தமிழ்நாட்டின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் பட்டியல், பெயர், காலம், இயக்கம்_00.1

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தமிழ்நாட்டின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் பட்டியல், பெயர், காலம், இயக்கம்

இந்தியாவின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்டத்தில் முக்கியப் பங்காற்றிய அவர்களின் பெயர்கள், காலங்கள் மற்றும் தொடர்புடைய இயக்கங்கள் உள்ளிட்ட தமிழ்நாடு சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் பட்டியலைப் பெறுங்கள்.

தமிழ்நாட்டின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் பட்டியல், பெயர், காலம், இயக்கம்_20.1

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தமிழ்நாட்டின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள்

இந்திய சுதந்திரப் போராட்டத்தில் தமிழ்நாட்டின் விடுதலைப் போராளிகள் முக்கியப் பங்காற்றினர். பிரிட்டிஷ் காலனி ஆதிக்கத்திலிருந்து இந்தியாவின் விடுதலைக்காகப் போராடிய பல முக்கிய தலைவர்களின் தாயகமாக தமிழ்நாடு இருந்தது. V.O சிதம்பரம் பிள்ளை முதல் கே.காமராஜ் வரை இந்தத் தலைவர்களும் அவர்களது இயக்கங்களும் தலைமுறை தலைமுறையாக சுதந்திரப் போராட்டத்தில் ஈடுபடத் தூண்டியது.  இக்கட்டுரையில், தமிழ்நாட்டின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்களின் பட்டியல், அவர்களின் பெயர்கள், காலங்கள் மற்றும் அவர்கள் தொடர்புடைய இயக்கங்கள் ஆகியவற்றை ஆராய்வோம்

தமிழ்நாட்டின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் : மகாத்மா காந்தி மற்றும் பிற குறிப்பிடத்தக்க தலைவர்களின் பணியைத் தவிர, சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் தமிழ்நாடு இந்திய சுதந்திரத்தில் முக்கிய பங்கு வகித்தது. தமிழ்நாட்டின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் பலர் ஆங்கிலேயர் ஆட்சியை எதிர்த்தனர்.

தீரன் சின்னமலை ஆங்கிலேயர் ஆட்சிக் காலத்தில் இந்தியாவில் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர். பிரிட்டிஷ் அரசால் தூக்கிலிடப்பட்டார். அவரது நினைவாக கிண்டி அருகே அவரது சிலை நிறுவப்பட்டது.

தமிழ்நாட்டின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் பட்டியல், பெயர், காலம், இயக்கம்_30.1

முதல் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள்

அம்புஜம்மாள் எஸ். சீனிவாச ஐயங்கார் மற்றும் அவரது மனைவி ரங்கநாயகிக்கு 1899 ஜனவரி 8 அன்று பிறந்தார். சீனிவாச ஐயங்கார் சென்னை மாகாணத்தில் இந்திய தேசிய காங்கிரஸின் முன்னணி தலைவர்களில் ஒருவராகவும், ஸ்வராஜ் கட்சியின் தலைவராகவும் பணியாற்றினார். அம்புஜம்மாளின் தாய்வழி தாத்தா சர் வி. பாஷ்யம் ஐயங்கார் ஆவார், இவர் மெட்ராஸ் பிரசிடென்சியின் அட்வகேட் ஜெனரலாக நியமிக்கப்பட்ட முதல் பூர்வீக இந்தியர் ஆவார். அம்புஜம்மாள் கும்பகோணத்தைச் சேர்ந்த வக்கீல் எஸ் தேசிகாச்சாரியை 1910 இல் மணந்தார்.

மற்ற சுதந்திர போராட்ட வீரர்களின் பங்கு

வி.வி.எஸ்.ஐயர், வி.கல்யாணசுந்தரம், ஜானகி தேவர், சுப்ரமணிய சிவா, சத்தியமூர்த்தி, சர் பி.எஸ்.சிவசுவாமி ஐயர், வாஞ்சிநாதன், சம்பகாராமன் பிள்ளை, தி.சதாசிவம், திருப்பூர் குமரன், லக்ஷ்மி சேகல், ஜானகி, அதி நாகப்பன் போன்ற சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் தங்கள் வாழ்க்கையை இந்திய சுதந்திரப் போராட்டத்திற்காக அர்ப்பணித்தவர்கள். அனைவரும் தங்கள் பிராந்தியத்தில் பிரிட்டிஷ் காலனித்துவத்தை எதிர்த்தனர். அவர்களில் பெரும்பாலோர் பிரிட்டிஷ் காலனித்துவத்தை எதிர்த்த கவிஞர்கள், இலக்கியங்கள் மற்றும் வணிகர்கள். வாச்சிநாதன் தனது துணிச்சலுக்குப் பெயர் பெற்றவர், ஜெனரல் ஆஷைக் கொன்று, மணியாச்சியில் தற்கொலை செய்துகொண்டார். வி. கல்யாணசுந்தரம், வி.வி.எஸ். ஐயர், சுதந்திரப் போராட்டத்தில் ஈடுபட்ட தமிழறிஞர்கள். எஸ். சுப்ரமணிய ஐயர் சுதந்திரத்திற்காக ஒரு முக்கியப் பங்காற்றிய வழக்கறிஞராக இருந்தார், அவர் “ஹோம் ரூல் இயக்கத்தின்” இணை நிறுவனர் ஆவார், எனவே அவர் தென்னிந்தியாவின் பெரிய முதியவர் என்று பிரபலமாக அழைக்கப்படுகிறார்.

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Who is first freedom fighter in Tamil Nadu?

Maveeran Alagumuthu Kone (11 July 1710 – 19 July 1759), from Kattalankulam in Thoothukudi District, was an Indian polygar who revolted against the British presence.

Who is the first woman freedom fighter in Tamil Nadu?

Anjalai Ammal took part in all major struggles organised by the Congress for more than two decades. She was among the first few women to get elected to the State legislature.

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essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

India@75 Freedom Fighters: இந்திய விடுதலை போராட்டத்தில் தமிழ்நாட்டு பெண்கள்

இந்திய சுதந்திர போராட்டம் என்றதுமே உடனடியாக நம் நினைவில் வருவதும், நாம் பேசுவதும், காந்தி, நேரு, சுபாஷ் சந்திர போஸ் ஆகியோரைப்பற்றித்தான். ஆனால் சாமானிய பெண்களும் விடுதலை போராட்டத்தில் தங்களை இணைத்துக்கொண்டு போராடினர்.

Tamil Nadu women in the Indian liberation struggle

ரகசியமான போராட்டங்களில் தகவல்களை ரகசியமாக கொண்டுசேர்க்கும் பணிகளை பெண்கள் செய்தனர். சுதேசி இயக்கத்தில் பெண்கள் தீவிரமாக கலந்துகொண்டனர். குறிப்பாக தமிழ்நாட்டை சேர்ந்த வீரப்பெண்மணிகள் இந்திய சுதந்திரத்திற்காக ஆங்கிலேயர்களை எதிர்த்து போராடினர். அப்படியான வீரத்தமிழ் பெண்களை பற்றி பார்ப்போம்.

Tamil Nadu women in the Indian liberation struggle

அஞ்சலை அம்மாள்:

கடலூரை சேர்ந்த அஞ்சலை அம்மாள் சமூக சீர்திருத்தவாதி. 1921ம் ஆண்டு ஒத்துழையாமை இயக்கத்தில் கலந்துகொண்டதன் மூலம், தனது விடுதலை போராட்ட பயணத்தை தொடங்கிய அஞ்சலை அம்மாள், அதைத்தொடர்ந்து உப்புச்சத்தியாகிரகம், வெள்ளையனே வெளியேறு இயக்கம் ஆகிய போராட்டங்களில் கலந்துகொண்டார். அஞ்சலை அம்மாளின் தைரியத்தை பார்த்த மகாத்மா காந்தி, அவரை தென்னிந்தியாவின் ஜான்சி ராணி என அழைத்தார்.

அஞ்சலை அம்மாளை சந்திப்பதற்காக காந்தி கடலூருக்கு வந்தார். ஆனால் அஞ்சலை அம்மாள் காந்தியை சந்திக்க ஆங்கிலேய அரசு தடை விதித்தது. ஆனாலும் புர்கா அணிந்து சென்று காந்தியை சந்தித்தார் அஞ்சலை அம்மாள். விடுதலை போராட்டங்களில் தான் கலந்துகொண்டது மட்டுமல்லாது, தனது 9 வயது மகளையும் கலந்துகொள்ள வைத்தார் அஞ்சலை அம்மாள். விடுதலை போராட்டத்தில் கலந்துகொண்டதற்காக நான்கரை ஆண்டுகள் சிறையில் இருந்த அஞ்சலை அம்மாள், கடைசி குழந்தையை சிறையிலேயே பெற்றெடுத்தார். அப்பேர்ப்பட்ட வீரமங்கை அஞ்சலை அம்மாள்.

Tamil Nadu women in the Indian liberation struggle

ருக்மினி லக்‌ஷ்மிபதி:

இந்திய விடுதலை போராட்டத்தில் பங்குபெற்ற பெண் போராளிகளில் முக்கியமானவர் ருக்மினி லக்‌ஷ்மிபதி. முதல் பெண் கேபினட் மினிஸ்டர் இவர் தான். சுதந்திரத்திற்கு பிந்தைய தமிழ்நாட்டின் முதல் சுகாதாரத்துறை அமைச்சரும் இவரே. 1920களின் தொடக்கத்தில் அரசியலில் அடியெடுத்து வைத்த ருக்மினி, சுதேசி இயக்கத்தில் தீவிரமாக செயல்பட்டார். 1923ம் ஆண்டு இந்திய தேசிய காங்கிரஸில் இணைந்து, இளைஞரணியை வழிநடத்தினார்.

1930ம் ஆண்டு தமிழ்நாட்டில் ராஜாஜி தலைமையில் நடந்த உப்புச்சத்தியாகிரகத்திலும் கலந்துகொண்டார். ராஜாஜி கைதான பிறகு, உப்புச்சத்தியாகிரகத்திற்கு தலைமையேற்று வழிநடத்தியது ருக்மினி லக்‌ஷ்மிபதி தான். பெண்களின் நலனுக்காகவும் முன்னேற்றத்திற்காகவும் பாடுபட்டார். வேதாரண்யம் உப்புச்சத்தியாகிரகத்தில் கலந்துகொண்டதற்காக ஓராண்டு சிறைத்தண்டனையும் பெற்றார்.

தமிழப் பெண்களின் வீரமும், தியாகமும் நிறைந்த வரலாற்றின் ஒரு சில பக்கங்களே இவை. வேலுநாச்சியார், தில்லையாடி வள்ளியம்மை உட்பட தமிழகத்தை சேர்ந்த வீரமங்கைகளின் வரலாற்றுப் பதிவுகள் இன்னும்.. இன்னும்.. ஏராளம்..

essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

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essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

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essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

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Tamil Nadu Freedom Fighters and their role in Independence Movement

Tamil Nadu has its own pride as it has a collection of well known Freedom Fighters from its state. Many freedom fighters have dedicated their life and served themselves for society towards Indian Independence Movement that was against the rule of British. This article will focus manily about the life history and struggle made by each freedom fighter on their behalf.Read more for further informations.

V.O Chidambaram Pillai

V.O Chidambaram Pillai

Veerapandiyan Kattabomman

Veerapandiyan Kattabomman

Tirupur Kumaran

Tirupur Kumaran

Subramanina Bharathi

Subramanina Bharathi

Maruthu pandiyar

Maruthu brothers

Dheeran Chinna malai

Dheeran Chinna malai

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CHAPTER-1 Role of Tamil Nadu in Freedom Struggle, and Social Upliftment

Freedom Struggle in Tamil Nadu

  • Tamil Nadu is a leading area in resisting the British Colonial rule.
  • Palayakarars of the late eighteenth-century made various attempts to establish freedom in Tamilnadu.
  • After the defeat of Palayakarars, Indian sepoys and officers made an uprising in Vellore Fort in 1806 that reflected the feelings of several contentments of South India.
  • Due to Western Education and middle class educated Indian, the struggle took the constitution path
  • The freedom battle in Tamil Nadu was special on the grounds that from the earliest starting point, it was not just a battle for freedom from the English Crown but additionally a battle for freedom from social evil forced by the caste framework.

Role of Tamil Nadu in Freedom Struggle

  • By the early 19th century, educated, white-collar class people started to raise voice for public issues.
  • These white-collar people started the Madras Native Association and Madras Mahajana Sabha.

Madras Native Association (MNA)

  • The Madras Native Association (MNA) was one of the oldest associations formed in South India.
  • Madras native association founded by Gazulu Lakshminarasu, Srinivasanar, and their associates
  • Madras native association formed in 1852.
  • Madras Native association was mostly composed of merchants.
  • The association motive was for individual and business benefits and their primary aim was to decrease the taxes imposed on their business.
  • It also challenged the support of the Britain government to the Christian missionaries.
  • Sometimes they also voiced for the needs of the people.
  • One of the important things done by the Madras Native Association was their legal battle against the government for the ill-treatment of the labourers by tax authorities.
  • This legal battle led to the foundation of the Torture Commission and cancellation of Torture Act which is the collection of tax by torturing the farmer or labours.
  • The existence of the Madras Native Association ended by 1862.

Beginnings of the Nationalist Press

The Hindu and Swadesamitran

  • The first Indian Judge of the Madras High Court, T. Muthuswami was appointed in 1877.
  • The Indian appointed as Judge was widely criticized by the Press in Madras presidency.
  • Thereby people came to know the entire press was controlled by the Europeans.
  • As a result, native people started newspapers to communicate their point of view.
  • Subramaniam, M. Veeraraghavachari, and several others started the newspaper named “The Hindu” in 1878.
  • Swadesamitran, a Tamil patriot magazine started by G. Subramaniam in 1891 and it was turned into daily in 1899.
  • The establishment of the Hindu and Swadesamitran gave light to other newspapers and magazines such as Indian Patriot, South India Mail, Madras Standard, Desabhimani, Vijaya, Suryodayam, and India.

Madras Mahajana Sabha 

  • Madras Mahajana Sabha (MMS) was the earliest association in south India that had a clear nationalist aim. 
  • The founder of madras mahajana sabha is M. Veeraraghavachari, P.Anandacharlu, P. Rangaiah.
  • The demands of Madras Mahajana Sabha are the conduction of Civil Service Exams in India, Cancellation of Council of India in London, the cancellation of high taxes, and reducing the army expense of British from the Indian revenue.
  • These demands are taken by the India National Congress.

Moderate Phase 

  • Provincial affiliation, Madras Mahajana sabha prompted the development of an All India Association, the Indian National Congress from various parts of India went to a few gatherings before the arrangement of the congress.
  • Theosophical Society in Madras, gathering held in December 1884.
  • This meeting was attended by Dadabhai Naoroji, K.T.Telang, Surendranath Banerjee and other leaders.

Nationalists of Tamil Nadu in the Moderate stage 

  • The early patriots accepted in constitutional ways, by exercising Public Hall meetings and debating the issue of the nation in the English language.
  • These views were conveyed to the administration through petitions.
  • During the partition of Bengal, Tilak and others made mass open gatherings, vernacular dialects to address the masses.
  • These early leaders were known as Moderates.
  • Tamil Moderates are V.S.Srinivasa Sastri, P.S.Sivasamy, V.Krishnasamy, T.R. Venkatramanar, G.A.Natesan, T.M.Madhava Rao, and S.Subramaniar.
  • The main meeting of the Indian National Congress was held in 1885 at Bombay. 
  • Out of 72 representatives, 22 individuals were from Madras.
  • Subramaniam by his compositions inspired patriotism to many.
  • Subramaniam with Naoroji and Gokhale for his commitment to the comprehension of the financial abuse of India by the British. 
  • The subsequent meeting of the Indian National Congress was held in Calcutta in 1886, with Dadabhai Naoroji.
  • The third meeting was held at Makki’s Garden, presently known as the Thousand lights, in Madras in 1887 with Badruddin Tyabji as president. 
  • Out of the 607, all India representatives of 362 were from Madras Administration.
  • Tamil Nadu was then part of the Madras Presidency which included present-day Andhra Pradesh (Coastal areas and Rayalaseema), Karnataka (Bengaluru, Bellary, South Canara), Kerala (Malabar) and even Odisha (Ganjam). 

Swadeshi Movement 

V.O.Chidambaram Pillai

  • In 1905, Bengal was Partitioned which ignited the Swadeshi Movement and changed the path of freedom struggle.
  • Many new leaders arrived and particularly a number of leaders came from Bengal, Punjab and Maharashtra.
  • The Calcutta Congress session called the nationwide Swadeshi movement and asked people to boycott foreign goods and promote national education.
  • The swadeshi movement also had its impact on Tamil Nadu.
  • Swadeshi Movement in Tamil Nadu
  • The important leaders of Tamilnadu are V.O.Chidambaranar, V.Chakkaraiyar,  Subramania Bharati and Surendranath Arya.
  • Numerous public meetings were conducted all over Tamilnadu.
  • A number of magazines and newspapers were started to inspire Swadesi feeling.
  • Noticeable journals are India and Swadesamitran.
  • Bipin Pal visited Madras and addressed the youth to participate in the Swadeshi Movement.
  • Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company
  • Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company started by V.O. Chidambaranar at Thoothukudi.
  • He bought two ships.
  • VOV ship name is S.S.Gallia and S.S.Lavo and started transport between Thoothukudi and Colombo.
  • Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company went bankrupt due to double standards by the Government and strong competition from other European companies.

3.Tirunelveli Uprising 

  • O.C got together with Subramania Siva in arranging the factory labourers in Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli. 
  • In 1908, he drove a strike in the European Coral Mills.
  • It coincided with the release of Bipin Chandra Pal. 
  • O.C and Subramania Siva organized public meetings to praise the arrival of Bipin and were arrested. 
  • The two chiefs were accused of rebellion and condemned to thorough detainment.
  • O.C. was given a severe sentence of two life imprisonment. 
  • The updates on the capture started revolts in Tirunelveli prompting the torching of the police headquarters, court, and municipal office. 
  • It prompted the killing of four individuals in an open fire. 
  • O.C. was dealt with rigorous punishment in jail and was made to pull the oil press. 
  • Others captured are G. Subramaniam and Ethiraj Surendranath Arya. 
  • To keep away from police imprisonment Subramania Bharati ran away to Pondicherry which was under French rule. 
  • Bharati’s model was trailed by numerous different patriots, for example, Aurobindo Ghosh and V. V. Subramanianar. 
  • The merciless attack on Swadeshi leaders practically brought the Swadeshi Development to halt in Tamil Nadu. 
  • Revolutionary Activities in Tamil Nadu
  • The Swadeshi movement inspired the youth.
  • Many youths took the revolutionary path.
  • Pondicherry provided a safe place for revolutionaries.
  • Many revolutionaries in Tamil Nadu were trained at India House in London and in Paris.
  • P.T.Acharya, V.V.Subramanianar and T.S.S.Rajan was famous among them.
  • Revolutionary literature was distributed by them in Madras through Pondicherry.
  • Radican papers such as India, Vijaya and Suryodayam came out of Pondicherry.
  • Such revolutionary papers and Bharathi poems were banned.
  • These activities in Pondicherry intensified with the arrival of Aurobindo Ghosh and V.V.Subramanianar in 1910.
  • These activities continued till World War-I.
  • Ashe Murder
  • In 1904, Nilakanta Brahmachari and others started Bharata Matha Society, a secret society.
  • Their objective was to kill British officials and kindle patriotism among the people.
  • Vanchinathan of Sengottai was influenced by the organisation.
  • Vanchinathan shot Rober WDE Ashe, Collector of Tirunelveli in Maniyachi Junction and shot himself.
  • These people failed to inspire people.
  • Annie Besant and the Home Rule Movement
  • Moderates were disappointed with Minto-Morley reforms as it did not provide the responsible government.
  • Despite this, congress extended their support to the British in World War.
  • Annie Besant, an Irish Lady and leader of the Theosophical Society, proposed the Home Rule Movement on the model of Irish Home rule league.
  • Started in 1916, carried demand for home rule all over the country.
  • S.Arundale, B.P.Wadia and C.P.Ramaswamy assisted her.
  • Annie Besant wrote a newspaper called  New India and Commonweal .
  • She remarked, “Better Bullock Carts and Freedom than a train deluxe with Subjection”.
  • Under the Press Act of 1910, Annie Besant asked to pay a hefty amount as security.
  • Annie Besant wrote two books namely,  How India Wrought for Freedom and India: A Nation and a pamphlet on self-government.
  • Many students joined the Home Rule classes, formed into boy scouts and volunteer troops.
  • Annie Besant and her followers were prohibited from making public speeches.
  • Annie Besant was elected the president of the congress session of 1917.
  • Members of the Home Rule movement such as B.P.Wadia played a key role in organising the working classes by forming trade unions.
  • They succeeded in improving their working conditions and made them part of the freedom struggle.
  • The rise of Gandhi as National leader, Annie Besant and the Home rule leagues were eclipsed.

Non-Brahmin Movement and the Challenge to Congress

  • The education grew rapidly in the madras presidency.
  • There was an increase in the number of educated non-Brahmins.
  • Political and social discussions were done by educated non-brahmins.
  • They raised issues such as caste discrimination, unequal opportunities in government employment and representation in elected bodies that were dominated by brahmins.
  • Further, Congress was fully composed of Brahmins.

     (a) The South Indian Liberal Federation (SILF)

  • The Non-Brahmins organised political organisation.
  • Natesanar a.k.a C. Natesa Mudaliar founded the Madras Dravidian Association in 1912.
  • In June 1916 he established the Dravidian Association Hostel for non-Brahmin students. 
  • He also played a key role in uniting two big non-brahmin leaders T.M.Nair and P.Thyagarayar.
  • Both of them were earlier part of congress and sidelined by the congress.
  • On 20 November 1916, a meeting was held at Public Hall in Chennai under the leadership of P.Thyagarayar, T.M.Nair and C.Natesanar with about 39 Non-Brahmins.
  • SILF was founded to promote the interests of the non-Brahmins.
  • The newspaper published by the South Indian Liberal Federation are Justice (English), Dravidian (Tamil), and Andra Prakasika (Telugu).
  • The South Indian Liberal Federation was later known as Justice Party after its English Daily named Justice.

      (b)   Demand for Reservation

  • The non-Brahmin manifesto was released.
  • Reservation of jobs for non-brahmins in government service, and seats in representative bodies.
  • Non-brahmins feared that the Home rule movement was a brahmin and might give more powers to the brahmins.
  • It also criticised the Congress party controlled fully by brahmins.
  • Montagu’s announcement of political reforms of 1917 intensified political discussions in Tamil Nadu.
  • The justice party demanded communal representation.
  • The Madras government was also supportive of the Justice Party.
  • The Justice party believed that English rule was conducive for the development of the non-brahmins.
  • The act of 1919 provided reservation of seats to non-Brahmins, a move welcomed by the Justice party and criticised by the congress.

     (c) Justice Ministry

Justice Ministry in Madras Presidency

  • The congress boycotted the elections of 1920. Find out why?
  • The justice party won 63 out of 98 seats in the Legislative Council.
  • Subbarayalu of the Justice Party became the first Chief Minister.
  • After the 1923 election, Raja of Panagal of the Justice Party formed the ministry.
  • Justice party introduced reservations for non-brahmins in appointment in local bodies and educational institutions.
  • They established the Staff Selection Board which later became the Public Service Commission.
  • They enacted the Hindu Religious Endowment Act and Madras State Aid to Industries Act.
  • Muthulakshi Reddy proposed this bill in the 1930s.
  • But this bill was passed during the Premiership of O.P. Ramaswamy Reddiyar called Omandur Reddy.
  • The abolition of the devadasi system is referred to as Madras Devadasis (Prevention of Dedication) Act or Tamil Nadu Devadasis Act.
  • This act was enacted on 9 October 1947.
  • Periyar E.V.Ramasamy was part of Devadasi abolition bill and suggested to pass as Private Bill rather than Public Bill.
  • They allotted the Poramboke Land (Waster Government Lands) to the poor for housing.
  • Primary education to the depressed classes through fee concessions.
  • Scholarship and mid-day meals programme for students.

Government’s Repressive Measures

  • Rowlatt Act
  • After World War-I, the British passed a draconian Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act popularly known as the Rowlatt Act.
  • The act was named after Sir Sidney Rowlatt, who passed in 1919.
  • According to the Rowlatt act, anyone could be imprisoned on charges of terrorism without judicial process.
  • Gandhi went against the Rowlatt act by non-violence method known as the Satyagraha that he used in South Africa.
  • Rowlatt Satyagraha on march 18,1919 Gandhi addressed a meeting on Marina Beach.
  • On 6 April 1919 hartal was organised to protest against the “Black Act”.
  • Protest demonstrations were held in several parts of Tamil Nadu.
  • Procession from many areas of the city gathered at Marina Beach.
  • The large gathering devoted the whole day to fasting and prayer in the marina beach.
  • Madras Satyagraha Sabha was formed.
  • Rajaji, Kasturirangar, S.Satyamurti and Geoge Joseph addressed the meeting.
  • A separate meeting of workers was addressed by V.Kalyanasundaram a.k.a Thiru.V.Ka, B.P.Wadia and V.O.C. 
  • The important feature of this movement was a large number of students, women and working-class people participated.
  • George Joseph
  • George Joseph, a barrister and good speaker led from the front for the cause of the Home rule league in Madurai.
  • Born in Chengannur, Alappuzha district, Kerala and practised as a lawyer.
  • He led vaikom satyagraha in kerala.
  • He championed the cause of the “criminal tribes of Tamilnadu”.
  • He was affectionately called “Rosaappu Durai” by the people.
  • Helped Harvey Mill workers of Madurai to set up Madurai Labour Union in 1918.
  • The initial struggles of the union resulted in higher wages and reduced work hours.

      (c) Khilafat Movement

  • After World War-I, the Caliph of Turkey was humiliated and all its power was taken away.
  • To restore the Caliph the Khilafat movement was started.
  • In Tamil Nadu, Khilafat Day was observed on 17 April 1920, with a meeting led by Maulana Shaukat Ali.
  • Another conference was held at Erode.
  • Vaniyambadi was the epicentre of Khilafat agitation in Tamil Nadu.

     (d) Non-Cooperation Movement

  • Tamil Nadu was active during the non-cooperation movements.
  • Rajaji and E.V.Ramaswamy provided leadership to the non-cooperation movement in Tamil Nadu.
  • Rajaji worked with Yakub Hasan, found of the Madras branch of Muslim League.
  • Congress volunteers distribute pamphlets, maintaining order in the public meetings.
  • They played an important role in picketing liquor shops.

     (e) No Tax Campaigns and the Temperance Movement

  • As a part of the non-cooperation movement, cultivators refused to pay taxes.
  • The No-Tax Campaign took place in Thanjavur.
  • Councils, schools and courts were boycotted.
  • Foreign goods were boycotted.
  • The worker announced strikes.
  • One of the important features of the movement in Tamil Nadu is a movement against liquor that is called the Temperance Movement.
  • Toddy shops were picketed.
  • The agitation by communities against the Criminal Tribes Act.
  • In 1921, November, it was decided to organise civil disobedience.
  • Rajaji, E.V.Ramasamy (Periyar) and Subramania Sastri were arrested.
  • The Visit of the Prince of Wales on 13 January 1922 was boycotted.
  • Two were killed and many injured by Police repression.
  • The Non-Cooperation movement was withdrawn in 1922 after the Chari Chaura Incident which killed 22 policemen.

(f) E.V.R. and the Constructive Programme

  • He campaigned for the promotion of the sale of khadi.
  • He opposed the consumption of liquor.
  • He cut down the entire coconut grove owned by him.
  • He played a key role in Vaikom Satyagraha, in Travancore.
  • In those days, so-called low caste people, even cannot walk on the road near to temple.
  • After several leaders of Kerala were arrested, Periyar went to Kerala to make the Vaikom Satyagraha.
  • For leading the Vaikom Satyagraha he was imprisoned for a month.
  • Even after the release, he was arrested again for making inspiring speeches and he was imprisoned for six months.
  • After the release, he was arrested again for the speeches to promote Khadi.
  • In June 1925, the ban on the roads around the temple in Vaikom was lifted.
  • For his contribution in Vaikom Satyagraha, he was hailed as ‘Vaikom Hero’.

(g) Cheranmahadevi Gurukulam Controversy

  • By this time EVR, dissatisfied with the Congress, felt it was promoting the interest of the Brahmin alone.
  • Cheranmadevi Gurukulam controversy and opposition to communal representation with the congress led EVR to leave the congress.
  • For the cause of National education, a gurukulam was established in Cheranmadevi by V.V.Subramanianar and it received funds from the congress.
  • But the students were discriminated against on the basis of caste.
  • For Brahmin and Non-Brahmin students were made to dine separately and food served too was different.
  • The issue was brought to the notice of EVR who criticised it along with Dr P.Varadarajulu.
  • In the Kanchipuram Conference of Tamil Nadu Congress Committee that held on 21 November 1925, he raised the issue of representation for non-brahmins in the legislature.
  • His resolution was defeated, EVR left the conference with other non-brahmin leaders.
  • Soon EVR left the congress and started a self-respect movement.

(f) Swarajists–Justicites Rivalry

  • The congress was divided after the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement.
  • The division was between the people who want to quit the councils and people who want to continue in the council and contest for elections.
  • Rajaji and other Gandhian followers opposed the council entry.
  • Rajaji, Kasturirangar and M.A.Ansari advocated the boycott of the councils.
  • Opposition to this led to the formation of the Swaraj Party within the congress by Chittaranjan Das and Motilal Nehru.
  • In Tamil Nadu the Swarajist were led by S.Srinivasanar and S.Satyamurti.

(g) Subbarayan Ministry

  • In the election, the Swarajists won the majority in 1926.
  • But it refused to accept the congress policies.
  • Instead, they supported an Independent P.Subbarayan to form the ministry.
  • The swarajists did not contest in elections held in 1930.
  • That made the justice party win easily and justice stayed in office till 1937.

(h) Simon Commission Boycott

  • Sir John Simon, under him a statutory commission was formed to review the Act of 1919.
  • The disappointment was, the commission is full of white members and there were no Indians in it.
  • As a result, congress boycotted the commission.
  • In Madras, the Simon Boycott Propaganda Committee was set up with S.Satyamurti as President.
  • There was widespread agitation against the Simon Commission.
  • The arrival of the Simon Commission in Madras on 18 February 1929 was greeted with demonstrations and hartals,  Black flags were shown against the commission.
  • The police force suppressed the protest.
  • Neil statue satyagraha of 1927, in madras presidency, to remove Neil Statue who was a war hero of English during the revolt of 1857.
  • Somayajulu and Swaminatha Mudaliar were arrested,  Kamaraj became the leader of the agitation in September 1927.
  • Gandhi gave support to the agitation. The statue was finally moved to Madras Museum when C.Rajaji formed the government in 1937.

Civil Disobedience Movement

(a) Towards Poorna Swaraj

  • In 1920, under the leadership of Gandhi, Tamil Nadu was transforming into a broad-based movement.
  • The Madras session of the India National Congress declared complete independence as its goat in 1927.
  • It appointed a committee under Motilal Nehru to frame the constitutional reforms in opposition to the Simon Commission.
  • In 1929, at Lahore session of the Congress, Poorna Swaraj that is complete independence was adopted on 26 January 1930.
  • And the National Flag was hoisted by Jawaharlal Nehru on the banks of river Ravi as the declaration of independence.

(b) Salt March to Vedaranyam

  • The Viceroy did not accept the demands forwarded by Gandhi, he launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by setting on a salt satyagraha with a march to Dandi on 12 March 1930.
  • Tamil Nadu was at the forefront of the Civil disobedience movement.
  • In madras city, foreign goods were boycotted.
  • Rajaji let a salt satyagraha march to Vedaranyam.
  • The salt satyagraha started from Tiruchirappalli on 13 April 1930 and reached Vedaranya in Thanjavur district on 28 April.
  • A special song was composed for the march by Namakkal V. Ramalinganar with the lines, “ A War is ahead sans sword, sans bloodshed…Join this march .” 
  • On reaching Vedaranyam 12 volunteers under the leadership of Rajaji broke the salt law by picking up salt.
  • Rajaji was arrested.
  • S.S. Rajan, Rukmani Lakshmipathi, Sardar Vedarathnam, C. Swaminathar and K. Santhanam were among the prominent leaders who participated in the Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha.

(c) Widespread Agitations in Tamil Districts

  • Prakasam and K.Nageswara Rao set up camp at Udayavanam near Madras.
  • The police arrested them which led to hartal in Madras.
  • On 27 April 1930 Police clashed with the protester, leaving three dead.
  • The protesters who offered Salt Satyagraha in Rameswaram were arrested.
  • Similar protests in Uvari, Anjengo, Veppalodai, Thoothukudi and Tharuvaikulam were arrested.
  • Mill workers and women participated.
  • Rukmani Lakshmipathi was the woman to pay a penalty for violating the salt laws.
  • Bhashyam popularly known as Arya hoisted the national flag in Fort St. George on 26 January 1932.
  • Satyamurti picketed shop which sells foreign goods, and distributed pamphlets.
  • M.R.Subbaraman and K. Kamaraj played an important role in these protests.

Kodikatha Kumaran Martyrdom of Tirupur Kumaran

  • K.S.R.Kumaraswamy, popularly known as Tirupur Kumaran, carried the National flag and was brutally beaten by Police in Tirupur.
  • He fell dead carrying the National flag.
  • This made the large people participate in the Civil disobedience movement from all sections.

(d) First Congress Ministry

  • Provincial Autonomy was introduced by the Government of India Act of 1935.
  • The Council of ministers were made responsible to the Legislature, which administered the provincial subjects.
  • The Governor had the power to advise the elected government.
  • The Congress won the 1937 elections and the justice party was defeated.
  • Rajaji formed the first congress ministry.
  • Rajaji introduced a prohibition on an experimental basis in Salem.
  • To compensate for the loss of revenue he introduced a sales tax.
  • Rajaji opened temples to the so-called “ Untouchables”.
  • By the serious efforts of T.Prakasam that led to the appointment of a committee to enquire into the condition of the tenants in the Zamindari areas.
  • No measures were implemented to reduce indebtedness.
  • Congress resigned the government due to pulling India into the second world war without consulting the elected congress ministries.
  • A temple entry programme into Madurai Meenakshi Amman was organized by Vaidyanathar, L.N.Gopalsamy,  President and Secretary of Madurai Harijan Sevak Sangh respectively on 9 July 1939.
  • The Temple Entry Authorisation and Indemnity Act was passed in 1939 for the removal of social evils against the depressed classes.

(e) Anti-Hindi Agitation

  • Rajaji introduced Hindi as a compulsory language in School.
  • It was considered as Aryan and North India imposition on Tamil Language and culture.
  • V.R led a massive campaign against the Hindi imposition and organised an anti-Hindi conference at Salem.
  • The Scheduled Castes Federation and the Muslim League extended its support to anti-Hindi agitation.
  • Thalamuthu and Natarajan, two agitators died in prison.
  • A rally was organised from Tiruchirappalli to Madras and more than 1200 protestors including E.V.R were arrested.
  • After the resignation of the congress from the ministry, the governor took over the power and removed Hindi as a compulsory subject.

Quit India Struggle

  • The failure of the Cripps mission made people uncomfortable.
  • Gandhi passed the Quit India Resolution on August 8, 1942, and gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’.
  • The total congress leadership was arrested.
  • Kamaraj escaped from being arrested while returning from Bombay.
  • Kamaraj then organized the underground Quit India Movement in the South.
  • Rajaji and Satyamurti were arrested while distributing the pamphlets.
  • The movement was widespread in Tamilnadu and there were many incidents of violence such as cutting of telegraph lines, stopping railway traffic and setting fire to the post office.
  • A large number of strikes in Buckingham and Carnatic mills, Madras Port Trust, Madras Corporation and the Electric Tramway.
  • Telegraph and telephone lines were cut and public buildings burnt at Vellore and Panapakkam.
  • College students also participated in the protest.
  • The airport in Sulur was attacked and trains derailed in Coimbatore.
  • Congress volunteers clashed with the military in Madurai.
  • There were several instances of police firings at Rajapalayam, Karaikudi and Devakottai.
  • Many young men and women also joined the INA.
  • The Quit India Movement was suppressed with brutal force.
  • The Royal India Navy  Mutiny, the negotiations initiated by the newly formed Labour Party Government in England gave India independence and the country was partitioned to India and Pakistan.

Vellore Mutiny (1806)

  • The British administration prohibited the Hindu soldiers from smearing religious marks on their foreheads.
  • Ordered the Muslims to shave their beard and trim their moustache.
  • This created great anger among soldiers.
  • The soldiers were instigated by the sons of Tipu Sultan to revolt against the British.
  • In 9th July 1806, One of the Tipu Sultan’s daughter was to be married in Vellore.
  • The revolting soldiers gathered at the fort like attending the wedding.
  • The soldiers surrounded the fort and killed most of the Europeans and unfurled the flag of Tipu over the fort.
  • Tipu second son Fateh Hyder was declared as the ruler.
  • But the great British army crushed the revolt.

Subramaniya Siva

  • Subramaniya Siva born in Vathalagundu in Dindugal District.
  • He was a creative writer and a freedom fighter.
  • He was arrested many times between 1908 and 1922 for his antiimperialist activities.
  • While serving prison he suffered from leprosy and shifted to Salem Jail.
  • When Siva was unable to walk due to leprosy, the British Government enacted a law for Siva, stating that leprosy patient should not travel by train.
  • He travelled foot through his whole body was covered with sores.
  • Eventually died of the disease on 23 July 1925.

Subramaniya Bharathiyar

Vanchinathan

S.Satyamurti

  • He was born in Tirumayyam, Madras Presidency on August 19, 1887.
  • He started practising as Lawyer prior to joining the National Movement.
  • At a young age, he emerged as foremost leaders of the Indian National Congress.
  • He was political mentor of K.Kamaraj.
  • Rajagopalachar nominated Satyamurti to succeed him as the President of the India National Congress in Tamil Nadu in 1930.
  • He also mayor of Madras in 1939, leading a campaign to restore public education, improved water supply etc.
  • In 1919, the Congress selected him as its representative to the join Parliamentary committee to protest the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms and the Rowlatt act.
  • To honour him, the Headquarters of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee was named after as Satyamurti Bhavan.
  • He participated in the Swadeshi Movement and Quit India Movement and imprisoned several times.
  • He passed away on 28th March 1943.

Subramaniya Bharathiyar life history (1882 – 1921)

  • He was from Tamil Nadu and was a poet, freedom fighter and social reformer.
  • He was referred to as Mahakavi Bharathiyar.
  • Mahakavi means a great poet.
  • His patriotic songs inspired people to participate in the freedom movement in Tamil Nadu.

Bharathiyar : A poet and a Nationalist

  • He composed songs that are classified as short lyrical on patriotism, devotional and mystic.
  • Bharathiyar basically a lyrical poet.
  • Bharathiyar writings are “ Kannan Pattu ” , “Nilavum Vanminum Katrum”, “Panchali Sabatam”,  “ Kuyil Pattu ”.
  • He was considered as a national poet as he composed a lot of songs on Indian freedom movement, patriotism, nationalism etc.
  • He also outlined his vision for free India in his songs.
  • He published astonishing “Sudesa Geethangal” in 1908.
  • Bharathiyar’s work Panchali Sabatham depicted India as Draupadi, the British as Kauravas and the freedom fighters as Pandavas.
  • In Panchali Sabatham, Draupadi is portrayed as Mother India struggling under English rule.
  • He organised a huge public meeting in Madras in 1908 to celebrate ‘Swaraj Day’ and distributed free printed of his poem named ‘Vande Mataram’, ‘Enthayum Thayum’, ‘Jaya Bharath’.

Bharathi as a Journalist

  • He spent most of his life in journalism.
  • He began his career as sub-editor in  Swadesamitran in November 1904.
  • A newspaper named “India”, in May 1906 declared three slogans of the French Revolution -Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
  • This ignited the Tamil Journalism.
  • Inspired by the French revolution, Bharathi printed in Red Paper weekly.
  • “India” was the first paper in Tamilnadu to publish political cartoons.
  • A Tamil daily named Vijaya was also edited and published by Bharathi.
  • He also published an English monthly named  Bala Bharatha and a local weekly of Pondicherry name  Suryothayam .
  • The police issued an arrest warrant against Bharathi for his work in “India”.
  • Bharathiyar escaped to Pondicherry, a French territory to stay underground and publish the “India”.
  • In Pondicherry, he met Sister Nivedita, a Disciple of Swami Vivekananda, there he added Women’s rights in his policies along with several social issues.
  • There he took the Symbolism of Shakthi as the image of modern women who is powerful, strong, independent and also equal to men.

Early Days of Bharathiyar

  • He was born on 11th December 1882 in Ettayapuram in Tirunelveli.
  • His childhood name was Subbiah.
  • His father name was Chinnaswamy and his mother name was Lakshmi Ammal.
  • He started writing Tamil poems at the age of 7.
  • At the age of 11, he won a debate competition where the ruler of Ettayapuram was present. This was a memorable moment in his life.
  • Thereafter, he was referred to as “Ettayapuram Subbiah” to Bharathi.
  • Afterwards, he was respectfully referred to as Bharathiyar by Nationalist and Tamil lovers.
  • At the age of fifteen, in 1897, Bharathi was marriage to Chellammal.
  • Bharathi then left to Benaras also known as Kashi Varanasi.
  • He then spent two years with his aunt Kuppammal and her husband Krishna Sivan.
  • There he learnt Sanskrit, Hindi and English, and also passed the Entrance examination of the Allahabad University.
  • The Banaras stay changed Bharathi personality, where he changed his appearance with Sikh turban and acquired a bold swing in his walk.

Bharathi During Exile

  • During his exile, he met may leader such as Aurobindo, Lajpat Rai and V.V.Subramaniam whom of them also sought asylum in Pondicherry.
  • The good years of Bharathi’s life were the ten years he spent in Pondicherry.
  • From Pondicherry, he guided several Tamil Youth to the path of Nationalism.
  • This created anger of the British towards Bharathi’s writings.

Bharathi After Exile

  • He met Gandhi at Rajaji home at Madras in 1919.
  • Bharathi entered British India near Cuddalore in November 1918 and he was arrested.
  • In prison, he wrote poems on freedom, nationalism and countries welfare.
  • In his youth day, he good friendship with V.O.Chidambaram, Subramanya Siva, Mandayam Thirumalachariar and Srinivasachari.
  • They used to discuss the problem faced by the country because of British rule.
  • He used to attend the Annual session of Indian National Congress and discuss national issues with extremist leaders like Bipin Chandra Pal, B.G. Tilak and V.V.Subramaniam.
  • He role in Benaras Session in 1905 and Surat Session in 1907 of INC impressed many national leaders.
  • Thus Bharati played an important role in the freedom struggle.

Bharathiyar as a social reformer

  • He was against the caste system and declared there were only two castes, one is men and other is women.
  • He himself removed his Sacred thread (“ poonool ” in Tamil).
  • Bharathiyar also adorned many Scheduled caste people with Poonool.
  • He consumed tea sold in Muslim tea shops.
  • He along with his family attended Church on all festivals.
  • He also fought for Temple entry for Dalits.
  • For all these activities he faced a backlash from his community and neighbours.
  • Bharathi had a clear India until Indians unite as children of Mother India, they will not achieve freedom.
  • He also believed in women rights, gender equality.
  • He believed in women emancipation.
  • He opposed child marriage, supported widow remarriage.
  • He opposed the dowry system.

Bharathiyar – A Visionary

  • His dream of independent India came true after two and a half-decade after his death.
  • His vision of the post-Independence era is taking its shape.
  • Bharathi never thought of himself, he always thought of people and country.
  • That’s why he was referred to as Bharathiyar.
  • Bharathiyar stands a symbol of freedom and nationalism.
  • He passed away on 11th September 1921, only 14 people attended his funeral due to caste expel from a community and fear of government.
  • O.Chidambaram Pillai is remembered by Tamil as Sekkiluta Semmal, Kappalotiya Tamizhan.
  • He was born in Ottapidaram on September 5, 1872.
  • He started his career as a lawyer at Tirunelveli.
  • He encouraged the formation of Trade Guilds and workers association.
  • He was the founder of the  Swadeshi Dharma Sanga Weaving Association and  Swadeshi Cooperative Stores  at Tuticorin.
  • He formed the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company and ran the service between Tuticorin and Colombo.
  • The Partition of Bengal in 1905 dragged him into politics.
  • He organized Coral mill strike in Tuticorin near the seashore that increased workers wages and reduction of working hours.
  • In 1907, he attended the Congress sessions held at surat, where congress split into Extremist and Moderates.
  • He followed the militant leader Bala Gangadhar Tilak and preached his philosophy.
  • He was charged with sedition and sentenced to forty years of imprisonment.
  • He used to pull the oil press(Chekku) in jail.

Kamarajar Life History

  • He was born in 15th July 1903 at Virudupatti now known as Virudhunagr, Madras Presidency, British India.
  • He was one of the greatest freedom fighters of India from Tamil Nadu.
  • His political guru is  Satyamurti
  • Kamarajar entered into the freedom movement of India by taking part in Vaikam Satyagraha in 1924.
  • He enrolled himself as a full-time worker of the Congress Party in 1929.
  • Under the leadership of Rajagopalachari, he participated in the Salt Satyagraha march in Vedarangyam in 1930.
  • Kamarajar imprisoned for two years in Alipore Jail for participating in Vedarangyam Salt march.
  • As a result of Gandhi-Irwin Pact of 1931, he released from the prison.
  • In 1940, he went to Wardha to meet Gandhiji to get approval for the list of Sathyagrahis.
  • He was arrested and sent to Vellore jail as he participated in Quit India Movement in 1942.
  • Then sentenced to three years of jail in Amaravathi Prison.
  • Kamarajar hoisted the India National flag in Satyamurti’s house in 1947.
  • He served as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for nine years and introduced various welfare schemes.

Kamarajar Kalvi Pani (Achievement in Education)

  • He opened many new schools.
  • He made education more accessible to poor and rural children.
  • Kamaraj abolished the Modified Scheme of Elementary Education,
  • increased manifold the number of schools,
  • Kamaraj introduced the noon-meal scheme for school children.

Kamarajar Achievements

  • built a number of dams for improving irrigation,
  • provided more industrial estates,
  • ensured astonishing industrial growth in the state.

Kamaraj as King Maker

  • In 1963, Kamaraj resigned (Kamaraj Plan) his chief ministership to become the President of Indian National Congress and M.Bhaktavatchalam took over the government.
  • The Food shortage and anti-Hindi agitation caused the unpopularity of his ministry.
  • The scholars refer him “King Maker”, as he made Lal Bahadur Sastri as the Prime Minister of India in 1964 and Mrs Indira Gandhi in 1966 after the death of Sastri.
  • He died on October 2nd 1975.
  • The K-Plan is the famous policy framed by him
  • The people affectionately call him ‘Perum Thalaivar’ means ‘Great Leader’.

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essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu And Their Role

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  • Post published: July 19, 2022
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Freedom Fighters and Their Role

Thillaiyadi valliammai freedom fighters from tamil nadu.

• The story of Thillaiyadi Valliammai is about one tiny indomitable flame of bravery that held against the mighty blows of colonial rule in South Africa.

• Born in Johannesburg on 22.02.1898 to Indian migrants from Tamil Nadu, Munuamy and Janaki Ammal. She was deeply influenced by the Civil Disobedience Movement started by Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa and its spectacular effect on the Indian and other

communities there.

• On 14th March, 1913 a controversial judgment was passed rendering all marriages not covered under the Marriages Registration Act of South Africa null and void. This created widespread apprehension among the migrant Indians. Mahatma Gandhi started an agitation to protest this judgment. Thillaiyadi Valliammai actively canvassed and traveled extensively.

• On 28th October 1913 Satyagraha was launched by Kasturba in which Thillaiyadi Valliammai took the plunge. On 22nd December 1913, she was arrested and imprisoned in Maritzburg. The rigorous of the prison took a toll on her health and though released on 11th February 1914. She died on 22nd February 1914 at the tender age of sixteen.

Smt. Rukmini Lakshmipati Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu

• Smt. Rukmini Lakshmipati born on 06.12.1892. In a landlord’s family from Madurai, graduated from Presidency College, Madras and was subsequently married to Dr. Achanta Lakshmipati, a staunch nationalist and thus began an involvement in the national movement for independence. She was deeply influenced by the thought and deeds of such eminent national leaders as Mahatma Gandhi, Sarojini Naidu and C. Rajagopalachari.

• She first made her presence felt in the area of social reform as secretary of the “Bharata Stri Mahamandal”, Madras. She was a prominent member of Women’s Indian Association since its inception. She also had the honour of working as the President of the Youth League in Madras. An organization dedicated to the upliftment of women. To her and similar social reformers, goes the credit of actively pursuing and getting passed social Legislation raising the age of marriage, age of consent etc.

• Mrs. Lakshmipati also presided over the Youth Tamil Conference which was convened at Madurai, Victoria Edward Hall.

• She became a member of the Congress Party in 1923, giving up all her jewellery to the Harijan Welfare Fund of Gandhiji. She further participated in the Salt Satyagraha in 1931 at Vedaranayam and was sentenced to one year’s imprisonment. She was arrested in the Civil Disobedience Movement and sentenced to six months imprisonment.

Rani Velu Nachchiyar Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu

Rani Velu Nachchiyar

• Born in Ramnathpuram in 1730, Velu Nachiyar was the first queen to have ever actively opposed the British rule. She fought against the colonial rulers many years before the Sepoy Mutiny. In collaboration with Hyder Ali and Gopala Nayaker. She waged a war against the British and emerged victorious. Eventually she went on to produce the first human bomb as well as establish the first army of trained women soldiers in the late 1700s.

• Nachiyar was trained in many methods of combat, including war match weapons usage, martial arts like Valari, Silambam, horse riding, and archery. She was a scholar in many languages and was proficient in languages like French, English and Urdu. At the time of death of her husband, King of Sivagangai. She was drawn into the conflict. She escaped the battlefield with her daughter.

• During this period, she formed an army and sought an alliance with Hyder Ali with the aim of launching a campaign against the East India Company in 1780. When Velu Nachiyar found the place where the Company stored some their ammunition. She arranged a suicide attack on the location, blowing it up. Nachiyar reinherited the kingdom of her husband and ruled it for ten more years. In 1790, The throne was inherited by her daughter Vellacci. She granted powers to her daughter with the Marudu brothers to help with the administration of the kingdom in 1780. Velu Nachiyar died a few years later, on 25 December 1796.

Kuyili Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu

Kuyili was born in Kudanchavadi, Sivagangai, situated in the southern part of Tamil Nadu.

Kuyili was born in Kudanchavadi, Sivagangai, situated in the southern part of Tamil Nadu. She belonged to the Sambavar community. The devoted followers of Lord Shiva. Sivagangai was one of the seventy-two palayams into which the Madurai region was divided. In the year 1772, the colonialists attacked the capital of Sivagangai and annexed the region. Kuyili was the Commander-in-Chief to Velu Nachiyar. The queen of Sivagangai (a place in southern Tamil Nadu). The queen was one of the first monarchs to fight against the British in 1780. Kuyili led the queen’s army and sacrificed her life to save the queen and her land.

disguised herself and collected information of the movements of the East India Company. She also trained other women warriors in the capacity of being a commander. She was known for her bravery and courage.

Veerapandia Kattabomman Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu

Veerapandia Kattabomman

• A brave Polygar (feudal title) chieftain in Tamil Nadu in the 18th century, Veerapandiya Kattabomman waged a war against the Britishers 60 years before the Indian War of Independence started in the northern part of India.

• Polygars were feudal lords who were appointed as military chiefs and administrative governors since the time of the Vijayanagara Empire in parts of Southern India. They were given the charge of a group of villages, collected taxes from the peasants and in time. They almost acted as independent chieftains. When the East India Company started seizing control of the region. They came in conflict with the polygars on the question of who would collect taxes – the Company wanted to control them and secure the rights to collect taxes, as well as control territory. Kattabomman refused to give in to the British and waged a war against them. This is often called the First Polygar War of 1799.

• Kattabomman was ultimately captured, sentenced to death and publicly hanged at Kayatharu in 1799.

Subramania Bharati Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu

A born poet and a patriot, Subramania Bharati was greatly moved by the Indian struggle for independence.

A born poet and a patriot, Subramania Bharati was greatly moved by the Indian struggle for independence. A Tamil pundit, he was also accomplished in Sanskrit and Hindi. Editor of Tamil India and English Bala Bharati. Subramania was greatly influenced by Sri Aurobindo and VVS Iyer, and later by Mahatma Gandhi. To symbolize the spirit of national unity he adopted the turban as popularly worn by the Sikhs of Northern India. He was arrested for his nationalistic activities. He inspired people with his poems such as PanchaliSapatam which was an allegory of Bharat Mata.

Subramaniya Siva Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu

Subramaniya Siva

• Subramaniya Sivam, popularly known as Subramaniya Siva was born in Batlagundu village, Dindigul District (Madurai Region) in 1884 to Rajam Iyer and Nagalakshmi. He showed great interest in spiritual enquiry even when young and became an ardent disciple of his uncle who was a sannyasi named Odha Swami. The strained circumstances of his family made him accept a job in the district court. Which he left soon to plunge into the fight for India’s freedom. He was a fine orator, who spoke his mind openly in every context. The principles of Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Who advocated always meeting the adversary with firmness and without compromising, appealed to him very much.

• Some common friends introduced him to VO Chidambaram Pillai (VOC) who had the courage and management skills to compete with British ship companies by starting his own Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company. Siva became a close friend and associate of VOC and started speaking publicly in support of his shipping activities and his role as a Trade Union leader.

• It was thus that Siva and another older Swadeshi enthusiast Padmanabha Iyengar, got together with VOC when he organized a strike in the British owned Coral Mills at Tuticorin. Closely following it on March 9, 1908, they also held a well-attended rally in Tirunelveli to celebrate the release from prison at Calcutta of Bipin Chandra Pal, defying the orders of the district collector Wynch. Wynch got all three arrested and tried in court. They were held in a jail in Palayamkottai and released around the end of March.

• However, the British were smarting from the fiery speeches of Siva and VOC and charged them again with sedition and unmoved by the support that the leaders received from around the country, sentenced them to transportation for 20 years and 10 years. On appeal, they relented and reduced the imprisonment to 6 years for VOC and 3 for Siva in the jail in Coimbatore. Where they were treated harshly and inhumanely.

V.O. Chidambaram Pillai Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu

essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

• Valliyappan Ulaganathan Chidambaram, also known by his initials V.O.C(at times referred to as KappalottiyaTamizhan or ‘The Tamil Helmsman’), was an Indian freedom fighter. He was a prominent lawyer, trade union leader, and leader in the Indian National Congress. He mobilized the workers of the Coral Mills, thereby expanding the social base of the Swadeshi movement. This led to a conflict with the British Raj. In 1906, he established the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company, which competed with the monopoly of the British India Steam Navigation Company.

• Valliyappan, in completion with the British ships, launched the first Indian shipping service between Tuticorin and Colombo with the help of Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company. One of India’s major ports, i.e. Tuticorin Port Trust, is named after him. He was charged with sedition by the British colonial government and was sentenced to life imprisonment. His barrister license was also revoked.

Sundara Shastri Satyamurti Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu

essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

• Sundara Sastri Satyamurti, one of the leading freedom fighters in the province of Madras. He joined politics at an early age and was chosen as a delegate to represent the cause of Indian freedom several times. He visited England on two occasions – with respect to the bill that was to become the Government of India Act (1919) and for pleading the case of Indian freedom (1925), respectively –leading a constructive role. Although he was a Gandhian, he disagreed with his policy decisions on many occasions. Sundara Shastri Satyamurti was arrested on one occasion while attempting to hoist the Indian flag, and yet again during the course of the Quit India Movement.

• S. Satyamurti actively involved in the Swadeshi Movement. He was one of the prominent leaders of the ‘pro-changers’, who were defeated by the ‘no-changers’ in the year 1922. They founded the Swaraj Party and gained council entry in the Madras Province, acquiring experience in the Legislature. He was a member of the Central Legislative Assembly from 1935-1943. Mayor of the Corporation of Madras from November 1939-November 1940. He fought actively for the cause of PurnaSwaraj. thus, held firm belief in Constitutional government and Parliamentary democracy. He persistently opposed the discriminatory caste system prevalent in Indian society.  Sundara Shastri Satyamurti  was also instrumental in getting the Annamalai University Bill passed.

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Tamil Nadu Freedom Fighters

Tamil Nadu , a state in southern India, has a rich history of resistance against colonialism and oppression. The region was under the control of various foreign powers for centuries, including the British Empire, Portuguese, Dutch, and French. Tamil Nadu freedom fighters played a crucial role in India’s struggle for independence and challenged the colonial rule through non-violent protests and armed rebellion.

This article aims to highlight some of the key figures who fought for Tamil Nadu’s liberation from foreign rule. It will explore their contributions to Indian nationalism, their challenges, and their legacy. By examining these historical figures’ lives and struggles, we can gain insight into the complexities of anti-colonial movements while developing a deeper understanding of the region’s past and present political landscape.

Key Takeaways

  • Tamil Nadu freedom fighters played a crucial role in India’s struggle for independence, with the primary objective of achieving self-rule and independence from British colonial rule.
  • Tamil Nadu freedom fighters actively participated in various movements such as the Non-Cooperation Movement, Salt Satyagraha, Quit India Movement, and more, and played a significant role in promoting indigenous industries and boycotting foreign goods.
  • The impact of Tamil Nadu freedom fighters on India’s economy was significant, with the boycott of British goods reducing India’s trade deficit with Britain, and the establishment of the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company contributing significantly to the Indian independence movement.
  • The legacy of Tamil Nadu’s independence struggle is marked by bravery, sacrifice, and commitment to the cause, with monuments and memorials dedicated to Tamil Nadu freedom fighters established throughout the state, and national awards and honors conferred upon them, including the Sahitya Akademi Award and the Bharat Ratna.

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V.O. Chidambaram Pillai (V.O.C.)

V.O. Chidambaram Pillai , a prominent figure in the Indian independence movement and a fervent supporter of Swadeshi, played a crucial role in the boycott of British goods and the establishment of indigenous industries in Tamil Nadu. Born on September 5, 1872, in Ottapidaram, V.O.C. hailed from a family of lawyers who were actively involved in India’s freedom struggle. He completed his law degree from Madras Law College and started practicing as a lawyer.

Despite having a successful legal career, V.O.C. was not content with just earning money and living comfortably. His passion for social reform led him to establish the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in 1906, which aimed to challenge British monopoly over shipping industry by providing affordable transportation services to Indians. This move infuriated the British government, leading to his arrest and imprisonment for sedition.

V.O.C.’s family background fueled his desire for political change and inspired him to fight against colonial rule through non-violent means. With his unwavering commitment towards India’s freedom struggle, V.O.C.’s contribution cannot be overlooked when it comes to shaping Tamil Nadu’s history during that time period.

Transitioning into the subsequent section about ‘the Swadeshi movement ‘, it becomes evident that V.O.C.’s efforts were pivotal towards promoting indigenous industries and creating economic self-sufficiency among Indians.

The Swadeshi Movement

The Swadeshi Movement was a significant phase in India’s history that aimed to promote and encourage the use of indigenous goods and products over foreign imports. The objective of this movement was to build a self-sufficient economy by reducing dependence on foreign goods and promoting local industries. This movement had a profound impact on India’s economy as it led to the growth of various Indian industries, which ultimately contributed towards the development of the country.

Objectives and Significance

The objectives and significance of Tamil Nadu freedom fighters are crucial to understanding the historical context of India’s struggle for independence. The primary objective of these freedom fighters was to achieve self-rule and independence from British colonial rule. They aimed to overthrow the oppressive British regime that had been ruling over India for centuries, and establish a free, democratic nation where all citizens were equal.

The achievements of Tamil Nadu freedom fighters were many. They played an active role in various movements such as the Non-Cooperation Movement, Salt Satyagraha, Quit India Movement, and more. Their fearless spirit and dedication towards their cause inspired thousands of Indians to join the fight for independence. Their contribution towards achieving India’s freedom cannot be ignored or underestimated. Furthermore, their heroic efforts paved the way for future generations who would continue fighting against oppression and injustice in other forms beyond colonialism.

The impact of Tamil Nadu freedom fighters on India’s economy was also significant as they fought not only for political rights but also economic justice. However, we will explore this topic further in the subsequent section about ‘impact on india’s economy’.

Impact on India’s Economy

The role played by Tamil Nadu freedom fighters in the Indian independence movement had a profound impact on the country’s economy. The struggle for independence was not only about political sovereignty but also aimed to address issues such as poverty, inequality, and exploitation of labor. Activists from Tamil Nadu were at the forefront of this movement, fighting against British colonialism and advocating for economic self-reliance.

Tamil Nadu freedom fighters played a crucial role in promoting indigenous industries and boycotting foreign goods, which led to the growth of local industries. This move towards swadeshi (indigenous) goods boosted the country’s economy by creating jobs and spurring innovation. Additionally, the boycott of British goods reduced India’s trade deficit with Britain, which was one of the reasons why they colonized India in the first place. Thus, Tamil Nadu freedom fighters’ contribution to India’s economic growth is an important aspect of their legacy that should not be overlooked.

With their focus on promoting swadeshi industries and reducing dependence on foreign products, Tamil Nadu freedom fighters paved the way for indigenous companies like Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company to thrive. This company went on to become a symbol of Indian entrepreneurship and self-reliance during the pre-independence era.

The Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company

Operating during the early 20th century, Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company was a significant contribution to the Indian independence movement by providing employment opportunities for Indians and challenging British monopoly in shipping. The company was established in 1906 with a capital of Rs. 20 lakhs and operated several steamers between Calcutta and Rangoon. It aimed at promoting Indian entrepreneurship, reducing foreign dependence on shipping, and creating a sense of national pride.

The Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company had far-reaching impacts on India’s economy during colonial rule. Here are some of them:

  • It challenged British monopoly: The company’s establishment marked the beginning of indigenous shipping industry that competed with British shipping companies in India. This challenged the prevailing economic order where most industries were controlled by foreigners.
  • It created employment opportunities: The company provided job opportunities for Indians at various levels such as sailors, engineers, clerks, etc., which boosted indigenous entrepreneurship and self-reliance.
  • It promoted trade: By connecting major ports in India with those abroad, the company facilitated trade and commerce within India and beyond its borders.

The success of Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company inspired many nationalists like V.O.C to take up similar initiatives that would challenge colonialism impact on India’s economy.

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V.O.C.’s Leadership and Inspiration

V.O.C., or Veerapandiya Kattabomman, was a prominent freedom fighter and leader from Tamil Nadu who played an instrumental role in India’s struggle for independence. His leadership qualities and political activism inspired many Indians to take up the cause of challenging British economic dominance by establishing indigenous industries. V.O.C.’s vision for a self-sufficient India led him to establish the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company, which aimed to break the monopoly of British shipping companies.

Apart from his contributions towards economic independence, V.O.C. was also known for his bravery and courage on the battlefield. He fought against the British in several battles, including the Polygar War and the rebellion against British authority in 1801-02. Despite facing numerous setbacks during these conflicts, V.O.C.’s leadership skills inspired his fellow fighters to continue their struggle for freedom.

V.O.C.’s legacy serves as an inspiration not only to those fighting for freedom but also to entrepreneurs seeking to establish indigenous industries today. His contributions towards building a self-reliant India are still remembered with reverence across Tamil Nadu. Other notable Tamil Nadu freedom fighters continued this legacy after V.O.C., each contributing in their own way towards achieving Indian independence.

Other Notable Tamil Nadu Freedom Fighters

V.O.C. played a significant role in inspiring and leading Tamil Nadu’s freedom struggle against British rule. However, he was not the only notable freedom fighter to contribute towards India’s independence movement. There were several other leaders who made significant contributions and sacrifices for their country.

One such leader was Subramanya Bharathi, a poet, journalist, and social reformer who fought tirelessly to uplift the oppressed sections of society. He used his pen as a weapon to inspire people to fight for their rights and freedom from colonial oppression. His contribution towards promoting the Tamil language and culture is noteworthy.

Another notable leader was Kattabomman, a tribal chieftain who defied British rule and refused to pay taxes imposed on him by the East India Company. He paid with his life for his defiance but left behind an enduring legacy of bravery and patriotism that inspired future generations of Indians.

These Tamil Nadu freedom fighters displayed immense courage in their fight against British colonialism. Their contributions and sacrifices have been instrumental in shaping India’s history as an independent nation. The challenges they faced during this period will be discussed further in the next section.

Challenges Faced by Tamil Nadu Freedom Fighters

The struggle for India’s independence was marked by numerous challenges, including the oppression of the British colonial rule. Tamil Nadu freedom fighters were not immune to these difficulties as they also faced political movements that aimed to thwart their efforts. The British empire implemented several measures such as the Rowlatt Act, which restricted freedom of speech and assembly, making it challenging for leaders from Tamil Nadu to mobilize and organize protests.

Furthermore, there were divisions among the leadership of the Indian National Congress (INC), with some members advocating for a more moderate approach while others preferred a more aggressive stance against British domination. These differences led to conflicts within the organization, which had a ripple effect on Tamil Nadu freedom fighters’ activities. Despite these challenges, leaders like Subramanya Bharathi and V.O Chidambaram Pillai continued to inspire and lead their followers in resistance against British oppression.

Tamil Nadu freedom fighters faced many obstacles during their quest for independence from British rule. However, through their unwavering determination and persistence in fighting for what they believed in, they left an indelible mark on India’s history. Their legacy continues to inspire new generations who seek mastery over their lives by standing up against oppression and injustice.

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Legacy of Tamil Nadu Freedom Fighters

The contribution of anti-colonial leaders from Tamil Nadu continues to inspire movements for justice and liberation worldwide. The legacy of Tamil Nadu’s independence struggle is marked by their courage, sacrifice, and unwavering commitment to the cause. Their contributions were not limited to men alone, as women too played an integral role in the freedom movement.

The following bullet points highlight some of the contributions made by Tamil Nadu’s women freedom fighters:

  • Women such as Rukmini Lakshmipathi, who was part of the Indian National Congress and fought against British rule alongside Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Janaki Ammal, a noted botanist who used her knowledge to help India gain independence.
  • K. Thimmakka, who was instrumental in organizing protests against British rule and also worked towards promoting education among rural communities.

Their contributions remain an important part of Tamil Nadu’s history and continue to inspire future generations. In recognizing the efforts made by these brave individuals, we can learn from their struggles towards achieving social justice and equality.

While there have been many challenges faced by Tamil Nadu freedom fighters during their fight for independence from colonial rule, they left behind a powerful legacy that serves as a reminder of what can be achieved through perseverance and determination. The commemoration and recognition of these heroes is crucial in preserving their memory for generations to come.

Commemoration and Recognition

The commemoration and recognition of Tamil Nadu freedom fighters involves the establishment of monuments and memorials, as well as the conferring of national awards and honours. Monuments and memorials serve as physical reminders of the contributions made by these brave individuals to India’s struggle for independence. National awards and honours acknowledge their sacrifices and celebrate their legacy in shaping Tamil Nadu’s political, social, and cultural landscape.

Monuments and Memorials

Monuments and memorials dedicated to Tamil Nadu freedom fighters have been established throughout the state as a way to honor their sacrifices and contributions to India’s independence movement. These structures serve as a reminder of the selflessness and bravery of those who fought for the country’s freedom. Here are some examples of such monuments:

  • The Veerapandiya Kattabomman Memorial Fort in Tirunelveli district, which commemorates the life of Kattabomman , one of the first Indian rulers to oppose British rule
  • The VOC Park and Zoo in Coimbatore, named after Veerapandiya Kattabomman’s ally V.O. Chidambaram Pillai
  • The Anna Samadhi located on Chennai’s Marina Beach, which is dedicated to C.N. Annadurai, a prominent leader during Tamil Nadu’s anti-Hindi agitation
  • The Mahatma Gandhi Mandapam in Madurai, which houses a permanent exhibition about Gandhi and his role in India’s freedom struggle
  • The Periyar Memorial House in Erode district, where social reformer Periyar E.V. Ramasamy lived

These monuments not only pay tribute to these heroes but also provide an opportunity for visitors to learn more about their lives and legacies.

As we move towards our next subtopic about national awards and honours given to Tamil Nadu freedom fighters, it is important to note that these monuments and memorials not only serve as symbols of remembrance but also inspire future generations with their stories of courage and sacrifice.

National Awards and Honours

Monuments and memorials serve as tangible reminders of the sacrifices made by Tamil Nadu’s freedom fighters. These structures stand tall in honor of those who fought for India’s independence. However, the legacy of these brave individuals does not end with these monuments alone. Many of them have been recognized and honored at a national level for their contributions to the country.

Tamil Nadu has produced several presidential awardees and Bharat Ratna recipients who have left an indelible mark on Indian history. The first president of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, awarded Subramanya Bharathi, a renowned poet and nationalist from Tamil Nadu, with the Sahitya Akademi Award posthumously in 1955. Another towering figure in Tamil Nadu’s fight for independence was C. Rajagopalachari, who served as the last Governor-General of India before it became a republic in 1950. He later went on to become India’s first Indian-born Governor-General after Independence and was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1954 for his services to independent India. These national awards are testament to the immense contribution that Tamil Nadu’s freedom fighters made towards securing our nation’s independence.

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. What were V.O. Chidambaram Pillai’s personal beliefs and values?

V.O. Chidambaram Pillai was a prominent Indian freedom fighter whose contributions and ideologies had a significant impact on India’s struggle for independence. He believed in the power of self-reliance, economic empowerment, and non-violent resistance against British colonialism.

2. How did the Swadeshi Movement impact the economy of Tamil Nadu?

The Swadeshi movement had a significant impact on the economy of Tamil Nadu, particularly on agriculture and the role of women. It brought about changes in production techniques and increased participation of women in economic activities, leading to overall development.

3. What specific challenges did the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company face?

The Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company faced challenges such as lack of capital, competition from established European companies, and inadequate infrastructure. Despite these obstacles, the company had a significant impact on the Indian shipping industry and inspired nationalist sentiments.

4. Who were some of V.O.C.’s most important mentors or role models?

V.O.C.’s impact on Tamil Nadu’s independence movement was shaped by his exposure to various influences including the works of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Swami Vivekananda, and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee. These mentors inspired V.O.C. to embrace nationalism and advocate for Indian self-rule.

5. What efforts have been made to remember and honor Tamil Nadu freedom fighters in contemporary society?

To honor and remember Tamil Nadu freedom fighters, various memorial statues have been erected across the state and educational initiatives such as seminars, workshops, and research programs have been organized to spread awareness about their contributions to India’s struggle for independence.

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Remembering Mahakavi Bharathiyar: The forgotten warrior poet from Tamil Nadu

Anand Balasubramanian

Vice-president Venkaiah Naidu wrote in an essay on Bharathi: “He applied the knowledge of the illustrious past to contemporary realities and dreamt of shaping a new brighter future, he was a man with extraordinary vision, passion and erudition.” He wasn’t off target. The occasion was him awarding DR Karthikeyan the Bharathi award for his contributions to the nation on Bharathi’s birth anniversary.

In the state, Bharathi’s birthday is overshadowed by Rajinikanth’s birthday, which the youth of the state prefer to celebrate. Historically, his contributions were marginalised in the state thanks to his caste due to which he was sidelined in favour of other poets. At the national level, unlike Rabindranath Tagore who could not be brushed aside thanks to his Nobel prize and the fact that his poem is the national anthem though he was a regional poet, Bharathi had little to show for outside his run as a journalist, poet, freedom fighter, social reformer, scholar and, above all, a patriot who dreamt for the future of the country.

Born as Subbaiah Pillai to a patriotic father who wanted his son to become an engineer, who could challenge the might of the technical knowledge of the British, Bharathi was more interested in songs and poetry. He got the title Bharathi (someone blessed by Saraswati) from Ettayapuram Maharaja when he was 11 years old. He had immense love for languages. His stay in Varanasi opened his mind to spirituality and nationalism. He also took up social reformation upon seeing the plight of the people of “lower castes”. He left his Hindu Brahmin identity in Varanasi and it cost him dearly in his lifetime — it ostracised him from his community and caused him to be alienated by others as well. To Brahmins, he wasn’t one of their own, to non-Brahmins, he was a Brahmin; to people in general, Bharathi was uncategorised.

His meeting with Sister Nivedita, Swami Vivekananda’s disciple, added women’s rights to his already wide repertoire of social issues from caste to Independence to spiritualism. He took up the symbolism of Shakthi as the image of modern women; powerful, strong, independent and equal partners to men.

subramanya-bharathi_121117080000.jpg

He started working as a journalist and started publishing his writings in the form of prose and poetry on a regular basis, as well as addressing public meetings to garner support for the Independence moment — gaining a following and respect in the process. He is said to have met Gandhi, who invited him as a guest speaker. When the dates didn’t tally, unlike the norm then where they moved the dates, he refused saying that people are more important and they must not be disappointed with the postponement of the meeting. Gandhi is said to have asked to protect this man who stood for what’s right rather than the who’s who.

Having realised that being in prison would not be much help in his mission, he escaped to Pondicherry, which was the underground destination for freedom fighters, and continued to work from there. His Panchali Sabatham (The vow of Draupadi) is an iconic work that pictures India as Draupadi, the British, the Kauravas and the freedom fighters as Pandavas. Through Draupadi’s struggle, he euphemised the struggle of mother India under British rule.

His poetry was, however, not limited to just nationalism or women’s emancipation but also covered a wide spectrum, including romance, devotion, environment, untouchability and the future of India. He dreamt of an India where all the states loved their language while cherishing other languages and cultures. Interest in Bharathi and his poetry was kept alive thanks to the latter’s use as songs in Tamil movies. The poet-freedom fighter himself was revived thanks to the National Award-winning film Bharathi by Gnana Rajasekaran, starring Sayaji Shinde.

It was a travesty that only 14 people attended his funeral, fearing repercussion from the British and caste ostracisation. The bigger travesty was him getting sidelined with the advent of the Dravidian moment in the state which was founded on the basis of Anti-Brahminism. The biggest travesty, however, was the overlooking of the contributions of numerous regional freedom fighters across the states in favour of a select few to suit the narrative of political parties.

Also read: 19-yr-old Tamil youth's arrest over 'filthy' comments on PM Modi in a Facebook chat attacks our basic freedoms

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1. Chinnaswami Subramanya Bharathiyar

Bharathiyar

 Mahakavi Subramanya Bharathiyar was born to Chinnasami Subramanya Iyer and Lakhsmiammaal as “Subbayya” on December 11, 1881 in the Tamilnadu village of Ettayapuram. He was educated at a local high school called “The M.D.T. Hindu College” in Tirunelveli. From a very young age he learnt music and at 11th, he learnt songs. It was here that he was conferred the title of “Bharathi” (one blessed by Saraswati, the goddess of learning).

Bharathi lost his mother at the age of 5 and his father at the age of 16. He was brought up by his disciplinarian father who wanted him to learn English, excel in arithmetic, become an engineer and lead a comfortable life. However, Bharathi was given to day dreaming and could not concentrate on his studies. In 1897, perhaps to instill a sense of responsibility in him, his father had the 14 year old Bharathi, married to his seven year younger cousin, Chellamal.

During his stay in Benares (also known as Kashi and Varanasi), Bharathi was exposed to Hindu spirituality and nationalism. This broadened his outlook and he learned Sanskrit, Hindi and English. In addition, he changed his outward appearance. He also grew a beard and wore a turban.

Soon, Bharathi saw beyond the social taboos and superstitions of orthodox South

2. Tiruppur Kumaran

Tirupur Kumaran

OKSR Kumaraswamy Mudaliar who was a famous freedom fighter in Tamil Nadu and he was born on 04-10-1904 in the small down named as Chennimalai in Tiruppur District of Tamil Nadu. He was popularly known as Tiruppur Kumaran. He involved himself in the Indian freedom movement in his young age and he participated in many struggles in the Indian freedom movement.

Tiruppur Kumaran had played a major vital role in the Indian freedom movement. He started “Desa Bandhu Youth Association” by grouping the youths and young persons from Tamilnadu to struggle against the British government to get freedom. Many persons got inspire and involved in the freedom struggle with Tiruppur Kumaran. He conducted many protest march against the British government in many places of Tamil Nadu. He got more inspiration from the father our Nation Mahatma Gandhi. He followed the procedures and methods which was suggested by Gandhiji in the Indian freedom movement. Tiruppur Kumaran had also participated in Congress movement from the Tiruppur’s contribution.

The Tamil Nadu people are always remembering the contribution of Tiruppur Kumaran for the freedom of India by conducting various functions and programmes by the name of Tiruppur Kumaran. A memorial statue for Tiruppur Kumaran was erected in the park which is very near to Tiruppur Railway station. There is a street by his name which is called as “Kumaran Salai”. There is also a college in his name in Tiruppur and it is called as “Tiruppur Kumaran College”. The Government of India had released a commemorative stamp in his name on October 2004 during the 100th birth anniversary of Tiruppur Kumaran. Get to know more about Freedom fighters from Tamilnadu here!

The great and famous freedom fighter of Tamil Nadu, Tiruppur Kumaran died on 11th January, 1932. His dead was very cruel that the Police assaulted him during the protest against the British colonial government. He was so patriotic that he died by holding the National flag of India which was banned by the British government. He is also called as “Kodi Kaththa Kumaran” due to this incident.

3. Veera Mangai Velunachiyar

Velunachiyar

Veera Mangai Velunachiyar was one of the queens in the 18th century in South India. She rebelled against the British Empire and fought for the freedom of India.  She was born in 1730 AD to the Mannar Sellamuthu Sethupathy and to Rani Sakandhimuthal of  Ramnad Kingdom.  She was the only daughter of this Royal family. The Royal couple had no male heir.  The royal family brought up the Princess, Velunachiyar, like  Prince of Ramnad due to this reason. She was trained in the skills of using weapons and also in martial arts like Valari, stick fighting  etc. She learnt horse riding and archery earlier. The Royal couple had engaged teachers to teach her many languages like French, English and Urdu. Thus this young brave Princess had excellent training in all war techniques. She was a scholar in many languages and was ready to rule the Ramnad Kingdom . She married Sivagangai Mannar Muthuvaduganathar at the age of sixteen.  In the year 1772 , the English invaded her kingdom .

Velu Nachiyar heard that her husband Raja Muthu Vaduganathar and her daughter young Princess Gowri Nachiyar were killed in Kalaiyar Koil war. This war was held in Kalaiyar Koil palace. British troops attacked the palace under the command of Lt.Col. Bon Jour . She was very much worried and wanted to take revenge. Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai and Maruthu brothers sustained injuries. They promised to recapture the samasthan to punish the English. Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai, an incredible and distinguished person was the most powerful administer in Sivagangai samsthanam.  Thandavaraya Pillai, the loyalist served (1700-1773) as Palavay and also as Pirathani under the three rulers of Sivagangai samsthanam. He was responsible for the development of Sivagangai samsthanam . At first he served the King Sasivarna Periya Udaiya Thevar during 1730-1750. Later he served under Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar, the King during 1750-1772 . He also served as *Pirathani to the queen Rani Velu Nachiyar.Here Dalavay means  military chief and the Pirathani means  chief minister. Pirathani was responsible for  the improvement of Foreign affairs. Thus the two charges were the most important and also  powerful .

(Thandavaraya Pillai was the son of Kathavaraya Pillai who was an accountant and also as Karvar, (administer) in this samsthan.He rendered his service with loyalty from the beginning of this samsthanam. He administered well and helped in the development. The King Udaiya Thevar was very much pleased because of his good administration and granted him his hereditary management. It shows the significance of loyalty of Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai.   He advised Veera Mangal Velunachiar to move to different places often in order to avoid British invaders . Meanwhile Dalavay Thandavarayan Pillai wrote a letter to Sultan Hyder Ali on behalf of Velu Nachiyar to provide 5000 infantry and 5000 cavalry to defeat the British army. But unfortunately he passed away due to old age. She decided to meet Hyder Ali after the demise of Dalavay Thandavarayan Pillai  at  Mysore with the help of his son. She could explain in detail in Urdu all her problems with East India Company. She explained him her strong opposition of British regime. Hyder Ali was very much pleased and promised to help her in this conflict… He accepted her request with sympathy and provided the necessary military assistance. He orderd Syed Karki of Dindigul fort gladar to provide the required military equipments to Rani Velu Nachiyar. He released 5000 infantry and 5000 cavalry to Rani Velu Nachiyar immediately. Her troops advanced to Sivaganga with the help provided by Maruthu brothers. The Nawab of Arcot put so many hindrances to avoid the advancement of Rani Velu Nachiyar’s combined troops. The queen and Maruthu brothers overcame all hurdles. They geared up the troops and entered Sivaganga. She defeated the Nawab of Arcot and took him as a captivator. She re-captured her Sivaganga samsthan with the help of Hyder Ali and crowned as queen of the Sivagangai seemai. Velu Nachiyar is only the first queen who raised the revolt  against the British emperor. According to historians. Prof.Sanjeevi  mentioned in his ‘ Maruthiruvar’ book that ‘ the bravery queen Velu Nachiyar raised revolt against English emperor and fought for the freedom of India 85 years before Jhansi Rani’s freedom struggle in North . Venkatam further stated that Velu Nachiyar is India’s Joan of Arc.

4. Vanchinathan

Vanchinathan

Vanchinathan (1886 – June 17, 1911) , popularly known as Vanchi, was an Indian Tamil independence activist. He is best remembered for having shot dead Ashe, the Collector of Thirunelveli and having later committed suicide in order to evade arrest.

Vanchinathan was born in 1886 in Shenkottai to Raghupathy Iyer and Rukmani Ammal. His actual name was Shankaran. He did his schooling in Shenkottai and graduated in M.A. from Moolam Thirunal Maharaja College in Thiruvananthapuram. Even while in college, he married Ponnammal and got into a lucrative Government job.

On June 17, 1911, Vanchi assassinated Ashe, the district collector of Tirunelveli, who was also known as Collector Dorai. He shot Ashe at point-blank range when Ashe’s train had stopped at the Maniyachi station, en route to Madras. He committed suicide thereafter. The railway station has since been renamed Vanchi Maniyachi.

Vanchi was a close collaborator of Varahaneri Venkatesa Subrahmanya Iyer (normally shortened to V.V.S.Aiyar or Va.Ve.Su Iyer), another freedom fighter who sought arms to defeat the British.

Vanchinathan’s letter

“I dedicate my life as a small contribution to my motherland. I am alone responsible for this. 3000 youths of this brave country have taken an oath before mother Kali to send King George to hell once he sets his foot on our motherland. I will kill Ashe, whose arrival here is to celebrate the crowning of King George in this glorious land which was once ruled by great samrats. This I do to make them understand the fate of those who cherish the thought of enslaving this sacred land. I, as the youngest of them, wish to warn George by killing Ashe who is his sole representative and has destroyed the Swadeshi shipping company and several other freedom fighters by subjecting them to severe torture.

Vande Mataram. Vande Mataram. Vande Mataram”

5. Veerapandiya Kattabomman (1760 – 1799)

Veerapandiya Kattabomman

Veerapandiya Kattabomman  also known as Katta Bomman was an 18th century Indian Palaiyakkarar chieftain from Panchalankurichi and who was one of the earliest to oppose the British rule. He waged a war with the British six decades before Indian War of Independence which occurred in 1857 in Northern parts of India. After a bloody war with the British he was captured by British and hanged in 1799 CE. His fort was destroyed and his wealth looted by the British army. Today Panchalankurichi is a historically important place in the present day Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu state, India.

Veerapandiya Kattabomman was born to Jagaveera Kattabomman and Arumugathammal on January 4, 1760. He had two younger brothers Dalavai Kumarasami and Duraisingam. Veerapandiyan was fondly called ‘Karuthaiah’ (the black prince), and Dalavai Kumarasami, ‘Sevathaiah’ (the white prince). Duraisingam, a good orator, was nicknamed ‘Oomaidurai’ meaning the Mute Prince.

Azhagiya Veerapandiapuram (Otta-pidaram of today) was ruled by Jagaveera Pandiyan. He had a minister Bommu, also a brave warrior, who was known as Getti-bommulu in Telugu, after the god Sastha Ayyappan Swamy to describe his strength and fighting qualities which over a period of time, became Kattabomman in Tamil. Katta-bomman ascended the throne after Jagaveera Pandiyan, who had no issue, as Adi Kattabomman, the first of the clan of Katta-bomman.

Legend has it that during a hunting trip into the forests of Salikulam (close to Azhagiya Pandiyapuram) one of the Kattabommans watched the spectacle of a hare chasing seven hounds. Kattabomman was amazed at this miracle. Believing that the land possessed great powers that could instil courage in people, he built his fort there and named it Panchalankurichi.

On February 2, 1790, Veerapandiyan, 30, became the king of Panchalankurichi as Veera Pandia Kattabomman supposed to be the 47th ruler of the region and the 5th ruler from the Kattabomman clan and a Palya-karrar (or Polygar) of the Madurai Nayak kingdom.

After the collapse of the Vijayanagara Empire in the mid-16th century, their governors of Tamil Nadu, declared independence and established independent kingdoms. The old Pandiya country came to be governed by Naicker rulers in Madurai, who in turn divided their territories into 72 Palayams. These 72 Palayams were franchised to a Palayakarrar (Tamil word) or Polygar or Poligar (a British Term), who had to administer their territories, collect taxes, run the local judiciary, and maintain a battalion of troops for the Naicker rulers. Their function was a mixture of military governance and civil administration.

The regional/local chieftains and rulers who were earlier subordinates to the Madurai Kings became Polygars (or Palaya-karrar).

The Nayak rule in Madurai which controlled the entire West Tamil Nadu after two centuries came to an abrupt end in 1736 when Chanda Sahib of Arcot seized the Madurai throne from the last queen of Madurai in an act of treason. Chanda Sahib was later killed after the Carnatic Wars and the territory came under the Nawab of Arcot. The Palaya-karrars of the old Madurai country refused to recognize the new Muslim rulers driving the Nawab of Arcot to bankruptcy, who also indulged in lavishes like building palaces before sustaining his authority in the region.

Finally the Nawab resorted to borrowing huge sums from the British East India Company, erupting as a scandal in the British Parliament. The Nawab of Arcot finally gave the British the right to collect taxes and levies from the southern region in lieu of the money he had borrowed. The East India Company took advantage of the situation and plundered all the wealth of the people in the name of tax collection. They even leased the country in 1750’s to a savage warrior Muhammed Yusuf Khan (alias Marutha Nayagam), who killed many of the Polygars including and later got himself killed by the Arcot British forces.

Many of the Polygars submitted, only with the exception of Katta-bomman.

Kattabomman refused to pay his dues and for a long time refused to meet Jackson the Collector of the East India Company. Finally, he met Jackson at Ramalinga Vilasam, the palace of Sethupathi of Ramanathapuram. The meeting turned violent and ended in a skirmish in which the Deputy Commandant of the Company’s forces, Clarke was slain. Kattabomman and his men fought their way to freedom and safety, but Thanapathi Pillai, Kattabomman’s secretary was taken prisoner.

The Commission of Enquiry that went into the incident fixed the blame on Jackson and relieved him of his post, thinking the Company’s plan to take over the entire country gradually could be marred by Jackson’s fight with Veerapandiya Kattabomman.

The new Collector of Tirunelveli wrote to Kattabomman calling him for a meeting on 16 March, 1799. Kattabomman wrote back citing the extreme drought conditions for the delay in the payment of dues and also demanded that all that was robbed off him at Ramanathapuram be restored to him. The Collector wanted the ruling house of Sethupathis to prevent Kattabomman from aligning himself with the enemies of the Company and decided to attack Kattabomman.

The British also instigated his long time feuding neighbor Ettayapuram Poligar to make provocative wars over Kattabomman on their long pending territorial disputes.

Kattabomman refused to meet the Collector and a fight broke out. Under Major Bannerman, the army stood at all the four entrances of Panchalankurichi’s fort. At the southern end, Lieutenant Collins was on the attack. When the fort’s southern doors opened, Kattabomman and his forces audaciously attacked the corps stationed at the back of his fort, and slew their commander Lt. Collins.

The British after suffering heavy losses, decided to wait for reinforcements and heavy artillery from Palayamkottai. Sensing that his fort could not survive a barrage from heavy cannons, Kattabomman left the fort that night.

A price was set on Kattabomman’s head. Thanapathi Pillai and 16 others were taken prisoners. Thanapathi Pillai was executed and his head perched on a bamboo pole was displayed at Panchalankurichi to demoralise the resisters. Soundra Pandian Nayak, another rebel leader, was brutally done to death by having his brains dashed against a village wall.

Veerapandiya Kattabomman hid in so many places including thirumayam, virachilai and finally stayed at Kolarpatti at Rajagopala Naicker’s house where the forces surrounded the house. Kattabomman and his aides fled from there and took refuge in the Thirukalambur forests close to Pudu-k-kottai. Bannerman ordered the Raja of Pudukkottai to arrest Kattabomman. Accordingly, Kattabomman was captured and on October 16, 1799 the case was taken up (nearly three weeks after his arrest near Pudukkottai).

After a summary trial, Kattabomman was hanged unceremoniously on a Tamarind tree in Kayathar (near Thirunelveli).

Some of the other noteworthy persons who were hanged along with Kattabomman were Veeraghechayan Naicker, Dali Ethalappa Naicker and Palayakarrars of Kaadalkudi, Nagalapuram Puthur, Vripachy, Sivagangai, to death by hanging on charges of treason.

The Fort of Panchalankurichi was razed to the ground and all of Kattabomman’s wealth was looted by the English soldiers. Few years later, after the second Polygar war, the site of the captured fort was ploughed up and sowed with castor oil and salt so that it should never again be inhabited by the orders of the colonial government.

In subsequent years, a good deal of legend and folklore developed around Kattabomman and the Marudu Brothers. Kayatharu, where Kattabomman was executed has remained a place of political pilgrimage.

In his Tinnevelly Gazetteer of 1917, H. R. Pate notes the presence, in Kayatharu, of “a great pile of stones of all sizes, which represents the accumulated offerings by wayfarers of the past hundred years. Folk songs recalling the heroism of the Poligar leaders remain alive in Tamil Nadu to this day…”

The popular Tamil slang for a traitor or committing treason is Ettapa or Ettapan, courtesy the Ettayapuram Polygar whom the British later conferred the title of Raja. But it is disputed that Ettapan committed treason Kattabomman was arrested by King of Pudukottai. The Campa Cola ground in Chennai belongs/belonged to Ettappan family. Lately there is cry that unfair portrayal of Ettappan in the film Kattabomman in which actor Sivaji Ganesan gave a great performance, is the main cause for this. It seems that Ma.Po.Si(Ma.Po.Sivanyanam) who wrote the dialogues for the film had some misunderstanding with the Ettappan family.

6. V.O. Chidambaram Pillai

VOC

V.O. Chidambaram Pillai, popularly known by his initials, V.O.C, Va Voo Cee, Kappal Oottiya Tamilzhan, was an Indian freedom fighter born on 5 September 1872 in Ottapidaram, Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu State of India. He was a prominent lawyer, and a trade union leader. He gets credit for launching the first indigenous Indian shipping service between Turicorin and Colombo with the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company, competing against britis ships. He was an Indian National Congress (INC) member, later charged with sedition by the British government and sentenced to life imprisonment; his barrister license was stripped. He is also known as “Kappalottiya Tamilan”.

Vulaganathan Othapidaram Chidambaram Pillai or V.O.C was born on 05 September 1872 to an eminent lawyer Vulaganathan Pillai and Paramyee in Ottapidaram, Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu state in India. After completing schooling in Othapidaram and Tirunelveli he worked for a few years in the Othapidaram district administrative office. Later following his father’s footsteps he completed law.

As a lawyer he often pleaded for the poor, at times appearing against his father, who appeared for the affluent. Among his notable cases, he proved corruption charges on three sub-magistrates. In the Kulasekaranallur Asari case he proved innocence for the accused.

In the 1890s and 1900s India’s independence movement and the Swadeshi movement, initiated by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai of Indian National Congress (INC), were at their peak. Mahatma Gandhi was yet to land in India. They were against the British Imperial coercion of trade, which was damaging traditional Indian industries and the communities dependent on them. They are the essence of the Swadeshi movement. In Madras Presidency the Independence movement was championed by the likes of Subramanya Siva, the poet Subramanya Bharathi, and Aurobindo Gosh later to be joined by V.O.C He entered politics in 1905 following the partition of Bengal, joining the Indian National Congress and taking a hardliner stand. He also presided at the Salem District Congress session.

V.O.C., drawing inspiration from Ramakrishnananda, a disciple of Swami Vivekannanda, resorted to Swadeshi work. Following requests by local citizens, he initiated steps to break the monopoly of British shipping in the coastal trade with Ceylon.

On 12 November 1905, V.O.C. formed the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company, by purchasing two steamships ‘S.S. Gaelia’ and ‘S.S. Lawoe’, thanks to the assistance and support of Lokamanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Aurobindo Ghose. The ships commenced regular service between Turicorin and Colombo (Srilanka), against the opposition of the British traders and the Imperial Governmetn. V.O.C. was thus laying the foundation for a comprehensive shipping industry in the country, more than just a commercial venture.

Until then the commerce between Tuticorin and Colombo was a monopoly enjoyed by the British India Steam Navigation Company (BISN). This was later to be merged with P&O lines and its Tuticorin agents, A & F. Harvey.

His efforts to widen the base of the Swadeshi movement, by mobilizing the workers of the Coral Mills (also managed by A. F. Harvey) brought him into increasing conflict with the British Raj. On 12 March 1908, he was arrested on charges of sedition and for two days, Tirunelveli and Tuticorin witnesses’ unprecedented violence, quelled only by the stationing of a punitive police force. But newspapers had taken note of VOC. Autobindo Ghosh, acclaimed him in Bande Mataram (March 27, 1908)

“Well Done, Chidambaram! A true feeling of comradeship is the salt of political life; it binds men together and is the cement of all associated action. When a political leader is prepared to suffer for the sake of his followers, when a man, famous and adored by the public, is ready to remain in jail rather than leave his friends and fellow workers behind, it is a gign theat political life in India is becoming a reality. Srijut Chidambaram Pillai has shown throughout the Turicorin affair a loftiness of character, a practical energy united with high moral idealism which show that the is a true Nationalist. His refusal to accept release on bail if his fellow-workers were left behind is one more count in the reckoning. Nationalism is or ought to be not merely a political creed but a religious aspiration and a moral attitude. Its business is to build up Indian character by educating it to heroic self-sacrifice and magnificent ambitions, to restore the tone of nobility which it has lost and bring back the ideals of the ancient Aryan gentleman. The qualities of courage, frankness, love and justice are the stuff of which a Nationalist should be made. All honor to Chidambaram Pillai for having shown us the first complete example of an Aryan reborn, and all honor to Madras which has produced such a man”.

The British had assumed the Indian venture would collapse like a house of cards, but soon found the Indian company to be a formidable challenge. To thwart the new Indian company they resorted to the monopolistic trade practice of reducing the fare per trip to Re.1 (16 annas) per head. Swadeshi company responded by offering a fare of Re. 0.5 (eight annas). The British company went further by offering a free trip to the passengers plus a free umbrella, which had ‘S.S. Gaelia’ and ‘S.S. Lawoe’ running nearly empty. By 1909 the company was heading towards bankruptcy.

To widen the Swadeshi base and to create awareness of British Imperialism V.O.C. became instrumental in mobilizing the workers of Coral Mills (also managed by A. & F. Harvey) (now part of Madura Coats) in Tirunelveli. This brought him into increasing conflict with the British Raj. On 12 March, 1908, he was arrested on charges of sedition and for two days, Tirunelveli and Tuticorin witnessed unprecedented violence, quelled only by shooting four people to deah (a Muslim, a Dalit, a baker and a Hindu temple priest). Punitive police forces were brought in from neighboring districts.

But newspapers had taken not of V.O.C. Sri Aurobindo’s nationalist Bengali newspaper Bande Mataram (splet and pronounced as Bonde Matorom in the Bengali language) acclaimed him (March 27, 1908) with “Well Done, Chidambaram”. Apart from the Madras press, Ananad Bazaar Patrika from Koldata (Calcutta) carried reports of his prosecution every day. Funds were raised for his defence not only in India but also by the Indians in South Africa.

Apart from the Madras press, Ananad Bazaar Patrika from Koldata (Calcutta) carried reports of his prosecution every day. Funds were raised for his defence not only in India but also by the Indians in South Africa. Bharathy gave evidence in the case which had been instituted against him. V.O.C was confined in the Central Prison, Coimbatore from 9 July 1908 to 1 December 1910.

7. Dheeran Chinnamalai

Dheeran Chinnamalai

Dheeran Chinnamalai was an Indian revolutionary and chief of Kongu Nadu who revolted against the supremacy of British rule in India. He was a Palayakkarar in Tamil Nadu who fought against the British Easy India Company in the 18th century B. C.

He was born on 17th April 1756 in Melapalayam near Erode in Tamil Nadu. His birth name was Theerthagiri Sarkkarai Mandraadiyaar. He belonged to the famous Palaiya Kottai Pattakarar family. His parents are Rathnaswamy and Periyaatha. He had four brothers, Kudandiswamy, Thambi, Kilothar and Kuttiswamy and one sister Parvatham.

He got good training of Silambu and archery. He headed a huge army that fought in the Second Polygar War in 1801 to 1802. In late 1700s he Kongu Nadu was controlled by Mysore King Hyder Ali. When the diwan of Hyder Ali came to collect taxes from the farmers, he with his brothers seized the entire tax collected and distributed them back to the farmers. This incident took place between Sivan Malai and Chennimalai. He refused to accept the supremacy of Hyder Ali.

After the death of Hyder Ali on 12th July 1782, his son Tipu Sultan became the king of Mysore. He helped Tipu Sultan to gain victory in the battles at Chitheswaram, Mazahavalli and Srirangapatna by providing a big army of soldiers. More than 1000 Kongu Tamils joined the regiment of Tipu. After the death of Tipu he settled at Odanilai and fought with British at Cauvery, Odanilai and Arachalur.

As Dheeran Chinnamalai was running his own kingdom and did not respect the rules and regulations of the British East India Company they were annoyed. So they sent Colonel Makistan and his men to arrest him. Chinnamalai fought against him and won the battle. Again Captain Harris was sent to capture him. By his intelligence Chinnamalai was able to win this time also.

Velappan in the British army acted as an informer to Dheeran Chinnamalai. Later he was shot dead. After that the British arrested him and his brothers and kept them in the prison at Sankagiri. When they were asked to accept the rule of British they refused and so they were hanged by rope at the top of the Sankagiri fort on 31st July 1805.

8. Subramaniya Siva

Subramaniya Siva

Subramaniya Siva was an Indian freedom fighter. He was a revolutionary and had to spend many years in prison. He was also a versatile writer and has written many books. He was born on 4th October 1884 in Vathlagundu town of Dindigul district of the then Madras Presidency. His father was Rajam Iyer and he was his eldest son.

He followed the traits of Bala Ganghadhara Tilak. V. O. Chidambaram and Subramanya Bharathi are his contemporaries. He disagreed with Gandhiji and his non-violence attitude. He believed that only violence could counteract violence and so he adapted revolutionary methods of showing protest.

He was married and was survived by his son Sabhapathi Sharma. He was arrested in 1908 and 1922 for his anti-political activities. He wrote a book named Jail Life which gives an account of his life in prison. He was the author of the journal Gnana Bhanu which contains the collection of poetry.

He was a devotee of Swami Vivekananda and Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. He wrote the books Ramanuja Vijayam and Madhya Vijayam. He wanted to create enlightenment among people through his dramas and bhajans.

He chose Papparapatti village in Pennagaram taluk for his activities. In 1921 he came to Papparapatti and tried to establish Bharatashram there which was not successful. He was suffering from leprosy when he was in prison. In those days leprosy was considered to be a contagious disease and many restrictions were imposed on him by the British Government. He was not allowed to travel in trains. In spite of these difficulties he walked on foot to many places and continued his struggle for Indian independence.

He was the first political prisoner in the Madras jail. He died on 23rd July 1925 and his Samadhi is situated in Papparapatti. Dindugul district collector office and Vathlagundu Bus Stand were named after him. In 2010 it was announced by the Government of Tamil Nadu that a memorial would be established for him in Papparapatti.

9. The Maruthu Pandiyar

Maruthu Pandiyar

The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers (Periya Maruthu & Chinna Maruthu) ruled Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu during the last part of the 18th century and they were the first to issue a proclamation of independence from the British rule from Trichy Thiruvarangam Temple, Tamil Nadu on June 10, 1801, which is 56 years before the North Indian rebellion – Sepoy mutiny of 1857.

In the year 1772, the English military of the East India Company, under the command of Lt.Col. Bon Jour attacked the state at Kalayar Kovil. As the war worsened, Raja Muthu Vaduganadhar lost his life on the spot. But the Maruthu brothers managed to escape along with Rani Velu Nachiar, wife of Raja Muthu Vadughanadhar and arrived at Dindigul which was ruled by Hyder Ali – the Sultan of Mysore as refugees. Hyder Ali supported them with all respects.

Arcot Nawab, the alliance partner of East India Company was not able to collect any taxes from the people of Sivaganga state for eight years, arranged for an agreement whereby the rule of Sivaganga was restored to Rani Velu Nachiar after he collected his dues from her. The Marudu brothers with 12,000 armed men surrounded Sivaganga and plundered Arcot Nawab’s territories. The Nawab on the 10th of March 1789 appealed to the Madras Council for aid. On 29th April 1789, the British forces attacked Kollangudi. It was defeated by a large body of Marudu’s troops.

They were in close association with Veera Pandiya Kattabomman of Panchalankurichi. Kattabomman held frequent consultations with Marudhus. After the execution of Kattabomman in 17th October 1799 at Kayattar, Chinna Marudhu gave asylum to Kattabomman’s brother Oomadurai (dumb brother). But, the British took this reason to invade and attacked Sivaganga in 1801 with a powerful army. The Maruthu Pandiyars and their allies were quite successful and captured three districts from the British. British considered it as a serious threat to their future in India that they rushed additional troops from Britain to put down Maruthu Pandiyars’ rebellion. These forces surrounded Maruthu Pandiyars’ army at Kalayar Koil, and the latter scattered. The Maruthu Brothers and their top commanders escaped. They regrouped and fought the British and their allies at Viruppatchi, Dindigul and Cholapuram. While they won the battle at Viruppatchi, they lost the other two battles.

10. Puli Thevar

Puli Thevar

Puli Thevar was a poligar (or palayakarar) who ruled Nerkattumseval situated in the Sankarankoil taluk of Tamil Nadu. Puli Thevar who belongs to the warrior Maravar community was one of the earliest freedom fighters. He is one of the first Indian kings to have fought and defeated the British in India.

He is one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India. He was involved in a vendetta with the Nawab of Arcot who was supported by the British. Thevar’s prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who later rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s.

Nelkatumseval was the headquarters of Puli Thevar, the first chieftain in India to resist the British.The author of the Thirunelveli District Gazetteer, H.R. Pate, observes as follows:

Nelkatumseval is chiefly memorable as having been in the eighteenth Century stronghold of the redoubtable Puli Thevar, who figured for many years as the leader of the Marava Confederacy against the troops of the Nawab and the Company. He had a shrewd insight into the political situation of the time and was a veritable thorn against the side of the Nawab’s agents.

Pulithevar remains one of the illustrious figures in the chequered history of palayakarars. The vivacity of his character gave him an ascendancy over the western palayakarars, while his determined resistance to the Nawab’s overlordship made him a potential enemy of the Wallajahs. He was the principal architect of the coalition of the palayakkars organised against the Nawab. The Nawab acknowledged his victory by presenting him with a gold plate and sword.

Pulithevar is regarded as the first ruler in Indian history, who sowed the seed, by his gallant resistance, to expel foreigners from his native land. His services to the nation are honoured; the government of Tamil Nadu has erected a memorial for him in Nelkatumseval where there are the remnants of his palace.

Sophia Wadke

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List Of Freedom Fighters In Tamilnadu

essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

List Of Freedom Fighters In Tamil nadu

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Tamil nadu played a major role in Indian Independence apart from work of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable leaders. Many Freedom fighters of Tamil nadu opposed British rule. In this article you can find list of freedom fighters from Tamil nadu who served for Indian Independence.

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essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

Republic Day 2022: The History Of Tamil Freedom Fighters Who Got Featured In The Rejected Tableau

There were reports suggesting that the tableau was rejected on the grounds that some of the leaders were unknown to the national audience which hurt the sentiments of tamil nadu..

Republic Day 2022: The History Of Tamil Freedom Fighters Who Got Featured In The Rejected Tableau Republic Day 2022: The History Of Tamil Freedom Fighters Who Got Featured In The Rejected Tableau

Chennai: Tamil Nadu government’s tableau would not be allowed to participate in the Republic Day parade in New Delhi as the one proposed by the government was rejected by the expert committee despite arguing the case and making corrections for three times. 

After the announcement on Monday, Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Stalin immediately wrote to Prime Minister Narendra Modi expressing his disappointment and stated the rejection as "unacceptable". 

The rejection, especially of the tableau under the name “Tamil Nadu in Freedom Struggle”, also set off a political storm in Tamil Nadu. This time, the storm was not within the parties but with the Centre. Even former Tamil Nadu CM and AIADMK coordinator O Panneerselvam extended his support to the state government and demanded the Centre to permit the state's tableau to participate in the event. 

After confirmation from Union Minister Rajnath Singh on the rejection, Tamil Nadu CM issued a press release stating that the tableau rejected by the Centre would be showcased in the Republic Day Parade in Chennai and the model would be displayed in various districts of the state. 

There were reports suggesting that the tableau was rejected on the grounds that some of the leaders featuring in it were unknown to the national audience which hurt the sentiments of Tamil Nadu.

Amid the buzz, most people raised the question of who were those freedom fighters from Tamil Nadu. In simple words, most of them were part of the first war of independence in South India.

Velu Natchiyar

Rani Velu Nachiyar (1730-1796) was well-known for her title Veeramangai (a brave woman) since she was the first Indian queen who had a face off with the East India Company in India. Velu Nachiyar, who got married to Muthu Vaduganatha Periyavudaya Thevar, was first drawn into the war when the Nawab of Arcot and British joined together and killed Muthu over his refusal of not paying taxes. 

At the time of murder, Nachiyar escaped with her daughter with the help of Marudhu brothers. However, Nachiyar did not take her to defeat easily. During her exile, she established an alliance with Hyder Ali and formed an army. Later, she learned about the place where EIC stored war-related weapons and conducted a suicide attack. 

She blew up the whole place and regained her kingdom. After her victory, she ruled her kingdom for 10 years and then passed it on to her daughter Vellacci.

Maruthu Pandiyar brothers

Over a century before the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, there was a mass execution by the British to bring an end to the rebellion of South India in 1801. The British publicly executed two brothers, known as Maruthu Pandiyar Brothers, ruling the Sivaganga Kingdom back then. They also hanged other rebels, their commanders, servants, relatives, sons and grandsons in Tirupputhur fort of Tamil Nadu. The executions put an end to the rebellion by the South Indian Kingdoms.

However, Periya Maruthu and Chinna Maruthu were known for their bravery and for supporting Velu Nachiyar during her exile. They were good at aerodynamics and they were one of the first few people to found guerilla warfare tactics in India. 

Veerapandiya Kattabomman

Veerapandiya Kattabomman was a chieftain in Tamil Nadu during the 18th century. He was known for single-handedly waging a war against the British East India Company much earlier than the Indian War of Independence. In that war, Kattabomman recorded his victory against the British. He also continued his refusal to pay taxes to the British. 

However, in 1799s, Kattabomman was captured by the British with the help of Pudukottai ruler and was hanged at Kayathar in 1799.

VO Chidambaram Pillar or Kappalottiya Thamizhan (1872-1936) was the founder of Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company, which was formed to fight against the monopoly of British India Steam Navigation Company in 1906. In order to oppose the British supremacy and inspired by the Swadeshi movement, VOC, who was a Congressman, got the support of local merchants and launched the first indigenous shipping enterprise. As a result, he got the name "Kappalottiya Tamizhan". 

Later, he participated in the Tuticorin Coral Mills strike against their unfair treatment in 1908. During the event, he gave fiery speeches following which he was arrested under sedition charges. He was later released in 1912.

However, by the time of his release, his company was liquidated and the assets were sold to the rival company. He spent his last days for the labour movement and died at Tuticorin Congress party office on 18th November, 1936 at the age of 64.

Bharathiyar

Bharathiyar (1882-1921) is a well-known poet, journalist, social reformer and Indian freedom fighter. He is an important literary figure in Tamil Nadu who wrote fiery patriotic songs opposing the British during the Indian Independence movement. He was also arrested by the British in November 1918.

Bharathiyar fought for women's rights, against child marriage and worked to reform Brahminism and religion. He has penned essays in several prominent newspapers and the print media organisations run by him, especially against British rule.

However, he passed away since his health deteriorated following an elephant attack in 1921.

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Essay on Freedom Fighters for Students and Children

500+ words essay on freedom fighters.

Freedom fighters were people who sacrificed their lives selflessly for the freedom of their country. Every country has its fair share of freedom fighters . People look up to them in terms of patriotism and love for one’s country. They are considered the epitome of patriotic people.

Essay on Freedom Fighters

Freedom fighters made sacrifices which one cannot even imagine of doing for their loved ones, leave alone the country. The amount of pain, hardships, and opposite they have endured cannot be put into words. The generations after them will always be indebted to them for their selfless sacrifices and hard work .

Importance of Freedom Fighters

One cannot emphasize enough on the importance of freedom fighters. After all, they are the ones because of whom we celebrate Independence Day . No matter how small a role they played, they are very much significant today as they were in those times. Moreover, they revolted against the colonizers so as to stand up for the country and its people.

Furthermore, most of the freedom fighters even went to war to safeguard the freedom of their people. It did not matter that they had no training; they did it for the pure intention of making their country free. Most of the freedom fighters sacrificed their lives in the war for independence.

Most importantly, freedom fighters inspired and motivated others to fight injustice. They are the pillars behind the freedom movement. They made people aware of their rights and their power. It is all because of the freedom fighters that we prospered into a free country free from any kind of colonizers or injustice.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

My Favourite Freedom Fighters

essay on national freedom fighters in tamil

Secondly, Rani Lakshmi Bai was a great freedom fighter. I have learned so many things from this empowering woman. She fought for the country despite so many hardships. A mother never gave up her country because of her child, instead took him to the battlefield to fight against injustice. Moreover, she was so inspiring in numerous ways.

Next, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose comes in my list. He led the Indian National Army to show the power of India to the British. His famous line remains to be ‘give me your blood and I will give you freedom.’

Finally, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was also one of the greatest leaders. Despite being from a rich family, he gave up the easy life and fought for India’s freedom. He was imprisoned a number of times but that did not stop him from fighting against injustice. He was a great inspiration to many.

In short, freedom fighters are what made our country what it is today. However, we see nowadays people are fighting for everything they stood against. We must come together to not let communal hatred come between and live up to the Indian dream of these freedom fighters. Only then will we honor their sacrifices and memory.

FAQ on Freedom Fighters

Q.1 Why were freedom fighters important?

A.1 Freedom fighters made our country independent. They gave up their lives so we could have a bright future free from colonization.

Q.2 Name some of the Indian freedom fighters.

A.2 Some of the famous India freedom fighters were Mahatma Gandhi, Rani Lakshmi Bai, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, and Jawaharlal Nehru.

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COMMENTS

  1. இந்திய விடுதலைக்காக உயிர் தியாகம் செய்த தமிழ் விடுதலை வீரர்கள்

    இந்திய விடுதலைக்காக உயிர் தியாகம் செய்த தமிழ் விடுதலை வீரர்கள்!!! | 75th Independence Day: List Of Ten Freedom Fighters From Tamil Nadu - Tamil BoldSky முகப்பு Insync Pulse இந்திய விடுதலைக்காக உயிர் தியாகம் செய்த தமிழ் விடுதலை வீரர்கள்!!! நமது இந்தியாவில், விடுதலைக்காக நாடு முழுவதும் ஆயிரக்கணக்கான மக்கள் போராடினர்.

  2. தமிழ்நாட்டின் சுதந்திரப் போராட்ட வீரர்கள் பட்டியல், பெயர், காலம், இயக்கம்

    Freedom Fighter: 7: Dheeran chinnamalai: 1756-1805: Freedom Fighter against British: 8: subramaniya siva: 1884-1925: Freedom Fighter: 9: maruthu pandiyar: 1748-1801: They are the first to Proclamation of Independence: 10: K. Kamaraj: 1903-1975: He is simple man fought for our freedom so he was well known as "Gandhi of Tamilnadu"

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    Firstly, I completely adore the father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi. I like him because he chose the path of non-violence and won freedom without any weapons, only the truth and peace. Secondly, Rani Lakshmi Bai was a great freedom fighter. I have learned so many things from this empowering woman.

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