representation
  • Corruption Scandals and Governance Issues
  • Environmental Politics and Conservation Efforts
  • Social Movements and Protests in Latin America
  • Economic Inequality and Poverty Reduction Strategies
  • Human Rights Violations and Accountability
  • The Role of the United States in Latin American Politics
  • Regional Integration and Trade Agreements
  • Gender Equality and Women in Politics
  • Land Reform and Agrarian Policies
  • Indigenous Rights and Land Conflicts
  • Media Freedom and Political Discourse
  • Migration Patterns and Regional Impacts
  • Authoritarian Regimes and Democratic Backsliding
  • Drug Legalization Debates in Latin America
  • Religious Influence in Politics
  • Latin American Diplomacy and International Relations
  • Law and Courts
  • Judicial Independence and the Rule of Law
  • Constitutional Interpretation and Originalism
  • Supreme Court Decision-Making and Precedent
  • Legal Ethics and Professional Responsibility
  • Criminal Justice Reform and Sentencing Policies
  • Civil Rights Litigation and Legal Activism
  • International Law and Its Application in Domestic Courts
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms
  • The Role of Judges in Shaping Public Policy
  • Access to Justice and Legal Aid Programs
  • Gender Bias in Legal Systems
  • Intellectual Property Rights and Legal Challenges
  • Immigration Law and Border Control
  • Environmental Law and Sustainability
  • Corporate Governance and Legal Compliance
  • Privacy Rights in the Digital Age
  • Family Law and Custody Disputes
  • Law and Technology: Legal Issues in AI and Robotics
  • Legal Education and Training of Lawyers
  • Legal Pluralism and Customary Law Systems
  • Legislative Studies
  • The Role of Legislative Bodies in Policy-Making
  • Parliamentary Systems vs. Presidential Systems
  • Legislative Oversight and Government Accountability
  • Party Politics and Legislative Behavior
  • Committee Structures and Decision-Making Processes
  • Electoral Systems and Their Impact on Legislation
  • Minority Rights and Representation in Legislatures
  • Lobbying and Interest Group Influence on Legislators
  • Legislative Ethics and Codes of Conduct
  • The Evolution of Legislative Bodies in Modern Democracies
  • Legislative Responses to Crises and Emergencies
  • Legislative Innovations and Reforms
  • Legislative Responsiveness to Public Opinion
  • Legislative Term Limits and Their Effects
  • Gender Parity in Legislative Representation
  • Legislative Coalitions and Majority Building
  • Legislative Role in Budgetary Processes
  • Legislative Oversight of Intelligence Agencies
  • Subnational Legislatures and Regional Autonomy
  • Comparative Analysis of Legislative Systems

Middle Eastern Politics

  • The Arab Spring and Political Transformations
  • Sectarianism and Conflict in the Middle East
  • Authoritarianism and Political Repression
  • The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and Peace Efforts
  • Oil Politics and Resource-Driven Conflicts
  • Terrorism and Insurgency in the Middle East
  • Foreign Interventions and Proxy Wars
  • Human Rights Abuses and Accountability
  • Religious Politics and Extremism
  • Migration and Refugees in the Middle East
  • Women’s Rights and Gender Equality
  • Political Islam and Islamist Movements
  • Water Scarcity and Regional Tensions
  • Media and Censorship in Middle Eastern States
  • Kurdish Politics and Autonomy Movements
  • Sectarianism and Its Impact on State Structures
  • Economic Challenges and Youth Unemployment
  • Environmental Issues and Sustainability
  • Iran’s Role in Regional Politics
  • Middle Eastern Diplomacy and Global Relations

Nation and State

  • National Identity and Its Influence on Statehood
  • Secession Movements and the Question of Statehood
  • Stateless Nations and the Right to Self-Determination
  • State-Building in Post-Conflict Zones
  • Failed States and International Interventions
  • Ethnic Nationalism and Nation-Building
  • Federalism and Devolution of Powers
  • State Symbols and Nationalism
  • Nationalism and Economic Policies
  • Colonial Legacy and the Formation of Nations
  • Territorial Disputes and State Sovereignty
  • Ethnic Minorities and Their Political Rights
  • Globalization and the Erosion of Statehood
  • Nationalism in the Era of Transnationalism
  • Nationalist Movements and Regional Autonomy
  • The Role of Education in Shaping National Identity
  • National Symbols and Their Political Significance
  • Migration and Its Impact on National Identity
  • Cultural Diversity and Nation-Building Challenges
  • The Role of Language in Defining Nationhood

Political Behavior

  • Voter Turnout and Political Participation Rates
  • Political Socialization and Civic Engagement
  • Partisan Loyalty and Voting Behavior
  • Political Trust and Public Opinion
  • Political Apathy and Its Causes
  • Political Mobilization Strategies
  • Protest Movements and Activism
  • Electoral Behavior and Decision-Making
  • Political Communication and Information Sources
  • Political Social Networks and Online Activism
  • Political Behavior of Youth and Generational Differences
  • Political Behavior of Minority Groups
  • Gender and Political Participation
  • Social Media Influence on Political Behavior
  • Public Opinion Polling and Its Impact
  • Political Psychology and Behavioral Analysis
  • Political Behavior in Non-Democratic Systems
  • Voting Behavior in Swing States
  • Political Behavior in Times of Crisis
  • Political Behavior Research Methodologies

Political Change

  • Regime Change and Democratization
  • Revolution and Political Transformation
  • Transitional Justice and Post-Conflict Reconciliation
  • Political Leadership and Change Initiatives
  • Nonviolent Movements and Political Change
  • Social Movements and Policy Reforms
  • The Role of Technology in Political Change
  • Political Change in Authoritarian Regimes
  • Youth-Led Political Change Movements
  • Resistance Movements and Their Strategies
  • Cultural Movements and Political Change
  • Environmental Movements and Policy Impact
  • Economic Crisis and Political Change
  • International Influence on Political Change
  • Indigenous Movements and Political Empowerment
  • Women’s Movements and Gender-Driven Change
  • Grassroots Movements and Local Governance
  • The Impact of Global Events on Political Change
  • Political Change and Human Rights
  • Comparative Studies of Political Change

Political Communication

  • Media Influence on Political Attitudes
  • Political Advertising and Campaign Strategies
  • Political Rhetoric and Persuasion Techniques
  • Social Media and Political Discourse
  • Political Debates and Public Perception
  • Crisis Communication and Political Leadership
  • Media Ownership and Political Influence
  • Propaganda and Information Warfare
  • Fact-Checking and Media Accountability
  • News Framing and Agenda Setting
  • Political Satire and Public Opinion
  • Political Communication in Multicultural Societies
  • Crisis Communication and Government Response
  • Public Relations and Political Image Management
  • Political Talk Shows and Public Engagement
  • The Role of Polling in Political Communication
  • Speechwriting and Political Oratory
  • Media Literacy and Critical Thinking
  • Political Communication Ethics and Responsibility
  • Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Political Communication

Political Concepts

  • Democracy: Theories and Applications
  • Justice and Fairness in Political Systems
  • Power and Authority in Governance
  • Liberty and Individual Rights
  • Equality: Political, Social, and Economic Dimensions
  • Citizenship: Rights and Responsibilities
  • Sovereignty and the State
  • Representation and Political Legitimacy
  • Political Obligation and Consent
  • Rights vs. Welfare: A Philosophical Debate
  • The Common Good in Political Philosophy
  • Social Contract Theories and Political Order
  • Freedom of Speech and Political Discourse
  • Political Ideals and Utopian Visions
  • The Ethics of Political Decision-Making
  • Anarchy and Political Order
  • Nationalism and Patriotism as Political Concepts
  • Political Realism vs. Idealism
  • Human Dignity and Political Values
  • Multiculturalism and Cultural Diversity in Politics

Political Economy

  • Economic Policies and Political Decision-Making
  • The Impact of Global Trade Agreements on National Economies
  • Income Inequality and Political Consequences
  • Taxation Policies and Political Debates
  • Political Influence on Central Banks
  • Economic Growth vs. Environmental Sustainability
  • Government Regulation of Financial Markets
  • Economic Crises and Political Responses
  • Populism and Economic Policies
  • Economic Development and Political Stability
  • Corruption and Economic Performance
  • Political Economy of Resource-Rich Nations
  • International Trade Wars and Political Tensions
  • Fiscal Policies and Government Budgets
  • Labor Market Policies and Political Alignment
  • Economic Ideologies and Political Parties
  • Globalization and Income Redistribution
  • Economic Populism and Public Opinion
  • Economic Forecasting and Political Decision-Making
  • Comparative Studies of Political Economies

Political Parties

  • Party Systems and Electoral Politics
  • Party Platforms and Policy Agendas
  • Coalition Politics and Party Alliances
  • Third Parties and Their Influence
  • Party Funding and Campaign Finance
  • Political Party Polarization
  • Party Identification and Voter Behavior
  • Party Primaries and Candidate Selection
  • Populist Parties and Their Impact
  • Minor Parties and Representation
  • Party Discipline and Legislative Behavior
  • Party Systems in Non-Democratic States
  • Party Leadership and Ideological Shifts
  • Party Membership and Activism
  • Youth Participation in Political Parties
  • Party Conventions and Political Strategy
  • Party Mergers and Dissolutions
  • Ethnic and Religious Parties in Multi-Cultural Societies
  • Popularity of Anti-Establishment Parties
  • Comparative Studies of Political Party Systems

Political Psychology

  • Political Attitudes and Ideological Beliefs
  • Personality Traits and Political Preferences
  • Political Socialization and Identity Formation
  • Political Trust and Distrust
  • Group Psychology and Political Behavior
  • The Role of Emotions in Political Decision-Making
  • Cognitive Biases and Political Judgment
  • Political Persuasion and Communication
  • Political Polarization and Social Identity
  • Fear and Political Behavior
  • Voter Apathy and Psychological Factors
  • Motivated Reasoning in Politics
  • Political Stereotypes and Prejudices
  • Political Leadership and Charisma
  • Political Participation and Civic Psychology
  • Mass Movements and Crowd Psychology
  • Political Stress and Mental Health
  • The Psychology of Political Extremism
  • Political Tolerance and Intolerance
  • Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Political Psychology

Political Theory

  • Theories of Justice and Equality
  • Democratic Theory and Political Legitimacy
  • Social Contract Theories in Political Philosophy
  • The Ethics of Political Leadership
  • Political Authority and Obedience
  • Rights and Liberties in Political Theory
  • Political Utopias and Ideal Societies
  • Power and Its Distribution in Political Thought
  • Political Liberalism vs. Communitarianism
  • The Role of Consent in Governance
  • Political Anarchism and Stateless Societies
  • The Philosophy of Political Revolution
  • Political Philosophy and Human Rights
  • Theories of Political Representation
  • Feminist Political Theory and Gender Equality
  • Cosmopolitanism and Global Justice
  • Political Conservatism and Traditionalism
  • Postmodernism and Deconstruction in Political Theory
  • Critical Theory and Social Change
  • Comparative Political Theories

Politics and Society

  • The Societal Impact of Welfare Policies
  • Environmental Policies and Sustainable Societies
  • Social Movements and Their Political Goals
  • Education Policies and Social Equity
  • Healthcare Policies and Public Health
  • Criminal Justice Policies and Social Inequality
  • Immigration Policies and Integration Challenges
  • Social Media and Political Activism
  • Identity Politics and Social Cohesion
  • Economic Policies and Income Distribution
  • Civil Society and Political Engagement
  • Social Capital and Political Participation
  • Family Policies and Social Values
  • Multiculturalism and Cultural Diversity
  • Social Inclusion and Exclusion in Politics
  • Urbanization and Political Dynamics
  • Social Stratification and Political Behavior
  • Aging Populations and Policy Implications
  • Social Norms and Political Change
  • Cross-Cultural Studies of Politics and Society

Politics of Oppression

  • Political Repression and Human Rights Violations
  • The Role of Mass Media in Oppression
  • Authoritarian Regimes and Dissent
  • Gender-Based Oppression and Activism
  • State Surveillance and Privacy Rights
  • Indigenous Rights and Anti-Oppression Movements
  • Political Exile and Dissident Communities
  • Censorship and Freedom of Expression
  • Political Violence and Resistance
  • Ethnic Conflict and Oppressed Minorities
  • The Psychology of Oppression and Compliance
  • Political Persecution and International Responses
  • Refugees and Asylum Politics
  • Oppression in Cyber-Space
  • Socioeconomic Oppression and Inequality
  • Historical Perspectives on Political Oppression
  • Anti-Oppression Legislation and Human Rights Advocacy
  • Discrimination and the Law
  • The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Oppression
  • Comparative Studies of Oppressive Regimes

Public Administration

  • Bureaucratic Accountability and Transparency
  • Public Sector Reform and Modernization
  • Administrative Ethics and Integrity
  • Performance Measurement in Public Administration
  • E-Government and Digital Transformation
  • Public-Private Partnerships in Service Delivery
  • Administrative Decision-Making and Policy Implementation
  • Leadership and Change Management in the Public Sector
  • Civil Service Systems and Human Resource Management
  • Administrative Law and Legal Challenges
  • Emergency Management and Crisis Response
  • Local Government and Municipal Administration
  • Public Budgeting and Financial Management
  • Public Administration and Social Welfare Programs
  • Environmental Administration and Sustainability
  • Healthcare Administration and Policy
  • Public Diplomacy and International Relations
  • Administrative Responsiveness and Citizen Engagement
  • Public Administration in Developing Nations
  • Comparative Public Administration Studies

Public Policy

  • Policy Analysis and Evaluation
  • The Role of Think Tanks in Policy Formulation
  • Policy Implementation Challenges and Solutions
  • Policy Advocacy and Lobbying
  • Healthcare Policy and Access to Medical Services
  • Education Policy and Curriculum Development
  • Social Welfare Policies and Poverty Alleviation
  • Environmental Policy and Conservation Efforts
  • Technology and Innovation Policy
  • Immigration Policy and Border Control
  • Security and Defense Policy
  • Transportation and Infrastructure Policy
  • Energy Policy and Sustainability
  • Foreign Aid and Development Policies
  • Taxation Policy and Revenue Generation
  • Criminal Justice Policy and Sentencing Reform
  • Trade Policy and Economic Growth
  • Drug Policy and Harm Reduction Strategies
  • Social and Cultural Policy Initiatives
  • Comparative Policy Studies

Race/Ethnicity, and Politics

  • Racial Discrimination and Political Activism
  • Ethnic Conflict and Identity Politics
  • Minority Rights and Representation
  • Racial Profiling and Policing
  • Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity
  • Indigenous Rights and Autonomy Movements
  • Racial and Ethnic Voting Patterns
  • The Role of Race in Political Campaigns
  • Immigration Policies and Racial Implications
  • Intersectionality and Multiple Identities
  • Ethnic Diversity and Social Cohesion
  • Slavery, Colonialism, and Historical Injustices
  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare
  • Education and Racial Achievement Gaps
  • Media Representation and Stereotyping
  • Hate Crimes and Extremist Movements
  • Reparations and Compensation for Historical Wrongs
  • Cultural Appropriation and Identity Politics
  • Multiculturalism and Integration Policies
  • Comparative Studies of Race and Politics

Religion and Politics

  • The Role of Religious Institutions in Politics
  • Religious Freedom and Secularism
  • Faith-Based Advocacy and Social Change
  • Religion and International Relations
  • Religious Extremism and Terrorism
  • Religion and Gender Equality
  • Religious Minorities and Discrimination
  • Political Parties and Religious Affiliation
  • Religion and Environmental Ethics
  • Interfaith Dialogue and Peacebuilding
  • Religious Ethics and Public Policy
  • Religion in Education and Curriculum Debates
  • Charitable and Faith-Based Organizations
  • Religious Symbols and Public Spaces
  • Sacred Texts and Political Interpretations
  • Pilgrimage and Political Pilgrimage
  • Religion and Human Rights
  • Religious Conversion and Apostasy
  • Faith and Political Leadership
  • Comparative Studies of Religion and Politics

Electoral Systems

  • The Impact of Electoral Systems on Representation
  • Proportional Representation vs. First-Past-the-Post
  • Gerrymandering and Electoral Manipulation
  • Electronic Voting and Election Security
  • Ranked Choice Voting Systems
  • Voter Turnout and Participation Rates
  • Minority Representation in Electoral Systems
  • Campaign Finance and Electoral Outcomes
  • Voter Registration and Access to Voting
  • Electoral Reforms and Political Parties
  • Voting Behavior and Demographic Patterns
  • Gender and Electoral Politics
  • Electoral Systems in Post-Conflict Nations
  • Hybrid Electoral Systems
  • Electoral Justice and Redistricting
  • Political Parties and Coalition Building
  • Election Observation and International Standards
  • Electoral Systems and Ethnic Conflict
  • Voter Suppression and Disenfranchisement
  • Electoral Systems in Non-Democratic Regimes

Rights and Freedoms

  • Freedom of Speech and Censorship
  • Civil Liberties in Times of Crisis
  • Religious Freedom and Freedom of Worship
  • LGBTQ+ Rights and Advocacy
  • The Right to Protest and Assembly
  • Racial Profiling and Discrimination
  • Right to Bear Arms and Gun Control
  • Refugee Rights and Asylum Seekers
  • Indigenous Rights and Land Sovereignty
  • Rights of the Accused and Due Process
  • Access to Healthcare as a Human Right
  • Education as a Fundamental Right
  • Economic Rights and Income Inequality
  • Children’s Rights and Child Protection
  • Disability Rights and Accessibility
  • Prisoner Rights and Criminal Justice Reform
  • Freedom of the Press and Media Ethics
  • Comparative Human Rights Frameworks

Science/Technology and Politics

  • Cybersecurity and Election Interference
  • Surveillance Technologies and Privacy
  • Artificial Intelligence in Governance
  • Internet Regulation and Net Neutrality
  • Space Exploration and International Cooperation
  • Ethical Implications of Biotechnology
  • Climate Science and Environmental Policy
  • Digital Diplomacy and International Relations
  • Technology in Disaster Management
  • Data Protection and Online Privacy
  • Social Media and Political Influence
  • Bioethics and Genetic Engineering
  • Ethical Considerations in Artificial Intelligence
  • Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation
  • Ethical Dilemmas in Scientific Research
  • Quantum Computing and National Security
  • Robotics and the Future of Labor
  • E-Government Initiatives and Digital Services
  • Environmental Ethics and Sustainability
  • Technology Transfer in Developing Nations

War and Peace

  • Conflict Resolution and Diplomacy
  • Peacebuilding and Post-Conflict Reconstruction
  • Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Agreements
  • Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Races
  • Cyber Warfare and International Law
  • Refugee Crises and Forced Displacement
  • United Nations Peacekeeping Missions
  • War Crimes and International Tribunals
  • Security Alliances and Collective Defense
  • Civil Wars and State Fragmentation
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction and Global Security
  • Peace Accords and Conflict Resolution
  • Conflict Journalism and Media Coverage
  • Civilian Protection and Human Rights in Conflict Zones
  • The Ethics of Humanitarian Aid
  • Regional Conflicts and Regional Organizations
  • Conflict-Induced Migration and Refugee Policies
  • The Role of Religion in Peace and Conflict

This comprehensive list merely scratches the surface of the intriguing topics available within the realm of political science. From the intricacies of constitutional law to the dynamics of Asian politics and the complexities of comparative analysis, the field of political science offers a rich tapestry of subjects for your research pursuits. We encourage you to explore these topics, refine your interests, and embark on an academic journey that not only expands your knowledge but also contributes to the broader discourse on politics and governance. As you navigate this list, remember that the key to a successful research paper is your passion for the subject matter. Choose a topic that resonates with you, and let your curiosity drive your exploration of political science research paper topics.

Browse More Political Science Topics:

  • African Politics and Society
  • American Politics and Society
  • Asian Politics and Society
  • Culture, Media, and Language
  • European Politics and Society
  • Federalism and Local Politics
  • Institutions and Checks and Balances
  • International Security and Arms Control
  • Latin American Politics and Society

The Range of Political Science Research Paper Topics


Political science, the systematic study of politics and government, provides valuable insights into the complex world of governance, policy-making, and international relations. For students of political science, selecting the right research paper topic can be the key to unlocking a deeper understanding of these intricate issues. This page serves as a comprehensive guide to the rich array of Political Science Research Paper Topics available, offering a detailed overview of the field and highlighting its significant contributions to society.

Exploring Political Science

Political science plays a pivotal role in deciphering the dynamics of the modern world. By analyzing the behavior of individuals, groups, and institutions in political settings, it seeks to unravel the complexities of governance and decision-making. This discipline’s significance extends far beyond the classroom, as it directly informs public policy, governance structures, and international relations.

The research conducted within political science serves as the foundation for crafting effective policies and addressing pressing global challenges. Governments and organizations worldwide rely on the expertise of political scientists to provide evidence-based recommendations and solutions. Whether it’s designing social welfare programs, analyzing international conflicts, or studying voter behavior, political science research is at the forefront of shaping the way societies function.

The Essence of Political Science

Political science is the intellectual foundation of modern political analysis and policy-making. It serves as a bridge between theory and practice, helping individuals understand not only the “what” but also the “why” and “how” of political phenomena. By examining political behavior, institutions, and ideologies, this field equips students with the tools to navigate the complexities of governance and to critically evaluate the policies that shape our lives.

One of the defining features of political science is its interdisciplinary nature. It draws from various disciplines, including history, economics, sociology, psychology, and philosophy, to offer a holistic understanding of political processes. For students passionate about examining the social and political forces that shape our world, political science is a vibrant and intellectually rewarding field of study.

The Relevance of Political Science Research

Political science research is not confined to academic ivory towers; it has a profound impact on society. The evidence-based insights generated by political scientists guide governments, inform public discourse, and influence policy decisions. Research on topics such as voting behavior helps in understanding democratic processes, while studies on international relations contribute to strategies for peacekeeping and diplomacy.

Political scientists also play a crucial role in examining and addressing contemporary global challenges. They explore topics such as climate change, migration, and human rights, offering valuable insights that can shape policies and international cooperation. The relevance of political science research extends to issues of governance, accountability, and the promotion of democratic values.

Range of Research Paper Topics

Within the vast realm of political science, there exists a diverse range of research paper topics that cater to different interests and perspectives. These topics encompass various subfields, each shedding light on distinct aspects of political behavior, institutions, and ideologies. Here, we delve into some of the intriguing areas that can serve as the foundation for your research endeavors:

Democracy and Democratization : The study of democratic systems and processes is a cornerstone of political science. Research in this area may explore topics such as the challenges of democratization in emerging nations, the role of media in shaping public opinion, or the impact of electoral systems on representation.

Political Corruption : Understanding and combating political corruption is critical for the integrity of governments worldwide. Research topics may range from analyzing corruption’s economic and social consequences to exploring strategies for prevention and enforcement.

Globalization and Politics : In an increasingly interconnected world, globalization profoundly influences political dynamics. Research in this area can examine issues like the impact of globalization on national sovereignty, the role of international organizations, or the ethics of global trade.

Political Ideologies : The realm of political ideologies delves into the philosophies and belief systems that underpin political movements and parties. Topics may include the examination of specific ideologies such as liberalism, conservatism, or socialism, and their historical evolution.

Science/Technology and Politics : The intersection of science, technology, and politics is a fertile ground for research. This area covers topics like the influence of digital platforms on political discourse, ethical considerations in artificial intelligence, and the role of technology in election campaigns.

War and Peace : The study of international conflict and peacekeeping efforts remains a central concern in political science. Research may focus on issues like the causes of armed conflicts, peace negotiation strategies, or the ethics of humanitarian interventions.

Religion and Politics : Religion’s impact on political behavior and policies is a subject of ongoing debate. Research in this area can explore the role of religious institutions in politics, the influence of faith on voting patterns, or interfaith relations in diverse societies.

Race/Ethnicity, and Politics : The intersection of race, ethnicity, and politics raises critical questions about representation and equality. Research topics may encompass racial disparities in political participation, the impact of identity politics, or the dynamics of minority-majority relations.

Public Policy and Administration : The field of public policy and administration involves the study of how policies are formulated, implemented, and evaluated. Topics may include healthcare policy, environmental regulations, or the role of bureaucracy in shaping public programs.

International Relations : International relations examine interactions between states and the complexities of the global order. Research topics may focus on diplomacy, international organizations, global conflicts, or the challenges of international cooperation.

Human Rights and Justice : The study of human rights and justice explores ethical dilemmas and legal frameworks. Research may encompass issues like refugee rights, humanitarian law, or the role of international courts in addressing human rights abuses.

Environmental Politics : In an era of environmental challenges, political science research on environmental politics is vital. Topics may cover climate change policy, sustainable development, or the politics of natural resource management.

Evaluating Political Science Research Topics

As students explore these diverse topics, it’s essential to consider various factors when choosing a research paper topic. Here are some key considerations:

  • Personal Interest : Select a topic that genuinely interests you. Your passion for the subject matter will fuel your research efforts and maintain your motivation throughout the project.
  • Relevance : Consider the relevance of your chosen topic to current political debates, policies, or global issues. Research that addresses pressing concerns often has a more significant impact.
  • Feasibility : Assess the availability of data, research materials, and access to experts or primary sources. Ensure that your chosen topic is researchable within your constraints.
  • Originality : While it’s not necessary to reinvent the wheel, aim to contribute something new or offer a fresh perspective on existing debates or issues.
  • Scope : Define the scope of your research clearly. Determine whether your topic is too broad or too narrow and adjust it accordingly.
  • Methodology : Think about the research methods you’ll use. Will you conduct surveys, interviews, content analysis, or use historical data? Ensure that your chosen methods align with your topic.
  • Ethical Considerations : Be mindful of ethical considerations, especially when dealing with sensitive topics or human subjects. Ensure that your research adheres to ethical standards.

Political science, as a multifaceted discipline, holds immense relevance in today’s world. Its research not only informs governance and policy-making but also empowers individuals to engage critically with the complex political issues of our time. The spectrum of Political Science Research Paper Topics is vast, reflecting the diversity of political phenomena and ideas.

As students embark on their research journeys in political science, they have the opportunity to make meaningful contributions to our understanding of governance, society, and international relations. By choosing topics that resonate with their interests and align with the pressing issues of the day, students can truly make a difference in the field of political science.

In closing, we encourage students to explore the wealth of Political Science Research Paper Topics, delve deep into their chosen areas of study, and harness the power of knowledge to effect positive change in the political landscape.

Choosing Political Science Research Paper Topics

Selecting the right research topic is a crucial step in the journey of academic inquiry. It sets the tone for your entire research paper, influencing its direction, depth, and impact. When it comes to political science research paper topics, the stakes are high, as the field encompasses a wide range of subjects that can shape our understanding of governance, policy-making, and international relations. In this section, we’ll explore ten valuable tips to help you choose political science research paper topics that align with your interests, resonate with current debates, and provide ample research opportunities.

10 Tips for Choosing Political Science Research Paper Topics:

  • Follow Your Passion : Begin your quest for the right research topic by considering your interests. Passion for a subject often fuels motivation and ensures your engagement throughout the research process. Whether it’s human rights, international diplomacy, or environmental policy, choose a topic that genuinely excites you.
  • Stay Informed : Keep abreast of current political events, debates, and emerging issues. Reading newspapers, academic journals, and reputable websites can help you identify contemporary topics that are both relevant and research-worthy. Being informed about current affairs is essential for crafting timely and impactful research.
  • Explore Gaps in Existing Literature : Conduct a thorough literature review to identify gaps or areas where further research is needed. This not only helps you understand the existing discourse but also provides insights into unexplored avenues for your research. Building on or critiquing existing research can contribute significantly to the field.
  • Consider Policy Relevance : Think about the practical relevance of your chosen topic. How does it connect to real-world policy challenges? Research that addresses pressing policy issues tends to have a more substantial impact and can attract the attention of policymakers and practitioners.
  • Delve into Comparative Studies : Comparative politics offers a wealth of research opportunities by allowing you to examine political systems, policies, or issues across different countries or regions. Comparative studies can yield valuable insights into the impact of context and culture on political outcomes.
  • Narrow or Broaden Your Focus : Be mindful of the scope of your research topic. Some topics may be too broad to cover comprehensively in a single paper, while others may be too narrow, limiting available research material. Strike a balance by defining your research question or problem statement clearly.
  • Consult Your Professors and Peers : Don’t hesitate to seek guidance from your professors or peers. They can offer valuable insights, suggest relevant literature, and help you refine your research question. Collaboration and mentorship can significantly enhance your research experience.
  • Evaluate Feasibility : Assess the feasibility of your chosen topic. Consider the availability of data, research materials, and access to experts or primary sources. Ensure that your research is doable within your constraints, including time and resources.
  • Embrace Interdisciplinary Perspectives : Political science often intersects with other disciplines, such as sociology, economics, or environmental science. Explore interdisciplinary angles to enrich your research. Collaborating with experts from related fields can lead to innovative insights.
  • Ethical Considerations : When selecting a research topic, be mindful of ethical considerations, especially if your research involves human subjects or sensitive issues. Ensure that your research adheres to ethical standards and obtains the necessary approvals.

Choosing the right political science research paper topic is a dynamic process that requires reflection, exploration, and critical thinking. By following these ten tips, you can navigate the landscape of political science topics with confidence. Remember that your research topic is not set in stone; it can evolve as you delve deeper into your studies and gain new insights.

As you embark on your research journey, keep in mind that the topics you choose have the potential to contribute to our understanding of the political world, inform policy decisions, and shape the future of governance. Embrace the opportunity to explore, question, and discover, for it is through research that we illuminate the path to progress in the field of political science.

Choose your topics wisely, engage in meaningful inquiry, and let your passion for political science drive your pursuit of knowledge.

How to Write a Political Science Research Paper

Writing a research paper in political science is a distinctive journey that allows you to explore complex issues, develop critical thinking skills, and contribute to the body of knowledge in the field. Effective research paper writing is not only about conveying your ideas clearly but also about constructing a compelling argument supported by rigorous evidence. In this section, we’ll delve into ten valuable tips that will help you craft high-quality political science research papers, enabling you to communicate your findings effectively and make a meaningful impact.

10 Tips for Writing Political Science Research Papers:

  • Thoroughly Understand the Assignment : Before you start writing, carefully read and understand your assignment guidelines. Clarify any doubts with your professor, ensuring you have a clear grasp of the expectations regarding format, length, and content.
  • Choose a Strong Thesis Statement : Your thesis statement is the heart of your research paper. It should be clear, concise, and arguable. Ensure that it presents a central argument or question that your paper will address.
  • Conduct In-Depth Research : A robust research paper relies on well-sourced evidence. Explore academic journals, books, reputable websites, and primary sources related to your topic. Take detailed notes and keep track of your sources for accurate citations.
  • Structure Your Paper Effectively : Organize your paper logically, with a coherent introduction, body, and conclusion. Each section should flow smoothly, building upon the previous one. Use headings and subheadings to guide your reader.
  • Craft a Captivating Introduction : Your introduction should grab the reader’s attention and provide context for your research. It should introduce your thesis statement and outline the main points you will address.
  • Develop a Compelling Argument : Present a clear and well-reasoned argument throughout your paper. Each paragraph should support your thesis statement, with evidence and analysis that reinforces your position.
  • Cite Your Sources Properly : Accurate citations are crucial in political science research papers. Follow the citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago) specified in your assignment guidelines. Pay careful attention to in-text citations and the bibliography.
  • Edit and Proofread Diligently : Writing is rewriting. After completing your initial draft, take the time to revise and edit your paper. Check for clarity, coherence, grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. Consider seeking feedback from peers or professors.
  • Stay Objective and Avoid Bias : Political science research requires objectivity. Avoid personal bias and ensure that your analysis is based on evidence and sound reasoning. Acknowledge counterarguments and address them respectfully.
  • Craft a Strong Conclusion : Summarize your main points and restate your thesis in the conclusion. Discuss the implications of your research and suggest areas for future study. Leave your reader with a lasting impression.

Writing a political science research paper is not just an academic exercise; it’s an opportunity to engage with critical issues, contribute to knowledge, and develop essential skills. By applying these ten tips, you can navigate the complexities of research paper writing with confidence.

As you embark on your journey to craft high-quality papers, remember that effective communication is the key to making a meaningful impact in the realm of political science. Your research has the potential to shape discussions, influence policies, and contribute to our collective understanding of the political world.

Embrace the writing process, celebrate your achievements, and view each paper as a stepping stone in your academic and intellectual growth. Whether you’re exploring global diplomacy, dissecting political ideologies, or analyzing policy decisions, your research papers can be a force for positive change in the world of politics.

As you tackle the challenges and opportunities of political science research, remember that the knowledge you gain and the skills you develop are valuable assets that will serve you well in your academic and professional journey. Write with passion, rigor, and integrity, and let your research papers be a testament to your commitment to advancing the field of political science.

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  • In-Depth Research : Thorough research is the foundation of a strong research paper. Our writers delve into a vast array of academic sources, journals, and authoritative texts to gather the evidence necessary to support your thesis.
  • Custom Formatting : Proper formatting is essential in political science research papers. We adhere to the citation style specified in your assignment guidelines, whether it’s APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, or Harvard, ensuring your paper is correctly formatted.
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List of Political Science Research Topics 2023

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Princi Rai ,

Oct 19, 2023

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Political Science research topics are significant geo-political issues encompassing all the legislations, administration, policy frameworks, comparative politics, defence and safety measures of the nation.

List of Political Science Research Topics 2023

Political science research topics include topics related to international relations, domestic relations, comparative politics, public administration, public policy, political behaviour, public law, and security studies of the countries associated. Political research topics hold significance as they take into consideration the entire issues revolving in the states.

Table of Contents

  • Political Science Research Topics on International Relations
  • Political Science Research Topics on Domestic Relations
  • Political Science Research Topics on Comparative Politics

Political Science Research Topics on Public Administration

  • Political Science Research Topics on Public Policy
  • Political Science Research Topics on Political Behavior
  • Political Science Research Topics on Public Law
  • Political Science Research Topics on Security Studies

1. Political Science Research Topics on International Relations

International relations holds a strong ground in a country's foreign policy making, few relevant political science research topics are listed below for students:

  • Impact of Economic Interdependence on International Conflict
  • Comparative Analysis of India and US Foreign Policies in India
  • International Human Rights and National Sovereignty during COVID-19
  • Role of Decentralised Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) in International Politics
  • Effectiveness of International Regimes in Global Challenges
  • Comparative Analysis of Diplomacy and Military Force in India
  • Impact of Globalization and Multinational Corporations
  • Role of International Aid Organizations in the India
  • Amnesty International Controversies
  • Global Poverty Causes

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2. Political Science Research Topics on Domestic Relations

Research topics related to domestic relations in political science includes a wide range of issues and policies within a country. Here are some political science research topics related to domestic relations:

  • Public Opinion of the Black Lives Matter Movement Across the Political Spectrum
  • Prospective Candidates for the Upcoming 2024 Elections
  • Revisions Needed for the Indian Constitution
  • Rights to Privacy on the Internet
  • Reforming the Two-Party Political System
  • Politicians' Responsibility in Combating Misinformation
  • Understanding the Notion of "Freedom" in the India
  • Role of Ideology in Indian Foreign Policy and International Relations

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3. Political Science Research Topics on Comparative Politics

Research topics in comparative politics includes all the issues and the analysis of political institutions, and policies frameworks. Here are some political science research topics

 in the field of comparative politics:

  • Digital Technology Impact in India Public Administration
  • Public-Private Partnerships in India's Public Services
  • Civil Society Oversight in India
  • Environmentalism's Influence on Indian Public Policy
  • Public Administration and Citizen Engagement in Schools
  • Comparative Analysis of Public Administration Efficiency
  • Collaborative Leadership in Public Administration
  • Diversity and Inclusion in Police Services
  • Corrupt Public Administration in India
  • Public Administration and Civil Rights in India
  • Public Policy Impact on Income Inequality in India
  • Addressing Climate Change in India: Legal, Economic, and Social Instruments
  • Role of Interest Groups in Shaping Land-Use Policy
  • Globalization's Influence on Climate Change Policies in India
  • Public Policy and Social Justice in Tertiary Education in the India

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4. Political Science Research Topics on Public Administration

Research topics in public administration include the critical analysis of government policies, public organisations, and the bureaucracy. Here are political science research topics

 in the field of public administration:

  • Ethics in prosecution by top officials
  • A comparison of political systems and social disparities is used to analyse democracy and inequality.
  • Implementing Immediate Changes to the Legislative Process with Federalism Traces
  • Should one view religion as a source of social power?
  • Social Media's Impact on Democracy: An Analysis of How It Shapes Political Discourse
  • Social movements after the war
  • Comparing Federal Crimes in Europe and America: Is Pardoning Criminals Acceptable?
  • Political Reforms and Innovations: Reimagining Democracy in the Post-Epidemic World
  • current leaders International Dependence
  • Cyberwarfare's Effects on Security and International Relations
  • Political & armed conflict differences
  • Corruption Prevention Techniques
  • Democracy's Evolution: How Digital Technology Affects Democratic Procedures
  • Making Quick Changes to the Legislation Process
  • Health Policy Impact on Diabetes Management in Developing Countries
  • Evidence-Based Policymaking for Invasive Invertebrates in India
  • Dietary Public Policies in Multicultural Countries
  • Public Policy Impact on Urbanization in Rural India
  • Media and Public Opinion in Transport Policy in India

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5. Political Science Research Topics on Public Policy

Public policy research topics involve the study of government policies,legislations and the implementation of laws, and their impact on society. Listed below are some political science research topics in the field of public policy:

  • Civil War Peculiarities & Causes
  • Online Communities & Protest Movements
  • Government Repression in Syria
  • Mexico and the Immigrant Crisis 
  • Afghanistan Conflict 
  • Ukraine Divided - Political Powers at Play
  • Conflict Resolution Techniques in Yemen
  • Iraq War War Crimes Legacy
  • Central African Republic Rebellion Causes
  • Reagan's Political Agenda

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6. Political Science Research Topics on Public Law

Research topics in public law are all the legislations, rules and regulations, constitutional, judicial laws, and their impact on society. Listed below are some political science research topics in the field of public law:

  • Analysis of the arguments in judicial reviews
  • 1998 Human Rights Act
  • law relating to public safety Interpretation of the law
  • renowned lawmakers from European legal history
  • Common Morality & Criminal Law
  • Complaints Regarding Civil Liberties & National Security
  • A Commercial Exploitation of Privacy Law?
  • Psychology of Gender Bias in Custody Conflicts
  • Post-Conflict Justice Inequality 
  • Socio-Economic Preferences in Police Interrogation

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7. Political Science Research Topics on Security Studies

Research topics in security studies include all the relevant issues surrounding national security, international issues, and strategies to promote peace and stability across the globe. Here are some research topics in the field of security studies:

  • Conflicts in Post-War Nations Art Legacy
  • Conflicts with African Americans in Prison US Foreign Policy
  • Polaris Power Distribution
  • Security Leadership Conflicts Following 9/11
  • Iranian Oil War
  • Afghanistan Cooperation Techniques
  • A deal between the right and left-wing parties
  • Political Leaders and Their Individual Goals
  • Media bias in news reporting

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How to Choose the Right Political Science Dissertation Topic?

It's crucial to select the appropriate topic, which students can accomplish by learning more about politics. There's a lot to cover and a wide range of resources available,few tips to choose the right political science dissertation topics:.

  • Make an effort to stick to reasonably recent material and current trending issues.
  • Can opt for conflicting topics by delivering neutral opinions.
  • Choose a topic in which your interest and knowledge is adequate.
  • Try to keep your research paper topic original when coming up with it
  • Always look for the relevance of the topic.


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Research Topics & Ideas: Politics

100+ Politics-Related Research Ideas To Fast-Track Your Project

Political science research topics and ideas

Finding and choosing a strong research topic is the critical first step when it comes to crafting a high-quality dissertation or thesis. If you’ve landed on this post, chances are you’re looking for a politics-related research topic , but aren’t sure where to start. Here, we’ll explore a variety of politically-related research ideas across a range of disciplines, including political theory and philosophy, comparative politics, international relations, public administration and policy.

NB – This is just the start…

The topic ideation and evaluation process has multiple steps . In this post, we’ll kickstart the process by sharing some research topic ideas. This is the starting point, but to develop a well-defined research topic, you’ll need to identify a clear and convincing research gap , along with a well-justified plan of action to fill that gap.

If you’re new to the oftentimes perplexing world of research, or if this is your first time undertaking a formal academic research project, be sure to check out our free dissertation mini-course. Also, be sure to sign up for our free webinar that explores how to find a high-quality research topic from scratch.

Overview: Politics-Related Topics

  • Political theory and philosophy
  • Comparative politics
  • International relations
  • Public administration
  • Public policy
  • Examples of politics-related dissertations

Topics & Ideas: Political Theory

  • An analysis of the impact of feminism on political theory and the concept of citizenship in Saudi Arabia in the context of Vision 2030
  • A comparative study of the political philosophies of Marxism and liberalism and their influence on modern politics
  • An examination of how the Covid-19 pandemic affected the relationship between individual freedom and collective responsibility in political philosophy
  • A study of the impact of race and ethnicity on French political philosophy and the concept of justice
  • An exploration of the role of religion in political theory and its impact on secular democracy in the Middle East
  • A Review of Social contract theory, comparative analysis of the political philosophies of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau
  • A study of the concept of the common good in political philosophy and its relevance to the ongoing refugee crisis in Europe
  • An examination of the relationship between political power and the rule of law in developing African countries
  • A study of the impact of postmodernism on political theory and the concept of truth, a case study of the US
  • An exploration of the role of virtue in political philosophy and its impact on the assessment of moral character in political leaders

Topics & Ideas: Comparative Politics

  • A comparative study of different models of federalism and their impact on democratic governance: A case Study of South American federalist states
  • The impact of ethnic and religious diversity on political stability and democracy in developing countries, a review of literature from Africa
  • An analysis of the role of civil society in promoting democratic change in autocratic regimes: A case study in Sweden
  • A comparative examination of the impact of globalization on political institutions and processes in South America and Africa.
  • A study of the factors that contribute to successful democratization in authoritarian regimes, a review of the role of Elite-driven democratization
  • A comparison of the political and economic systems of China and India and their impact on social development
  • The impact of corruption on political institutions and democracy in South East Asia, a critical review
  • A comparative examination of the impact of majoritarian representation (winner-take-all) vs proportional representation on political representation and governance
  • An exploration of Multi-party systems in democratic countries and their impact on minority representation and policy-making.
  • A study of the factors that contribute to successful decentralization and regional autonomy, a case study of Spain

Research Topic Kickstarter - Need Help Finding A Research Topic?

Topics & Ideas: International Relations

  • A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of diplomacy and military force in resolving international conflicts in Central Africa.
  • The impact of globalization on the sovereignty of nation-states and the changing nature of international politics, a review of the role of Multinational Corporations
  • An examination of the role of international aid organizations in promoting peace, security, and development in the Middle East.
  • A study of the impact of economic interdependence on the likelihood of conflict in international relations: A critical review of weaponized interdependence
  • A comparative analysis of the foreign policies of the EU and the US and their impact on international stability in Africa
  • An exploration of the relationship between international human rights and national sovereignty during the Covid 19 pandemic
  • A study of the role of decentralized autonomous organizations (DAO)s in international politics and their impact on state behaviour
  • A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of international regimes in addressing global challenges such as climate change, arms control, and terrorism in Brazil
  • An examination of the impact of the rise of BRICS on the international system and global governance
  • A study of the role of ideology in shaping the foreign policies of states and the dynamics of international relations in the US

Webinar - How to find a research topic

Tops & Ideas: Public Administration

  • An analysis of the impact of digital technology on public administration and the delivery of public services in Estonia
  • A review of models of public-private partnerships and their impact on the delivery of public services in Ghana
  • An examination of the role of civil society organizations in monitoring and accountability of public administration in Papua New Guinea
  • A study of the impact of environmentalism as a political ideology on public administration and policy implementation in Germany
  • An exploration of the relationship between public administration and citizen engagement in the policy-making process, an exploration of gender identity concerns in schools
  • A comparative analysis of the efficiency and effectiveness of public administration, decentralisation and pay and employment reform in developing countries
  • A study of the role of collaborative leadership in public administration and its impact on organizational performance
  • A systematic review of the challenges and opportunities related to diversity and inclusion in police services
  • A study of the impact of corrupt public administration on economic development and regional growth in Eastern Europe
  • An exploration of the relationship between public administration and civil rights and liberties, including issues related to privacy and surveillance, a case study in South Korea

Research topic evaluator

Topics & Ideas: Public Policy

  • An analysis of the impacts of public policy on income inequality and poverty reduction in South Sudan
  • A comparative study of the effectiveness of legal and regulatory, economic and financial, and social and cultural instruments for addressing climate change in South Korea
  • An examination of the role of interest groups in shaping public policy and the policy-making process regarding land-use claims
  • A study of the impact of globalization on the development of public policies and programs for mitigating climate change in Singapore
  • An exploration of the relationship between public policy and social justice in tertiary education in the UAE
  • A comparative analysis of the impact of health policies for the management of diabetes on access to healthcare and health outcomes in developing countries
  • Exploring the role of evidence-based policymaking in the design and implementation of public policies for the management of invasive invertebrates in Australia
  • An examination of the challenges and opportunities of implementing educational dietary public policies in developing multicultural countries
  • A study of the impact of public policies on urbanization and urban development in rural Indonesia
  • An exploration of the role of media and public opinion in shaping public policy and the policy-making process in the transport industry of Malaysia

Examples: Politics Dissertations & Theses

While the ideas we’ve presented above are a decent starting point for finding a politics-related research topic, they are fairly generic and non-specific. So, it helps to look at actual dissertations and theses to see how this all comes together.

Below, we’ve included a selection of research projects from various politics-related degree programs to help refine your thinking. These are actual dissertations and theses, written as part of Master’s and PhD-level programs, so they can provide some useful insight as to what a research topic looks like in practice.

  • We, the Righteous Few: Immoral Actions of Fellow Partisans are Judged as Less Possible (Varnam, 2020)
  • Civilizing the State: Civil Society and the Politics of Primary Public Health Care Provision in Urban Brazil (Gibson, 2012)
  • Political regimes and minority language policies: evidence from Taiwan and southeast Asia (Wu, 2021)
  • The Feminist Third Wave: Social Reproduction, Feminism as Class Struggle, and Contemporary Women’s Movements (Angulo, 2019)
  • The Politics of Immigration under Authoritarianism (Joo, 2019)
  • The politics of digital platforms: Sour Dictionary, activist subjectivities, and contemporary cultures of resistance (Okten, 2019)
  • Vote choice and support for diverse candidates on the Boston City Council At-Large (Dolcimascolo, 2022)
  • The city agenda: local governance and national influence in the policy agenda, 1900-2020 (Shannon, 2022)
  • Turf wars: who supported measures to criminalize homelessness in Austin, Texas? (Bompiedi, 2021)
  • Do BITs Cause Opposition Between Investor Rights and Environmental Protection? (Xiong, 2022)
  • Revealed corruption and electoral accountability in Brazil: How politicians anticipate voting behavior (Diaz, 2021)
  • Intersectional Solidarity: The Political Consequences of a Consciousness of Race, Gender and Sexuality (Crowder, 2020)
  • The Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the Coalitional Representation of Latinxs in the U.S. House of Representatives (Munoz, 2019)

Looking at these titles, you can probably pick up that the research topics here are quite specific and narrowly-focused , compared to the generic ones presented earlier. In other words, to create a top-notch research topic, you must be precise and target a specific context with specific variables of interest . In other words, you need to identify a clear, well-justified research gap.

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230 Best Political Science Research Topics to Deal With

Political science is a complex and broad subject that deals with various aspects of politics and power at the domestic and international levels. It mainly focuses on the political ideologies, policies, activities, strategy, processes, behavior, and the associated laws and constitution. If you are a student who is pursuing a degree in political science, law, philosophy, sociology, or any other courses related to politics, then for your final assignment you may need political science research topics.

Do you want to write an excellent political science research paper? Are you searching for the best political science research topics? No worries! We know how difficult it is to find the right research topic when you are asked to select the topic on your own. So, to help you, in this blog post, we have shared a list of the best political science research topics along with the do’s and don’ts to be followed when writing a political science research paper.

List of the Best Political Science Research Topics

A good topic is all you need for writing a political research paper. Once you have selected an ideal political science research topic, you can go ahead and begin your research paper writing process. But when writing your political science research paper, make sure to keep the following things in mind.

  • Stick to one idea – one-paragraph rule.
  • Research any literature or similar projects related to your topic and gather information.
  • Provide facts with reliable academic sources.
  • Include statistics, data, or any evidence supporting your main points.
  • Before the conclusion part, include the counterargument paragraph.
  • When addressing sensitive points in your paper, never use a harsh tone.
  • Avoid portraying only one side of the issue.
  • Remain neutral when discussing political parties. Never show your favoritism.
  • Avoid too much quoting in the research paper.
  • Do not use any slang terms or colloquial language.

Political Science Research Topics

Political Science Research Topic Ideas

Choosing a political science topic for a research project is a challenging task. As political science is a wide subject, you can conduct research on any political-related areas such as international relations, comparative politics, public law, conflict resolution, public administration, mediation and negotiation, etc.

Political Science Research Topics

Listed below are a few interesting political science research topics for you to consider.

Go through the complete list and pick a topic of your interest.

Captivating Political Science Research Questions

  • What are the benefits of a democratic government?
  • Discuss the negative effects of anarchism.
  • How do social changes influence the politics in your country?
  • What makes a ruler a dictator?
  • Compare and contrast utilitarianism with egalitarianism
  • What gives legitimacy and authority in a democratic state?
  • Analyze the national politics of a country of your choice
  • Russia’s foreign policy towards Ukraine
  • Discuss public service motivation in the United States
  • Discuss signs of election fraud in the United States

International Relations Topics for Political Science Research Paper

  • An analysis of global security networks
  • International Monetary Fund Structure
  • NGO ethical guidelines
  • Global poverty causes
  • Arctic Circle Power Battles
  • Analyze one of the many religious wars.
  • Syrian conflict cause-effect
  • Human Rights in Uganda
  • What caused the war in Afghanistan?
  • Non-State facilitators in Japan Corporations

Unique Political Science Research Topics

  • Discuss the rise in international terrorism.
  • China-US relations
  • The effects of nationalism in Germany
  • Relations between North and South Korea
  • Critical analysis of the relationship between India and Pakistan
  • Power of the United Nations
  • Areas discussed in G-20 Summit 2021
  • Agenda of QUAD Summit 2021
  • Theories of Geopolitics
  • Presidential vs parliamentary democracy
  • Cultural pressure between US and Japan
  • Soviet Union Ideology
  • Chinese financial institutions duplicating the International Monetary Fund (IMF): Western myths or reality?
  • Critical evaluation of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) of the Chinese government
  • United Nations on war, violence, and international security
  • Examine the causes of political conflicts between India and China
  • The digital transformation of diplomacy: Implications for the African Union
  • Analysis of the impact of cyber-diplomacy on international relations
  • Analyze the pullout of military force by the United States from Germany as a policy shift in Europe
  • Examine the role of Unite Nations in resolving the conflicts between India and Pakistan
  • Assess the effect of Brexit on the political relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union
  • Examine the political relations between Sri Lanka and China

Research Topics on Comparative Politics

  • What are comparative political institutions?
  • Presidential versus Parliamentary Democracy
  • A behavioral approach to parties’ comparison
  • A study of the Anglo-Saxon traits in the American Government
  • Apartheid Phenomenon
  • Discuss direct and indirect binary comparisons.
  • Chinese Communist Party Hierarchy
  • Vietnam War interests aggregation
  • Recruitment in developing countries
  • Explain the modernization theory.
  • Analyze 2 comparative parties in your country
  • Talk about conflict and revolution in the United States
  • A study of the cultural pressure between Japan and the United States
  • Foreign policies of the United States versus the United Kingdom
  • Compare and contrast the FDI policies of the United States and India
  • German philosophy and Karl Schmidt’s theses
  • Election policies
  • Strategic planning in fiscal management

Read More: Comparative Essay 

Research Topics on Political Theory

  • Anarchism History Key Figures
  • Aristotle’s Philosophy on the Theory of Governance
  • Agrarianism political theory
  • Analyze – The Republic By Plato
  • Edmund Burke’s Classic Theories
  • Egalitarianism theory
  • Frederic Bastiat Theses
  • John Austin Theory
  • Jean Bodin on Sovereignty
  • Liberty and Justice Challenges
  • Phoenicianism Political theory
  • Socialism with Communism in Eastern Europe
  • The Disciplinary Power of Foucault
  • Vladimir Lenin and Communism Approach
  • Research the topic of Zionism
  • Critical Analysis of Descriptive Political Theory and Contemporary Political Theory
  • Karl Marx – The Father of Communism
  • Civil war causes and peculiarity
  • Social network and protest movement
  • Ukraine divided: Political powers in play
  • Public administration and its link to social equity
  • Administration Careers in Transportation Security
  • Sustainability projects in public administration
  • Nonprofit organizations Ethics
  • Environmental Management Compromises
  • An Analysis of the Federal Emergency Management Agency
  • Public administration: traits of a true leader
  • Innovations in the Private Sector in the United States
  • Strategic Planning in Fiscal Management
  • Community Development Methods
  • Optimal Benefits to Public Safety
  • Crisis management procedures in your area
  • John Rohr’s Constitutional Vision
  • Governmental Efforts Coordination
  • Analyze the public organizational behavior in your country.
  • Prewar Constitutional Vision of Abraham Lincoln
  • Power of public administration to ensure public health and well-being
  • Criminal Law and common morality
  • Post-conflict justice inequality
  • Difference between political and armed conflict

Political Science Philosophy Research Topics

  • Republican Traditions in Education
  • Causes of the American Revolution
  • Election Ethics
  • German Philosophy & Karl Schmidt Theses
  • Transition Methods in the Post-Socialist Era
  • Liberal democracy justification
  • Civil Republicanism in contrast with Liberalism
  • Existentialism according to Western Constitutional Law
  • A study of mutual tolerance as a political virtue.
  • Neopatrimonialism Society Risks
  • Social networks and protest movement
  • Syrian government repression
  • Afghanistan conflict

Public Law Research Topics

  • Human Rights Act 1998
  • Famous Legislators in European Legal History
  • Criminal Law and Common Morality
  • Analyze constitutional law in your country
  • Discuss the role of mandatory rules in public law.
  • Civil Liberties and National Security Complaints
  • Judicial Review Argumentation Analysis
  • Privacy Law or Commercial Exploitation
  • Discuss the “public bodies act lawfully” principle of public law.
  • Socio-Economic preferences in Police Interrogation
  • Custody battles and gender bias psychology
  • Public Safety Statutes Judicial Interpretation
  • Post-Conflict Justice Inequality
  • Do all central and local governments have to obey public law?
  • Differences between procedural law and private law in the UK
  • Legal remedies for victims of the environmental population in Nigeria
  • Role of the public complaint commission on worker rights

Read more law topics: Unique Law Research Topics For Academic Writing

Research Topics on Political Conflicts

  • Yemen Conflict Resolution Methods
  • The Afghanistan Conflict
  • Conflicts between politics and religion
  • Mexico and Immigrants Crisis
  • Social Networks and Protest Movements
  • The conflict between Joe Biden and Donald Trump
  • Free speech and hate speech in political conflicts
  • Syrian Government Repression
  • Reagan’s Political Agenda
  • Civil War Causes and Peculiarities
  • War In Donbas: Russia’s Aggression In Ukraine
  • The best way to settle a political dispute
  • The Iraq war and the history of war crimes
  • Propaganda techniques during political wars
  • Causes of Rebellion in the Central African Republic
  • The conflict between US and China

Political Science Research Topics on Conflict Resolution

  • The United States Foreign Policy
  • Post-war countries conflict art Legacy
  • News coverage Media bias
  • Conflicts of African American prisoners
  • Afghanistan Collaboration Methods
  • Arctic Power Distribution
  • Political leaders and their personal ambitions
  • Iran Oil Conflict
  • Security leadership conflicts after 9/11
  • Concession between Right- and Left-wing Parties
  • Syrian conflict cause and effect

Political Science Research Topics on Mediation and Negotiation

  • Volunteering and Social Movements
  • Hostage care in foreign countries negotiation
  • Transnational Corporation Legal Disputes
  • American Modern Whistleblowers
  • Case study analysis of the Mediation Agreement
  • The mediation process in the permanent court of arbitration
  • Wartime negotiation methods
  • Mediation hearing preparation process
  • Groundbreaking constitutional talks regarding Syria
  • Civil Law Court versus Mediation Policies
  • Drafting Arbitration and Mediation Clauses
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution Methods
  • Elections Agenda Analysis
  • International Arbitration Tribunal Mediation Process
  • Handling agricultural land disputes

Simple Political Science Research Ideas

  • Differences between Political and Armed Conflicts
  • Corruption Elimination Methods
  • Post-war Social Movements
  • Is religion a social power?
  • Implementing crucial changes in legislation processes
  • Is pardoning criminals acceptable?
  • Federalism traces in the Unitary Governance Model
  • Compare European and American Federal Crimes
  • Modern Leader’s Global Interdependence
  • Prosecution Ethics of Top Tier Officials

Interesting Political Science Research Topics

  • Social security issues in Australia
  • Is a dictatorship the same as a monarchy?
  • Imperialism in British Columbia
  • What makes Saddam Hussein a dictator?
  • How did Arnold Schwarzenegger become a politician?
  • Analyze the politics of Ancient Greece
  • Compare and contrast political science with pure history.
  • Boko Haram’s Expansion in Nigeria
  • Analyze the India-China border dispute
  • Discuss the rise of ISIS in Afghanistan
  • Colonialism in African countries
  • How did Vladimir Putin win 4 terms as president in Russia?
  • Analyze a totalitarian government
  • Gender equality in politics
  • The Israel-Hamas conflict

Latest Political Science Research Paper Topics

  • Environmental Management Compromises as a Result of Private Sector Innovations in the U.S.
  • The best benefits of public safety come from fiscal management and strategic planning administration careers in transportation security.
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency Evaluation
  • Comparison of European and American Federal Crimes:
  • Is Religion a Power in Society?
  • Implementing Fundamental Reforms in the Legislative Process
  • Social Movements after the War
  • The Unitary Governance Model Shows Traces of Federalism
  • Can nationalism be categorized as a legitimate school of historical leaders?
  •  Marx and 20th-century politics.
  •  How does technology affect the voting process?
  •  Is technology a need for current political culture?
  •  The evolution of fascism both before and after World War II.
  •  How successful are electoral reforms in developing free election institutions?
  •  How has 20th-century European politics been impacted by American foreign policy?
  • Environmental conflicts and contemporary politics.
  • global political modernization in the twenty-first century.
  • Changes made to the voting process by technology.

Trending Political Science Research Paper Topics

  • Discuss the role of peace and democracy, and democratic values in the making of the Liberal International Order
  • Critical analysis of the forms and functions of soft norms and informal law-making in International Migration Law
  • Critical analysis of the emergence of the Russia-China Axis and the impact of this axis on the present international order
  • Describe the challenges of protecting the Liberal International Order in the post-pandemic period including the impact of these challenges
  • How do civil society and especially women’s and gender political movements relate to the war?
  • What role does the changing, hegemonic masculinities play in the current war on both the Russian and Ukrainian sides (and beyond)? What constraints are men subject to in the current war, and what forms of resistance are emerging?
  • How can the intersectional perspectives contribute to a better understanding of forced migration by taking into account other categories such as poverty and sexual orientation?
  • Analysis of the impact of the Ukraine war on gender-based and/or sexualized violence in the region and, in turn, on civil society organizations in this area
  • Discuss the opportunities that arise from the increasing commitment of European states to feminist foreign policy
  • Why do states, and which ones (sending, transit, receiving), benefit from the wider spectrum of formats available to soft law (compact, partnership, dialogue, agenda, joint understanding)?

Wrapping Up

Out of the top political science research paper topics mentioned in this blog post, choose any topic of your choice. But when selecting a topic for your political science research paper, always go with the topic that you are comfortable with, and also, before finalizing your topic, check whether or not the topic you have selected has credible sources for reference. Remember, political science is a controversial subject, and hence be careful when writing your research paper.

If you are confused about what topic to choose or in case, you are unsure how to write a political science research paper, then contact us for immediate assistance. Our professional writers who are experts in the field of political science will offer a high-quality  assignment writing service  as per your expectations on all themes associated with politics. Just send your requirements to us and get a plagiarism-free political science research paper ahead of the deadline and secure top grades.

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The Top 10 Most Interesting Political Science Research Topics

Coming up with good political science research topics may seem like a daunting task. Whether you’re interested in foreign policy, international conflict, or immigration policy, it is worthwhile to take some time to research and find out which topics are currently relevant before diving into research. You want a topic that is manageable and meaningful. After all, you are going to invest a good deal of time and effort in answering the central questions of your project.

In this article, we will show you ten examples of political science research topics for bachelor’s degree students. We also show you how to craft political science research questions that work. With this list of currently relevant political science research paper topics, you can be sure you’ll work on something meaningful and relevant.

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What makes a strong political science research topic.

A strong research topic is original and relevant. It builds on previous studies published by reputable sources. It’s broad enough to be relatable but narrow enough to be unique. To get some ideas, you can explore the most recent topics published in Cambridge University Press’s American Political Science Review . It covers all areas of political science, from American politics to foreign relations.

Ask teachers from your academic department what they are currently writing about. Talk to your academic advisor if you can’t find a strong topic. Finally, make sure that your topic follows the guidelines set by your teacher.

Tips for Choosing a Political Science Research Topic

  • Pick a meaningful topic. The research will be more enjoyable if you find it personally interesting. For instance, if immigration policy is a topic of personal value to you, you can center your research topic around it and this will help you stay engaged in your research.
  • Discuss research ideas with classmates. They can help you find insight from a fresh perspective.
  • Make sure your topic has a manageable size. One of the major requirements for choosing a topic is making sure that it will be manageable. Explore some key questions in your chosen field until you narrow your own topic down to something you can take on successfully.
  • Use reputable sources. Choose authoritative articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Make sure you choose the ones relevant to your topic, whether that is democratic governments, the political behavior of a particular group, or a particular authoritarian regime.
  • Join the current scholarly debate. Make your topic part of cutting-edge research. Discussing things like current forms of government or current political events will help you ensure your chosen topic will contribute to salient issues of political theory as well as critical policy debates.

What’s the Difference Between a Research Topic and a Research Question?

A research topic is a focused area of study in a scientific field or subfield. The goal of the research question is to narrow down that area even further. By answering the research question, you contribute to understanding the topic. The research question guides your research and writing, leading you to make a contribution to that particular topic and field.

How to Create Strong Political Science Research Questions

Gather information on your topic to get familiar with the current research. Find an interesting aspect to explore. Identify the gaps in the research mentioned in articles about your topic. Now, try to find a question that would address that gap.

Start your question with what, why, when, or how. The question must be clear and focused. You can also use guides to develop a research question by narrowing the topic to help you get started.

Top 10 Political Science Research Paper Topics

1. building government capacity to address global environmental challenges.

Complex tradeoffs are part of environmental policy, especially in the 21st Century. Green technology investments can boost the economy and create jobs. But workers in the oil and coal industry will lose them. This is all part of an ongoing discussion about environmental protection and the political attitudes of different groups towards green policies.

The public will support climate policy only if the costs are fairly distributed. Governments have to generate transparent policies to earn the trust of the citizens. This controversial topic demands a good deal of research, an understanding of environmental policy, an analysis of policy outcomes, and the development of new political theories.

2. Influence of Social Movements and Advocacy Groups on Policymaking

The government often makes its policies behind closed doors. In response, social movements organize to get access to and take part in policymaking. Every representative democracy needs the participation of social movements and advocacy groups. They help to hold the American government accountable, ensuring the human rights of citizens are protected.

Social movements and advocacy groups have a powerful influence on public opinion, and can influence the political participation of specific groups. American politics has to consider their ideas to improve political attitudes. Political science researchers have to expand on this topic to understand collective action.

3. Effect of an Interdependent World on the Roles of Governments and Institutions

Many of the policy challenges at a domestic level are now global, and political leaders know this. Governments need policies to regulate institutions, promote international cooperation, and lessen political disputes. They need to train their workforce with a global mindset. This also has a direct impact on political campaigns and electoral politics.

As globalization influences the political development of all nations, government employees are now working on an international stage. They need knowledge of international relations to share knowledge and collaborate. Policymaking for an interdependent world is a relevant political science topic.

4. Prosperity and Equality Through Public Policy

The COVID-19 pandemic is challenging the financial stability of many families. Technological disruptions cause unexpected changes in the international markets. Clearly, we cannot take for granted the economic resilience of the country. The government uses economic policy to protect prosperity and equality. Economic development is a major topic in political science research.

5. Factors Influencing Policymaking Around Taxes, Regulation, and Trade

Tax policy affects economic development and social progress. Economic reform is part of the international conversation on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development . Trade regulation and immigration policies are frequently discussed in political science research, making them a great topic for any aspiring political scientist.

6. Influence of Gender, Race, Class, and Other Aspects of Identity on Policymaking

Diversity and intersectionality are becoming necessary topics in modern politics. Educational institutions and public companies are adopting equity and inclusion goals. The expectations for incorporating diversity in policymaking are higher than ever. Policymaking to prevent discrimination and create the grounds for fair immigration policy is a highly relevant topic.

7. The Role of Government in Providing Affordable Healthcare

Universal Health Coverage (UHU) is a World Health Organization (WHO) initiative to provide global access to healthcare services. The United States has reaffirmed its commitment to achieving this goal.

The COVID-19 pandemic made clear the need for international cooperation in health. International relations theories have to change to make UHU possible. Global health policymaking is a pressing research topic in modern politics.

8. Mitigating Cyber Breaches And Security Challenges Through Policymaking

Countries are adopting cyber security strategies through policymaking. Some of them have a dedicated agency for cyber security. Worldwide, information and technology assets are growing in importance. Cyber security is now part of contemporary world politics and the economic development of nations.

Cyber regulation comes with a whole new set of policymaking challenges that contemporary world politics needs to tackle. It involves international cooperation and coordination. Policymaking to neutralize cyber threats is a growing topic in modern politics research.

9. Harnessing Data for Good Governance

Partnerships between public institutions and private companies facilitate the use of big data. This comes with several institutional challenges, like combining data sources. Regulating data access and addressing privacy concerns will need extensive policymaking. Modernizing data governance is a current topic in political science research.

10. Regulating Disinformation In the United States Through Public Policy

Americans are turning to social media and biased websites to make sense of politics. The proliferation of misinformation is fueling division and polarization, and can depress public confidence and discourage political participation. Regulating disinformation through public policy is becoming an urgent topic.

Regulating freedom of speech is not common in the American political tradition. Political scientists use cost-benefit analysis to find balanced solutions for these complex problems. There are growing opportunities for research on the topic of misinformation regulation and the role of government in the digital age.

Other Examples of Political Science Research Topics & Questions

Political science research topics.

  • Ethnic Conflict Between Americans and Arab-Americans in the United States
  • Telecommunications Policies in China
  • The Supreme Court and Reproductive Rights
  • The Evolution of Affirmative Action Initiatives
  • The Development of a Constitutional Right of Privacy

Political Science Research Questions

  • How can public leaders balance political realities and policy priorities?
  • What developments in science and technology are changing political attitudes?
  • Will public-private partnerships change the approach of government to public problems?
  • How do policymakers navigate the tensions between private power and democratic values?
  • How can public policymaking integrate a human rights perspective?

Choosing the Right Political Science Research Topic

It is important to know how to choose a research topic if you want to pursue a political science degree . The right political science research topic is engaging and manageable. Choose a topic that is interesting to you. It will keep you engaged and motivated during the research process. Keep in mind that your initial research topic might change. As your expertise grows, your topic will become more precise.

Political Science Research Topics FAQ

Political science is a field of knowledge that studies political phenomena. American politics, political theories, and international politics are common topics in political science. Political scientists use comparative politics and policy analysis to improve public problems.

Political science research is important because it improves public policies and can lead to necessary legal reform. It helps citizens understand American politics and foreign policy issues. Research in political science improves international cooperation and global environmental policies, and helps us make sense of major world events.

Yes, you can get a political science degree online. You can get a bachelor’s or a master’s degree in political science without going to college. There are several online political science degree options from good universities. With a Graduate Equivalency Degree (GED), you can get a political science associate degree in two years.

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With a degree in political science, you can get a job as a legislative assistant or a campaign manager. Social media managers for political institutions are also in demand. With a graduate degree in political science, you can become a policy analyst or an urban planner. Political scientists can work in either academia or the private sector.

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140 Newest Political Science Research Paper Topics

political science research topics

If you are reading our blog post, its means you’re desperately trying to find some amazing political science research topics. Truth be told, you’ve arrived at the right place. We have a list of original political science research topics for you right here. Furthermore, we’ve included a lot of information about finding great topics and about their benefits. Remember that all our political science topics are 100% free. We are all about helping college students get the best possible grades. We do our absolute best to update our list of political science essay topics as frequently as possible, so stay tuned for new topics!

Are Political Science Research Topics Hard to Find?

It looks like finding research topics for political science in 2023 is pretty difficult. But why? Well, because even though there are plenty of websites offering topics, you are facing fierce competition. Each one of your peers is looking for topics. And in most cases, they end up on the same websites as you do. This means that in many cases, you will write a research paper on the same subject as several of your classmates. The simple way to avoid this and find hot topics in politics is to watch the news and pick interesting things to analyze. However, this takes time; the time you may not have. After all, you have two or three other essays to write this week…

Extraordinary Political Science Topics = Top Grades

The easiest way to get some ideas is to read our list of topics in political science. At the time of writing, all the political science research paper topics are 100% original. And remember, a good topic usually means a top grade if you do a decent job at writing the paper. Why? It’s simply because professors are easily impressed by people who demonstrate originality. If you can think outside the box and stand out from the crowd, you will get bonus points . Of course, you are free to pick any of the political science paper topics below and reword them in any way.

Philosophy Research Political Science Essay Topics

Political research philosophy deals with how society should be set up and the changes needed. It discusses ethics and how they impact society. Political science research topics should be intriguing and interesting. Here is a list of research topics that your professor will find interesting in your essay:

  • Research on what caused the American Revolution.
  • Karl Schmidt’s thesis and German philosophy and how they affect society.
  • Transition methods of post-socialist and how that impacted society.
  • How does civil republicanism contrast with Liberalism?
  • The justification of Liberal democracy.
  • How modern political virtue is linked to the Mutual tolerance approach.
  • Neopatrimonialism Society risk.
  • The election ethics.
  • How the Western constitution law lens views existentialism.
  • The republican traditions are used in education.
  • Role of philosophy on the politics of your country.
  • The impact made by the American Revolution.

Political Theorists Political Science Essay Topics

Writing political theorists’ take an honorary place when students get the right political science research topics for their dissertation’s literature review. Besides, when you get interesting political science thesis topics, you can be sure that your professor will be impressed. Though such research does not give proper answers to global issues, you can work with comparative political research questions. If you have no idea about the political science research paper topics you can use, you are in the right place. Let us take a look at these ideas:

  • The theory of John Austin.
  • Aristotle’s philosophy on Governance.
  • The thesis of Fredric Bastiat.
  • Reasons why Rome failed.
  • About Jean Bodin and what he failed to see about sovereignty.
  • Is the trajectory followed by the US the same as that of Ancient Rome?
  • The republic by Plato Analysis.
  • How did Vladimir Lenin influence the communism approach?
  • The political events that led to Nazism.
  • How do Greco-Romans influence modern politics?
  • The discipline powers Foucault’s.
  • Edmund Burke Classics theories and their impact.

Do you want to thrill your professor? Do you want to come up with something new? If this is the case, just take a look at our list of interesting political science research topics below. You can also check out our history topics .

If you are interested in how politics gave birth to – and altered the course of – conflicts, we have some very interesting topics about conflicts on our list:

  • Terrorism can be an effective political instrument.
  • How did war change politics in the US?
  • The effects of the Vietnam War on United States politics.
  • How did the Afghanistan war start?
  • The differences between armed conflicts and political conflicts.
  • The effects of pardoning criminals in today’s society.
  • Ways to effectively implement urgent changes in the legislation process.
  • Prosecution ethics on top-tier officials.
  • The federal crime comparison of the American and European Federals.
  • Methods used to eliminate corruption in America and their effectiveness.
  • What are the social movements of the post-war times?
  • Research on modern leader’s global interdependence.

Current Research Topics in Political Science

Of course, we realize you want to stay up to date with the latest developments in political science. Your professor will be thrilled to see that you’ve chosen one of our current research topics in political science:

  • Karl Schmidt thesis and German philosophy.
  • What political decision by the Trump presidency had the biggest impact?
  • The impact that the true commission has on civil society.
  • The latest controversy surrounding Amnesty International.
  • The battles were fought by superpowers around the Arctic Circle.
  • How do Republicans influence US education?
  • The political response to the COVID-19 crisis.
  • Is religion a political power nowadays?

Public Law Topics

There are plenty of public law topics you can write an essay about. However, our academic writers have selected only the ones that have the potential to get an A+:

  • Argumentative analysis of the judicial review and its impact on society.
  • What is the judicial interpretation of public safety statutes?
  • Discuss the privacy law and commercial exploitation.
  • What are the gender bias philosophies found in custody battles?
  • What is the Socio-Economic preference in Police interrogation?
  • Discuss the post-conflict justice inequality.
  • What is the public safety status of Judicial Interpretation?
  • Similarities between common morality and criminal law.
  • Top 3 best European legislators in history.
  • Discuss the Human Rights Act of 1998.
  • Can national security destroy civil liberty?
  • Is the Internet a “politically correct” place?

Easily Researchable Topics in Political Science

Perhaps you don’t want to spend a lot of time and effort writing the political sciences essay. In this case, you may be interested in one of our easily researchable topics in political science:

  • Are the politicians to be blamed for the frequent civil wars?
  • What is the relationship between media and politics in America?
  • The influence that social movements have on changing public policies.
  • The way that the Patriot Act will be viewed in future generations.
  • What is the current situation of your country’s foreign policy?
  • What is the cause and effect of conflict in Syria?
  • Research on the global impact of Brexit.
  • Should anyone be allowed to pardon violent criminals?
  • Here is how you eliminate corruption.
  • Discuss the Frederic Bastiat Theses.
  • Discuss Trump’s immigration crisis.
  • Is the media politically biased?

International Relations Research Topics

International relations is one of the most interesting political sciences topics today. They’re also quite complex. Here are some excellent international relations research topics:

  • Controversies of Amnesty International.
  • What causes Global Poverty?
  • Defining and analyzing global security networks.
  • The power battles of the Arctic Circle.
  • Human Rights in Uganda.
  • How has the international relation in America changed in the past five years?
  • What do people think about politicians becoming corrupt?
  • What is the US’s Foreign Policy?
  • The effects of the Syrian war on its politics.
  • Analyzing the ethics of NGOs in America.
  • What is the IMF (International Monetary Fund)?
  • What causes poverty on a planetary scale?

Public Administration Topics

Are you interested in writing about public administration as part of your political sciences essay? Just take a quick look at some very public administration topics:

  • How was the private sector innovated in the United States?
  • Methods of community development.
  • What vision did John Rohr have of the constitution?
  • Ethics of the nonprofit organization.
  • Administration careers of transport security.
  • The compromise of environmental management.
  • Innovations in the United States private sector.
  • How does the Federal Emergency Management Agency work?
  • What is fiscal management and why is it so important?
  • How do governments coordinate their efforts?
  • The best ways to reduce bureaucracy in the US.

Current International Relations Topics

Your professor is most definitely interested in current events more than he is interested in reading about the past. Give your take on any of these wonderful current international relations topics:

  • Description of how the IMF works.
  • What is the major cause of poverty in the world?
  • Research on how global security works.
  • A look at Japan and China’s foreign aid policy.
  • The research and discussion on the continuous effects of Brexit.
  • A look at soft law manipulative treaties.
  • Research on international protection in regards to children’s rights.
  • Will Israel ever accept a Palestinian state?
  • Are countries alone in their fight against the COVID-19 pandemic?
  • Analyze the evolution of human rights in Rwanda.
  • What causes the conflicts in Syria?
  • Geopolitics: the quest for dominance.

Comparative Politics Research Topics

Did you know that writing about comparative politics can be fun? Analyze the political differences and similarities between various countries by writing a paper on one of our comparative politics research topics:

  • Comparison to behavioral approach to parties.
  • The United States and Japan Culture Pressure.
  • Definition of Soviet Union Ideology and its impact.
  • The Interest Aggregation of the Vietnam War.
  • How developing countries recruit.
  • The party hierarchy of Chinese communists.
  • Traits of the Anglo Saxon in the American government.
  • Compare the foreign policies of the US and the UK.
  • Similarities between political parties in Scotland and Ireland.
  • Differences between parliamentary and presidential democracy.
  • How does apartheid begin?
  • Compare and contrast communist and socialist governments.

Political Science Thesis Topics

Writing a thesis in political science can be a daunting task. However, picking the correct topic can greatly ease your workload. Here are some political science thesis topics to pick from:

  • How does the endorsement by a decorated military improve the chances of a political candidate?
  • What is meant when people talk about psychological politics in the modern world?
  • Do unions have any impact when endorsing an election campaign?
  • What impact did the Trump vs. Biden election have on foreign politics around the globe?
  • Reasons why abortion should be made legal at the federal level
  • What is a single controversial political decision that has impacted international policies?
  • What can governments do to rid their countries of corruption?
  • Should the foreign policy of the UK be changed? Why?
  • How governments can help fight climate change.
  • The system regulating immigration in the United States is fundamentally broken.
  • Differences between the Parliament of India and the Parliament of Pakistan.

Political Philosophy Topics

Political philosophy has changed a lot over the years. Things are very much different from one country to another. Here are some interesting ideas you can use right now:

  • What caused the great American Revolution of 1765?
  • Is mutual tolerance in politics just a dream?
  • Explain the importance of the Karl Schmidt Theses for Germany.
  • What is Neopatrimonialism?
  • What causes unethical behavior ahead of elections?
  • Fiscal management strategic planning.
  • What are the comprehensive benefits of public safety?
  • What is the global independence of global leaders?
  • What is religion, and is it a social power?
  • What are the ethical topics that top officials in government today should discuss?
  • Is there a similarity between the American and European federal crimes as seen in the past few years?
  • What is the reason for the continuous immigrant crisis in Mexico?

If you need more political topics to write about (including many more international relations topics), we advise you to get in touch with our professional thesis writers . A seasoned academic writer can create a list of original, interesting topics in no time. The quality of the political topics you choose greatly influences the grades you get on your research papers, so professional assistance may prove to be invaluable.

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List of Best Political Science Research Topics

Updated Aug 2021 ​Everyone is well aware of just how elaborate and expansive the global political world is, so if you’ve picked this as your alma mater, you’ll have a good idea of just how complex things can get.

Whenever people are involved, things tend to get complicated – that’s why good criminal justice research topics are so hard to come by. Most people who study politics don’t wind up as politicians, rather professionals in the field of politics, and that’s a beast of its own.

We salute you for this major undertaking and hope you are prepared for the challenging world of political science studies. As long as you attend all of your classes, take a course here and there, and do your research papers – you’ll be fine.

Political Science Research Topics

However, consider just how time-consuming, hard, and complicated it is to stay on top of things, especially when it comes to writing research papers. Not only is finding the topic a nightmare but writing the content can be overly demanding.

Worry not – StudyClerk is your research paper helper and we have got your back, so we’ve prepared a couple of things to help you along the way – original, crisp, and interesting research paper topics.

How to Write Political Science Research Paper

Writing any kind of research paper is a challenging task, but doing so on the subject matter of political sciences is another beast entirely. Unlike most social sciences, political studies are very dynamic, and the tides can shift from day to day.

It makes a big difference in how you should approach your research paper. A topic is only as good as it is original or fresh. Since the current political dynamic is shifting so often, you can find a piece of news and turn it into a fantastic paper.

A great way to start with writing a research paper is to start seeking inspiration. Luckily, when it comes to politics, your inspiration is all around you. Take a look at your local politics, for starters, and see what you can dig out from there, aside from some interesting psychology topics .

After you’ve got a general idea of where you’re headed, it might not be a bad idea to outline the entire thing, and the first step to that is getting a top-shelf research paper title.

How to Choose Political Science Research Paper Topics

Choosing the right topic is imperative, and you can do so by digging a little deeper into politics. Politics have been going on for almost as long as society itself, in one shape or the other. From the triumvirate to the congress, there is a lot of material to go over and many different things you can tap into.

To help you get a better perspective on what goes into creating a magnum opus of a research paper, here are some top tips.

  • Try to keep your subject matter relatively new;
  • Don’t be afraid to dig a little into controversy;
  • Know your general direction before you start drafting the topic;
  • When creating a research paper topic, try and keep it unique;
  • Don’t be afraid to provide a different perspective on well-covered matters;
  • Don’t go too much into the political theory without backing it up with practice and examples;
  • Always follow university or faculty rules for subject matters and formatting.

If you wonder how learning something so gruesome and serious as political science can be interesting, you should, probably, learn more about how researchable and fascinating even an ordinary topic might be. If you lack ideas, you can always get some research paper help and have your paper written for you.

It is always a good decision to get some help with your paper even if you want to write it by yourself. To begin with, make sure that you have found some proper political science research topics. Here comes a list that you can use:

  • Can nationalism be classified as a proper school of leaders in history?
  • 20 th -century politics and Karl Marx.
  • How technologies impact voting processes?
  • Is modern political culture dependent upon technology?
  • Fascism and its faces before and after World War II.
  • Electoral reforms: how effective they are when it comes to establishing free election institutions?
  • How American foreign policies have affected European politics of the 20th century?
  • Modern politics and environmental struggles.
  • Modernization of global politics in the 21st century.
  • Voting process alternation by technology.

Empirical Research Paper Topics

If you want to write a good research paper, you should definitely embark upon writing an empirical research paper, as there is no way to object empirical evidence. If you find it hard to find proper empirical evidence, remember that you can always find a research paper for sale and have it written for you.

  • Why experimental research is important in today’s political science?
  • A realist approach to Russian foreign policy.
  • Analyzing the Geneva Convention in regards to refugee rights.
  • Educational inequalities in China or how governmental policies impact Chinese children?
  • What is civil society?
  • How do civil wars emerge?
  • How the United States Constitution would have looked like if the Founding Fathers had modern technologies?
  • Civil societies and modern politics.
  • Social media as a new public administration instrument.
  • Role of anarchism within the public administration system.

Comparative Politics Research Paper Topics

There is always a lot to compare when it comes to talking about politics. So, here are some topics that you might fancy writing about.

  • Abraham Lincoln’s Lyceum Address in comparison to modern political speeches.
  • How Segregation could have looked like without Supreme Court?
  • American Commercial Films and Political Messages Conveyed.
  • China versus America: New economic battle.
  • Democracy Laboratories of Contemporary Federalism: a comparative approach.
  • Crime TV-shows: their impact upon law misinterpretation.
  • America and Australia: how education policies differ?
  • Nationalism in comparison to other philosophies.
  • Female education in Afghanistan: a comparative review.
  • Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism

Government Research Paper Topics

American Government has always been changing a game-changer international arena. Writing a research paper about it or other leading governments of the world is always a good idea.

  • Public relations of American Government and their role in its success.
  • Bush and Clinton war doctrines.
  • Why France go hard on its immigration policies?
  • American Presidential Election 2008: Biased depiction of female politicians in mass media.
  • Role of old bureaucratic processes in modern America.
  • How American democracy is shaped?
  • American elections: using propaganda to achieve the result needed.
  • How power is balanced between institutions of authority in America.
  • European Crisis: Germany’s role.
  • Is Guatemala reviving after its conflict?

American Politics Research Paper Topics

There is always a lot of interesting things going on in American politics. Hence, there is always a lot to write about.

  • What are the principles of building the neoteric American democracy?
  • What will prevail in liberalism or idealism?
  • American Government and climate change.
  • Institutionalism as an instrument of American public management scientists.
  • The United States and the Middle East: How the future looks like?
  • Marriage equality in America under local political pressure.
  • Democratic ideas that shape America today.
  • American Civil War: its impact on modern governments.
  • Are American parties weak in comparison to their 1960s predecessors?
  • Democrats versus Republicans: a primordial battle or a fight for prevalence of law?

political science research topics in india

The things that are happening in the international arena today cannot go unnoticed and will definitely have consequences for international politics in the nearest future. Here are some topics to consider:

  • How Syria ended up between two political fronts?
  • Russian aggression against Ukraine. What causes and lets Russia to disregard and disobeyed the norms of international law?
  • Why is president Putin holding tight to his chair?
  • China as the new overlord of the 21st century.
  • How the 2019 protests in Paris will shape the future of France?
  • Mexico and the problem of illegal immigrants?
  • Brexit is over. What is the next step for Great Britain?
  • How Europe is going to fare without a founding member?
  • Syrian refugees and Donald Trump: who is right?
  • Will Britain manage to retain its unity after Brexit?

The current state of US politics is rocky, making it much more attractive. If you’d like to have an understanding of the current events, watch the news. If you’d like to have some topics, we’ve got ten fantastic options for you:

  • The United States Versus Russia: the Political Similarities and Differences
  • The Politics of Poverty — Exploring Sub Saharan African Politics
  • The Electoral College and Whether It Should Be Abolished or Given More Power
  • Voters Rights or Voters Citizen Obligations
  • How Falling to Vote Shapes Political Tenures
  • Why Have We Never Seen a Third Party Rule in the Us?
  • Democrats and Republicans — Same Thing or Entirely Different
  • The Internet and Its Role in Shaping Modern Politics
  • How Meme Culture Has Raised Political Awareness
  • Apartheid and Modern Segregation in the US

Easy Political Science Research Topics

We’ve stated more than a few times that political science is one of the most complicated social sciences out there – but that doesn’t have to reflect negatively on the research papers. In fact, covering something relatively simple in nature can be an innovation if you put your unique spin on it. Here are some ways that we’d do it:

  • From Tribes to Nations: The Beginnings of Politics
  • What Makes Politics a Necessity
  • Is Anarchy Ever Going to Become the Norm?
  • Communism and Its Ingrained Instability
  • The Corporate Nether of Late Stage Capitalism
  • The Many Flavors of Communism: China, Russia, Yugoslavia
  • Is Fascism a Reflection of the Roman Empire or a Mockery of It
  • People Skills and Politics. What It Takes to Get Ahead
  • How Do Socialites Became Politicians
  • NGOs and GOs — the Close but Distant Relationship Between the Two Bodies

Political Theorists Research Topics

If you’re looking for some fresh ideas in political theory, here are a couple of topics that you can use:

  • Why Did Rome Fall? An Examination of a Declining Empire
  • Jean Bodin and What He Failed to See About Sovereignty
  • Is the USA Following the Same Trajectory as Ancient Rome?
  • Key Figures That Defined Capitalism
  • Key Figures and Political Events That Lead to Nazism
  • How Greco-Roman Philosophers Shaped Modern Politics
  • Ancient Democracy and the Democracy of Today
  • The Orwellian Perspective on Politics
  • The Bastardization of Neitzsche by the Nazi Propaganda Machine
  • Plato and the Republic

Political Conflicts Topics

Conflicts are a mess. Political conflicts are an even worse mess, as they involve politicians, who have to keep things public at most times. Political conflicts or ideological conflicts can be a great way to stir up patriotism, or they could crumble a country in no time at all. Here are some topics on the matter.

  • How Wars Shape Countries for Decades to Come
  • The Soviet-Afghan Conflict: a Boiling Point for a Crumbling Empire
  • Israel, Palestine, and the War Crimes on Both Sides
  • The Implosion of Yugoslavia and Its Aftermath
  • The Swedish Immigrant Crisis
  • The Slaying of Gaddafi and Where the Line Is Drawn
  • Dictators and Presidents — the Conflict Between the Two
  • Racism and Its Impact on Modern Politics
  • NATO | Meddling or Resolving
  • The Press or the Politician — Who’s Actually in Charge

Political Science Research Topics on Mediation & Negotiation

Negotiating and bargaining are the pillars of politics. Without the two, there would be no capitalism, and there would be no modern economy to run countries. However, mediation and negotiation go far beyond the economy, and here are ten topics you could explore on the matter.

  • All Is Fair in Love and War. Negotiation During Wartime Conflicts
  • How Are Things Actually Settled During Wars on the Political Front
  • Are Whistleblowers Saviors or Traitors
  • The Danger of Political Asylum and How It Can Hinder Discussions
  • How Snowden & Rodchenkov Soured Relationships
  • Negotiating With the Terrorists: How Terrorism and Narcoterrorism Negotiations Work
  • Bending the Rules for the Greater Good
  • How Some Politicians Seem to Be Above the Law When Negotiating
  • Should Mediation Be Done by Politicians or Trained Professionals
  • Crisis and Risk Management. How Modern Negotiation Actually Works

Public Administration Research Topics

There are copious examples regarding how public administration is an integral component of any political system. So, writing about it might be a good idea to impress your professor.

  • Legal decisions and their effect on public interests.
  • Public administration. Is it founded on statistics?
  • Legal ethics under democratic pressure.
  • Public administration as a diversity management tool.
  • Political science and public administration: a unity or a war?
  • How public administration helps governments remain accountable?
  • Domestic affairs and public administration.
  • Urban budget management principles.
  • Modern technologies in public administration.
  • Public administration and its role in defining people’s needs.

Public Policy Research Paper Topics

Any political decision adopted must serve the public. Thereafter, there is no way one can run away from writing a public policy research paper.

  • How criticism shapes public policies?
  • How federal and state bureaucracies differ?
  • Which role does ethics play in political decisions?
  • Humanity and politics. Is there any relation?
  • The most important roles in fiscal administration.
  • Public analysis and assessment performance strategies.
  • How the process of spending budget establishment looks like.
  • Target culture in American governmental organizations.
  • Public management technologies.
  • The role of local government in the country management.

Every time when someone thinks of politics, people tend to think that this is some rocket science. Sure enough, it is an intricate world of systems, relations, and tensions, but those who understand how it works find it considerably easier to live in this world. Nowadays, there is a need to learn political science because the world is gradually moving towards the state of full submersion into politics. Hence, researching some proper topics might a good cornerstone for your foundation of political wisdom.

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political science research topics in india

  • Frontiers in Political Science
  • Political Science Methodologies
  • Research Topics

Methods in political science – Innovation & Developments

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About this Research Topic

Research methods are continually advancing, and the Covid-19 pandemic once again demonstrated the ingenuity and adaptability of scholars in political science and other disciplines when confronted with novel challenges. While the pandemic facilitated a surge in online data collection methods, such as interviews conducted via videoconferencing, we believe that this represents just one of the numerous innovations in political science research methods in recent years. In an effort to provide a platform for these new methodologies and offer an overview of the evolving landscape in the field, we specifically invite junior scholars to showcase their methodological innovations. This Call for Papers welcomes submissions employing qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. We particularly encourage submissions featuring experimental methods and methods under development, while also valuing meta-discussions on political science methods and research designs in general. How and why does a particular method have the potential to enhance research in political science? As exemplified by "Designing Social Inquiry" and numerous other works, researchers are consistently seeking better methodological solutions to real-world problems. However, papers focusing on specific methods often receive limited attention, particularly outside specialized journals. This Call for Papers aims to bring method-oriented papers to a broader audience, encompassing those - for example - related to new interview techniques, big data, and the integration of methods in unique ways. It seeks to spotlight new developments, enhancements, and adaptations to existing methods in political science that hold the promise of broader applicability in the future. These may include methods already familiar to the field or those imported from other disciplines. We welcome papers from all disciplines, with a particular emphasis on addressing political science problems. Papers should not exceed 7000 words, excluding the bibliography. While we anticipate papers to possess a clear methodological orientation and highlight the novelty of the approach, we still require theoretical elements as part of this call. This may include meta-reflections on scientific methods or scoping reviews on specific methodological developments. All papers are expected to include an introduction, a literature review (and theory where applicable), a method section, a brief illustration of the method's potential (and results where available), and a concise discussion/conclusion section. For mixed methods papers, it is not necessary to present all the results generated from a specific methodological configuration. We also strongly encourage the inclusion of the used dataset and/or syntax, recruitment strategies, interview guides, codebooks, etc., to facilitate wider applicability. Please submit your papers at latest by 29.02.2024

Keywords : methods, qualitative, quantitative, mixed, innovation

Important Note : All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

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Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Political science, india'

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Bentall, Michael James R. "Bharat versus India : peasant politics and rural-urban relations in North-West India." Thesis, University of Cambridge, 1995. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.389483.

Gowrie-Smith, Lachlan Ian. "Microfinance regulation in China and India." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/62467.

D’Souza, Shanthie Mariet. "India in Post-ISAF Afghanistan." Universität Potsdam, 2014. http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2014/6992/.

Kaul, Sharika. "Sexual Violence Against Women in India: The Role of Public Policy and Social Media in the Persistence of Sexually Violent Crimes." Scholarship @ Claremont, 2016. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/scripps_theses/739.

Jall, Hutokshi Jamshed. "Raj Kapoor and Hindi Films: Catalysts of Political Socialization in India." DigitalCommons@Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center, 1994. http://digitalcommons.auctr.edu/dissertations/3399.

Bullion, Alan James. "India, Sri Lanka and the Tamil crisis, 1976-1990." Thesis, University of Southampton, 1994. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.240258.

Wilkinson, Steven Ian 1965. "The electoral incentives for ethnic violence : Hindu-Muslim riots in India." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/10093.

Jenkins, Robert S. "Democratic adjustment : explaining the political sustainability of economic reform in India." Thesis, University of Sussex, 1997. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.363367.

Prior, Katherine. "The British administration of Hinduism in North India, 1780-1900." Thesis, University of Cambridge, 1990. https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/241545.

Kruks-Wisner, Gabrielle K. "Claiming the state : citizen-state relations and service delivery in rural India." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/83760.

Flank, Steven M. "Reconstructing rockets--the politics of developing military technology in Brazil, India, and Israel." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1993. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/12739.

Charrier, Philip Joseph. "Britain, India and the genesis of the Colombo Plan, 1945-1951." Thesis, University of Cambridge, 1995. https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/251582.

Borooah, V. "Implementation across national boundaries : implementing the Government of India Act 1935." Thesis, Open University, 1986. http://oro.open.ac.uk/56920/.

Duncan, Stewart M. "Political risk analysis and economic reform : investing in the Indian electricity sector." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/49776.

Mangla, Akshay. "Rights for the voiceless : the state, civil society and primary education in rural India." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/83770.

Ziegfeld, Adam W. (Adam Weston). "Rule of law and party systems : a study of regional political parties in India." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/54606.

Basu, Anuradha. "Procedural rationality in public expenditure decision making with specific reference to India." Thesis, University of Cambridge, 1990. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.385638.

Dasgupta, Aditya. "The Puzzle of Democratic Monopolies: Single Party Dominance and Decline in India." Thesis, Harvard University, 2016. http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:33493515.

Novosad, Paul. "Essays on Local Economic Growth in India." Thesis, Harvard University, 2013. http://dissertations.umi.com/gsas.harvard:11100.

Varshney, Ashutosh. "The political universe of economic policy : rising peasantry, the state and food policy in India." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1990. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/13982.

Pradhan, Rajesh Kumar. ""When the saints go marching in" : sadhus in democratic politics in late 20th century India." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/53079.

Saikia, Pahi. "Protest networks, communicative mechanisms and state responses: ethnic mobilization and violence in northeast India." Thesis, McGill University, 2010. http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=86799.

Singh, Alaka. "The Political Economy in India: Interest Groups and Development (1947-1990)." W&M ScholarWorks, 1992. https://scholarworks.wm.edu/etd/1539625751.

Banerjee, Mukulika. "A study of the Khudai khidmatgar movement 1930-1947 North West Frontier Province, British India." Thesis, University of Oxford, 1994. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.386474.

Prakash, Amit. "The politics of development and identity in the Jharkhand region of Bihar (India), 1951-91." Thesis, SOAS, University of London, 1998. http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/28960/.

Ayyangar, Srikrishna. "Welfare populism and the rural poor comparing microcredit provision in India /." Related electronic resource:, 2007. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1342745151&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=3739&RQT=309&VName=PQD.

Perry, Helen Jemma. "Bureaucrats, development and decentralisation in India : the bureau-shaping model applied to Panchayati Raj in Karnataka, 1987-91." Thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London), 1996. http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/1414/.

Tresse, Anja. "The Impact of Female Political Leaders on Attitudes towards Gender Equality and Violence : - Survey evidence from Kerala, India." Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, 2019. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381795.

Oliver, Thomas Everell. "Measuring the Impact of a Low-Cost Wheelchair Distribution in Southern India." Thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2013. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=1536560.

According to a report by the World Health Organization, 65 million people worldwide need wheelchairs to regain mobility. Many of these people are unable to afford the devices they need and current makeshift solutions are unsuitable for a variety of reasons. I am a volunteer for Intelligent Mobility International (IMI), a non-profit that seeks to address this situation by producing and distributing durable, inexpensive wheelchairs in the developing world. This thesis designs a study to gauge the impacts receiving an IMI wheelchair has on the lives of people with disabilities and their families. This measure can then be used in the future when Intelligent Mobility evaluates different program options and demonstrates to funders the positive impacts of their donations. The study involves a randomized field trial in Tamil Nadu, India. Candidates for the trial will be identified by a local grass roots organization and verified by IMI to be appropriate candidates for the wheelchair. A total of six hundred candidates will be chosen to represent a good mixture of gender, education, household size and age of the target population, and then randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. Participants in the treatment group will receive a wheelchair at the start of the year and those in the control at the end of the year. The two groups will then be surveyed on many dimensions of their lives using both open-ended ethnographic interviews and a numerical categorical survey both at the start of the year and the end of the year to estimate the impacts of the wheelchair. The ethnographic interviews will help ensure that the participants' views are captured accurately and will permit a more realistic interpretation of the study's qualitative results. The study design also reviews current literature on disability in India, the plan for implementation of the study, the methodological concerns in the design, and the ethical considerations involved.

Islam, Maidul. "Limits of Islamism : ideological articulations of Jamaat-e-Islami in contemporary India and Bangladesh." Thesis, University of Oxford, 2012. http://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:f1942d17-cbce-4f8f-a717-7121548a80eb.

Pal, Deep. "India-China Relationship Since 1988 -- Ensuring Economics trumps Politics." Thesis, The George Washington University, 2015. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=1586663.

The Sino-Indian relationship marked by mutual mistrust for the last six decades has seen definitive changes since the late 1980s. Though considerable issues remain unresolved, the two have begun establishing mechanisms to establish a certain level of trust that began with the visit of Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi to Beijing in 1988. The paper analyzes recent literature on this relationship and finds them predicting two outcomes primarily - either one where India admits Chinese supremacy and kowtows to it, or one that foresees increased clashes between the two. Neither outcome takes into account the complex association that the two nations are building guided by a series of frameworks, mechanisms and agreements. This paper posits that in the evolutionary arc of interstate relations, Sino-Indian relations have not reached a point where only one of the two options - cooperation and competition, will be chosen. This paper argues that economic interests of the two rising powers is behind the present behavior where the two are courting each other but at the same time, preparing for the other's rise. Both countries consider their economic identity to be primary and do not want to be distracted from the key national goal of economic development. They are particularly careful that their disagreements with each other do not come in the way of this goal. The paper analyzes the various frameworks and suggests that they are created with this end in consideration. Both India and China aim to continue collaboration in economic matters bilaterally or in international issues of mutual interest even when they don't see eye to eye on disputes left over from history. It is likely that competition will at times get the better of cooperation, driven by factors like strategic influence in the neighborhood, finding newer providers of energy as well as markets for their goods and services. But periodic flare-ups notwithstanding, in the absence of serious provocations, the two countries will avoid clashes that can escalate. The paper also analyzes certain black-swan events that might disturb the balancing act. Incidents like the death of the Dalai Lama creating a vacuum within the Tibetan leadership is one such scenario; a terrorist attack on India planned and executed form Pakistan like the one in Mumbai in 2008 is another. However, the presence of multiple bilateral platforms will continue to automatically insulate alternate channels of communication even in these situations. In conclusion, the paper suggests that as they grow, India and China will continue to engage each other at several levels, competing and cooperation, deterring and reassuring each other at once.

Kissopoulos, Lisa. "Nationalist Conflict and Elite Manipulation in Serbia and India." University of Cincinnati / OhioLINK, 2007. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1186753678.

Nehru, Jawaharlal. "The influence of British political thought in China and India : the cases of Sun Yat-sen, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru." Thesis, Durham University, 2000. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/4624/.

Roy, Rathin. "The politics of fiscal policy : some reflections on fiscal policy and state intervention in developing economies with special reference to India." Thesis, University of Cambridge, 1994. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.337311.

Vaidya, Ashish Akhil. "Beyond Neopatrimonialism: A Normative and Empirical Inquiry into Legitimacy and Structural Violence in Post-Colonial India." Diss., Temple University Libraries, 2015. http://cdm16002.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p245801coll10/id/347514.

Sriram, Shyam Krishnan. "Caste and the Court: Examining Judicial Selection Bias on Bench Assignments on the Indian Supreme Court." unrestricted, 2006. http://etd.gsu.edu/theses/available/etd-03212006-150358/.

Ghimire, Anupama. "Nepal and Bhutan two similar nations with different strategic approach towards their big neighbors-India and China." Thesis, Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, 2021. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-177158.

Choudhury, Zahidul Arefin. "Politics of natural disaster : how governments maintain legitimacy in the wake of major disasters, 1990-2010." Diss., University of Iowa, 2013. https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/1566.

Teater, Kristina M. "Using Transnational Advocacy Networks to Challenge Restrictions on Religion: Christian Minorities in Malaysia and India." University of Cincinnati / OhioLINK, 2019. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin156327356791683.

Dawson, P. "The United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 1948-1965 : With a postscript on the impact on UNMOGIP of the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971." Thesis, Keele University, 1987. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.379633.

Walker, M. Karen. "Rhetorical work in soft power diplomacy| The U.S.-India 123 Agreement and a relationship transformed." Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, 2014. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=3644039.

My dissertation, The Rhetorical Work of Soft Power: The U.S.-India 123 Agreement and a Relationship Transformed , broadens and deepens our understanding of soft power diplomacy as a creation of constitutive rhetoric. I perform a rhetorical critique of discourses generated during three years' debate on the U.S.-India 123 Agreement, a watershed moment in bilateral relations. In Chapter 1, I introduce the frames of reference that guided my research, set my project within the literature stream, and lay foundations for my argument.

In Chapter 2, I explore how soft power discourse facilitated India's diplomatic move from outside to inside the nonproliferation regime. I introduce identification and courtship as constructs to explain soft power attraction, presenting narratives of exceptionalism, deliverance and kinship that emerged from discourse. In Chapter 3, I explain the bilateral movement from estranged to engaged as deepened identification and consubstantiation, the achievement of a permanent union. I trace the development of "democracy," "pluralism," and "creativity" as terms of ideological commitment and mutual obligation. I also present two additional narratives, the sojourner narrative, which reconstituted the Indian Diaspora's political identity, and the convergence narrative, which constituted the United States and India as bilateral partners and transformed the U.S.-India 123 Agreement from an idea about nuclear cooperation into the embodiment of a resilient, enduring, and comprehensive partnership. Each narrative drew in substances of identification that reduced recalcitrance, changed perspectives, overcame estrangement, and motivated concerted action.

Chapter 4 outlines benefits of my research for rhetoricians, soft power proponents, and diplomacy specialists. For rhetoricians, I enrich our limited study of diplomatic discourse and generate insight into dramatistic theory and criticism. For soft power theorists, my project as a whole gives explanatory force to soft power as a creation of constitutive rhetoric. The consequent reinterpretation of the telos, processes, and resources of soft power makes soft power attraction more transparent. For the diplomatic corps, I encourage new ways of conceptualizing and talking about diplomatic aims and achievements. Chapter 4 thus frames longer-term objectives to further develop the rhetoric of diplomacy, to undertake theory-building in soft power diplomacy, and to integrate soft power diplomacy with diplomatic tradecraft.

Chidambaram, Soundarya. "Welfare, Patronage, and the Rise Of Hindu Nationalism in India's Urban Slums." The Ohio State University, 2012. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1325189441.

Arvids, Matilda. "Authority Patterns Over Time : a comparison of asymmetric relationships on a local level in India between the 1960s, 1980s and 2010s." Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, 2021. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-432718.

Nathani, Inayatali. "Representation of India : an empirical study of Western tourist material." Thesis, Högskolan Väst, Avd för juridik, ekonomi, statistik och politik, 2016. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-9582.

Wilson, Jacob J. "Conventional Military Modernization in China and India: A Comparative Historical Analysis." University of Cincinnati / OhioLINK, 2021. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=ucin1627662871990976.

Schiffer, Sharon Nambudripad. "How ending gender violence in India improves the nation's international reputation and tourism industry| A case for nationalism." Thesis, University of Massachusetts Boston, 2014. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=1550780.

As nations have become far more interconnected by means of globalization in the 21st century, the issues that affect one nation often have affects upon others. As India is a nation with a population of more than 1.2 billion, the issues that affect the nation also affect others. As an assault in Delhi, India made international news on December 16, 2012, the international community has become more aware of the incidents of gender-based violence that exist within the country. The ramifications of the international community's knowledge of the assault included a drastic decrease in both its international reputation and its tourism industry. As tourism provided 6.6% of its total GDP in 2012, it is an industry that is integral to the development of the nation. In order for India to increase its reputation and its tourism industry, gender-based violence in the form of assault and trafficking must be eradicated. This thesis will discuss the roots of gender-based violence specifically in India, and a case study of India's fight against colonialism will be used as an example of how a sense of nationalism was essential in meeting the goal of the nation at that time. As colonialism and gender-based violence are both 'enemies' to a nation's autonomy and reputation, this thesis will analyze the fact that the nation's ability to form a cohesive national identity, as it did during British rule, is essential for it to achieve its 2013 goals.

Stewart, Mark James. "'The greatest benefit they ever received from us': British India and the origins of the Great Game, 1757--1805." Thesis, University of Ottawa (Canada), 2005. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/27047.

Aggarwal, Sonia. "State Intervention in the Indian Software Industry." Scholarship @ Claremont, 2012. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/438.

Sharma, Kohsheen. "Voices of Women: The Impact of Women's Political Reservations on Female Child Mortality in India." Scholarship @ Claremont, 2018. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/scripps_theses/1134.

Karlsson, Per. "Ripe for resolution? : How the recent earthquake impacted India-Pakistan relations." Thesis, Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences, 2006. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-415.

The traditional standing in the practice of negotiation which is main concerned with the substance of the proposal for a solution has been somewhat altered by Zartman who do acknowledge the importance of the first idea but adds the dimension of the timing of the efforts for a resolution. Throughout the schools of crisis management and conflict resolution this concept has made its name as the ‘ripeness theory’. The focal point of the theory is termed as the ‘Mutually Hurting Stalemate’ (MHS), a situation where the conflicting parties sense their positions in a hurting impasse.

The concept of a ripe moment does not only centre on the parties’ perception of a MHS but is optimally associated with an impending, past or recently avoided catastrophe. Even though the catastrophe is not necessary to either the definition or the existence of a MHS it provides a deadline or a lesson that pain can be sharply increased in something is not done about it now. This in linked with the idea behind the concept that, when the parties find themselves locked into a conflict from which they cannot escalate to victory and this deadlock is painful to them (although not necessarily in equal degrees or for the same reasons), they seek a way out.

A unique opportunity presented itself when a earthquake struck the areas between India and Pakistan the 8th of October 2005. Did the post-quake scenario present a new opportunity to collaborate on immediate relief activity and long-term build up? Could suspicion be buried with the wreckage? Could the disaster be a push to intensify the peace process?

The aim of this study is to find out if the disaster has made the conflict ripe for resolution or more advanced mediation. The empirical chapters is going down two avenues including the political elites (and their actions) as well as the internal political process which in this study is made up by a) the militancy, and b) editorials from major Pakistani and Indian newspapers.

The results of the study can be summed with that the earthquake has not made the conflict ripe for resolution (as in final resolution) but definitely made it ripe for more advanced mediation. This is based on the numerous important counter building measures carried out by the elites of India and Pakistan and the fact that the Kashmiri people were involved in the process. As for the internal political process the militancy did not show any will of collaborate or changing position in the conflict. The results of the newspaper’s editorials is not entirely positive either although both Pakistan and Indian newspapers had a rather positive outlook towards the increased Indo-Pak cooperation and the prospects for the future.

Read our research on: Israel | Internet & Technology | Religion

Regions & Countries

About half of republicans now say the u.s. is providing too much aid to ukraine.

The Ukrainian flag flies near the U.S. Capitol on Dec. 21, 2022, the night Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy addressed a joint meeting of Congress. (Drew Angerer/Getty Images)

As the war in Ukraine nears the two-year mark, about three-in-ten Americans (31%) say the United States is providing too much assistance to Ukraine in its fight against Russia, while about half say that the U.S. is providing the right amount of support (29%) or not providing enough (18%).

A horizontal stacked bar chart showing that Americans are split over U.S. support for Ukraine.

The share of Americans who say the U.S. is giving too much support to Ukraine has grown steadily over the course of the war, especially among Republicans.

Pew Research Center conducted this study to track Americans’ views of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. For this analysis, we surveyed 5,203 U.S. adults from Nov. 27 to Dec. 3, 2023. Everyone who took part in this survey is a member of the Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel that is recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses. This way nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, education and other categories. Read more about the ATP’s methodology .

Here are the questions used for this analysis , along with responses, and its methodology .

A new Pew Research Center survey, conducted Nov. 27 to Dec. 3, 2023, among 5,203 members of the Center’s nationally representative American Trends Panel, finds that:

  • 48% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents say the U.S. is giving too much aid to Ukraine. This share is up modestly from June, when 44% said this, and is substantially higher than it was at earlier stages in the war.

A vertical stacked bar chart showing that, since Russia’s invasion, Republicans have grown increasingly skeptical of U.S. aid level to Ukraine.

  • Just 16% of Democrats and Democratic leaners view the current level of U.S. aid as excessive. Around four-in-ten Democrats (39%) say the U.S. is providing the right amount of aid, while around a quarter (24%) say the U.S. is not providing enough assistance.
  • Partisan differences over Ukraine aid have grown wider. In the first weeks of the war , Republicans were only 4 percentage points more likely than Democrats to say the U.S. was providing too much aid to Ukraine (9% vs. 5%). Today, Republicans are 32 points more likely to say this.

Public attention to the Russia-Ukraine conflict is little changed in recent months. Six-in-ten Americans, including similar shares of Republicans (62%) and Democrats (61%), say they follow news about the invasion at least somewhat closely.

How much of a threat to the U.S. is Russia’s invasion of Ukraine?

A line chart showing that Democrats remain more likely than Republicans to view Russia’s invasion as a major threat to American interests.

A third of Americans say Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is a major threat to U.S. interests. A similar share (34%) say it is a minor threat, while 10% say it is not a threat.

These views have changed only modestly since June. But in March 2022 , half of Americans said Russia’s invasion posed a major threat to U.S. interests.

As has been the case for the last year, Democrats are more likely than Republicans to say Russia’s invasion is a major threat (40% vs. 27%). But people in both parties are less likely to say this now than in the early days of the war in March 2022.

Views of the Biden administration’s response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine

A diverging bar chart showing that Americans are split on Biden administration’s response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

Around four-in-ten U.S. adults (39%) say they approve of the Biden administration’s response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, while a similar share (41%) disapprove. Two-in-ten say they are not sure.

Disapproval of the administration’s response has increased slightly (from 35% to 41%) since June.

A majority of Democrats (59%) approve of the administration’s response, while 22% disapprove. In contrast, a slightly larger majority of Republicans (63%) disapprove of the administration’s response, while 21% approve.

In both parties, somewhat larger shares now disapprove of the Biden administration’s response to the invasion than did so in June, when 57% of Republicans and 16% of Democrats said they disapproved.

Note: This is an update of a post originally published Jan. 31, 2023, and updated on June 15, 2023. Here are the questions used for this analysis , along with responses, and its method o logy .

political science research topics in india

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Majority of U.S. Public Says Trump’s Approach on Iran Has Raised Chances of a Major Conflict

Majorities of u.s. veterans, public say the wars in iraq and afghanistan were not worth fighting, a new perspective on americans’ views of israelis and palestinians, americans divided over decision to withdraw from syria, how people in india see pakistan, 70 years after partition, most popular.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .

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December 11, 2023

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What happens when you can't be yourself at work

by Benjamin Kessler, George Mason University

hidden face

Like many other essentials of life, our sense of self is something we often take for granted, until it's under threat. When our circumstances appear at odds with who we feel ourselves to be, we are pitched headlong into a distressing state that scholars call "identity threat", which has been the subject of research from fields as disparate as marketing and political science.

But this extensive body of literature—until now—has lacked something truly fundamental: a rigorous way to measure identity threat that distinguishes it from related constructs such as self-esteem and identity suppression.

Heather Vough, an associate professor of management at the Donald G. Costello College of Business at George Mason University, recently played a major role in developing and trialing an identity threat scale. She also co-authored an academic paper about the project, which was published earlier this year in the Journal of Applied Psychology .

Her collaborators were Mailys M. George of EDHEC Business School, Caroline Strauss of ESSEC Business School, and Julija N. Mell of Erasmus University.

"We wanted to put together a measure to really understand identity threat and the impact it can have on people in different scenarios," Vough says. "When we use different measures, it's hard to compare. This was created to be more comprehensive and directly about the threat, so we can build our knowledge."

The researchers designed their scale to account for the highly personal, subjective nature of identity and the wide range of threats that can come up in various environments. Following frameworks from an influential 2011 paper , they divided identity threat into three main types—threats to identity value, meanings, and enactments.

"Identity value" refers to the esteem or worth placed on a given identity. "Identity meanings" are the self-interpretations people assign to their identity. "Identity enactments" are the behaviors that go along with an identity.

After extensive vetting by a panel of 40 subject matter experts, the scale was used to generate a series of surveys adapted for different groups likely to be experiencing identity threats at work.

Participants included 447 teachers and professors presumably threatened by technological change in their industry (amplified by the COVID pandemic, which began during data collection). An additional study involved 195 pregnant women in leadership positions who potentially were experiencing threats to their professional identity because of how their pregnancy was perceived by colleagues.

Widening their scope to include non-work-related identities, the researchers surveyed 350 LGBTQ professionals, a demographic group often discriminated against because of their marginalized identity.

Across these vastly different cohorts, the surveys produced intelligible results showing how personal experiences of identity threat led to consistent emotional and behavioral outcomes. For example, it was discovered that teachers who were forced to move classes online—and not those still teaching in-person—experienced enactment-based identity threat that was correlated with emotional exhaustion.

"There's evidence that this measure is not just limited to professional identities, but also demographic and other types of identity as well," Vough summarizes.

Taken together, the studies imply identity threat contributes to not only emotional exhaustion but also intention to leave one's job and decreased job performance. However, the impact on performance was relatively modest. As Vough explains, "You can't really let performance go" without risking your paycheck. The imperative to maintain performance levels while suffering through exhaustion and pining for escape is a likely psychological precursor to burnout.

Fortunately, managers are not powerless to combat identity threats. At the very least, they should focus on common interpersonal triggers such as workplace discrimination and incivility. Beyond that, Vough suggests, managers should get to know the meanings and enactments that are important for their employees.

That way, they can help employees handle unavoidable moments of threat, thereby forestalling a full-blown identity crisis. Managers should be especially vigilant during periods of organizational change, which have been known to precipitate waves of identity threat throughout the workforce.

At the same time, Vough stresses that no two individuals have precisely the same relationship to their identity. Conditions that might be threatening for one member of an identity grouping might be taken in stride by another. Moreover, not all identity groupings are equally well understood in their responses to threats, owing to gaps in the research literature. Vough hopes her identity threat scale will help scholars fill in those gaps.

"There's a fair amount of research about gender-related threat , especially in the context of STEM, as well as race. But we need more knowledge about threats based on age, disability, etc. When we think of diversity, we think of race and gender, but diversity is so much more than that," Vough says.

Journal information: Journal of Applied Psychology

Provided by George Mason University

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political science research topics in india

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Dec 11, 2023

political science research topics in india

People overestimate social consequences of saying no to an invitation, finds study

political science research topics in india

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political science research topics in india

A quarterly publication, the journal reflects the intellectual tradition and dedication of its parent body, the Indian Political Science Association (IPSA),toward the advancement of political science, scientific study of politics, and dissemination of knowledge through rigorous political inquiry. Journal information 2015 (Vol. 76) 2014 (Vol. 75)

Studies in Indian Politics: Sage Journals (SIP) features research writings on various aspects of Indian politics. Articles based on original research and carried out in qualitative and quantitative methodological frameworks are published in SIP. With India being the … | View full journal description

Frontiers in Political Science | Research Topics 144 Research Topics Submission open The Evolution of Homeland and Civil Security Policies around the World: Values and Resilience Andrea Jerković Alta Grobbelaar Cihan AYDINER 136 views Submission open Gender and the Continuum of Violence in Migration Evangelia Tastsoglou Myrna Dawson Jane Freedman

Dec. December 19, 2023. 3:45 pm to 5:15 pm. ADD TO CALENDAR. The Centre for Policy Research (CPR) has been one of India's leading public policy think tanks since 1973. The institution nurtures and supports scholarly excellence.

Indian public opinion on national conditions. 1 Indian adults certainly recognize that their personal economic well-being has benefited greatly from strong national economic performance: Indian economic growth has averaged 7.3% per year since 2014. Roughly two-thirds (65%) say the financial situation of average people in India is better today ...

Politics/Public Policy--India. Consortium for Trade & Development. NGO which aims at influencing policies with a focus to drive gender neutral human resource development with an emphasis on overall socioeconomic development. Resources include climate briefs, trade briefs, & working papers.

The Shodhganga@INFLIBNET Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access. ... 56 Political Science; ... 49 Social Sciences General; 11 Political science; 5 Andhra Pradesh; 4 India; 3 Justice; 3 Political parties; 2 Afghanistan; 2 Andhra pradesh ...

7Case studies analyze elections from the vantage point of a relatively limited political territory, which can be the village (for instance Somjee 1959), the city (or, within the city, the mohalla, the basti), the constituency, the district, or the state. The major discipline involved in this type of research has been political science.

by Tanweer Fazal 150-152 Book review: Jelle J. P. Wouters, ed. Vernacular Politics in Northeast India: Democracy, Ethnicity & Indigeneity by Ankur Tamuli Phukan 152-153 Book review: Subrata K. Mitra, Governance by Stealth: The Ministry of Home Affairs and the Making of the Indian State

CURRENT ISSUE. pp. 7-157. With the latest table of contents. When new articles are published online. Browse all issues of Studies in Indian Politics.

New research helps explain why Indian girls appear to be less engaged in politics than Indian boys. Sara Wilf, University of California, Los Angeles. A survey of over 600 teens and young adults ...

800 Political Science Research Paper Topics Political science is a dynamic field that offers a multitude of avenues for exploration and inquiry.

People in the Central part of the country are the least likely to lean toward democracy (33%), while support for a democratic form of government (instead of a leader with a strong hand) is considerably higher in the Northeast (61%), South (53%) and North (51%).

Book review: Anupama Roy, Citizenship Regimes, Law, and Belonging: The CAA and the NRC. Raeesa Vakil. xml GET ACCESS. Table of contents for Studies in Indian Politics, 11, 1, Jun 01, 2023.

Updated 20 Nov 2023 Political Science research papers can easily become overly complex and weak if there are too many ideas scattered across assignment. In order to remedy such situation, choose suitable political science research topics that not only meet initial requirements, but suit author's personal interest and skills.

Political science research topics include topics related to international relations, domestic relations, comparative politics, public administration, public policy, political behaviour, public law, and security studies of the countries associated.

Public policy Examples of politics-related dissertations Topics & Ideas: Political Theory An analysis of the impact of feminism on political theory and the concept of citizenship in Saudi Arabia in the context of Vision 2030 A comparative study of the political philosophies of Marxism and liberalism and their influence on modern politics

No worries! We know how difficult it is to find the right research topic when you are asked to select the topic on your own. So, to help you, in this blog post, we have shared a list of the best political science research topics along with the do's and don'ts to be followed when writing a political science research paper.

September 13, 2022 Coming up with good political science research topics may seem like a daunting task. Whether you're interested in foreign policy, international conflict, or immigration policy, it is worthwhile to take some time to research and find out which topics are currently relevant before diving into research.

How does civil republicanism contrast with Liberalism? The justification of Liberal democracy. How modern political virtue is linked to the Mutual tolerance approach. Neopatrimonialism Society risk.

February 16, 2021 0 2886 So, you are looking for political science research topics. Well, let Duniakagyan offer you a detailed list of topics. We also provide tips on how to write a project, what to write, and more. Political science is a broad and dynamic subject. So, you have plenty of scope for research.

Comparative Politics Research Paper Topics. There is always a lot to compare when it comes to talking about politics. So, here are some topics that you might fancy writing about. Abraham Lincoln's Lyceum Address in comparison to modern political speeches.

Research methods are continually advancing, and the Covid-19 pandemic once again demonstrated the ingenuity and adaptability of scholars in political science and other disciplines when confronted with novel challenges. While the pandemic facilitated a surge in online data collection methods, such as interviews conducted via videoconferencing, we believe that this represents just one of the ...

List of dissertations / theses on the topic 'Political science, india'. Scholarly publications with full text pdf download. Related research topic ideas.

A new Pew Research Center survey, conducted Nov. 27 to Dec. 3, 2023, among 5,203 members of the Center's nationally representative American Trends Panel, finds that: 48% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents say the U.S. is giving too much aid to Ukraine. This share is up modestly from June, when 44% said this, and is ...

The imperative to maintain performance levels while suffering through exhaustion and pining for escape is a likely psychological precursor to burnout. Fortunately, managers are not powerless to ...

Department of Political Science University of Washington 101 Gowen Hall, Box 353530 Seattle, WA 98195

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