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How to cite an online newspaper article in Harvard

Harvard online newspaper article citation

To cite an online newspaper article in a reference entry in Harvard style include the following elements:

  • Author of the online newspaper article: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J.) of up to three authors with the last name preceded by 'and'. For four authors or more include the first name followed by et al., unless your institution requires referencing of all named authors.
  • Year of publication: Give the year in round brackets.
  • Title of the online newspaper article: Give the title of the article in single quotation marks.
  • Title of the newspaper: Give the title in italics and capitalize the first letter of the first word and proper nouns.
  • Edition: Give the edition number if available.
  • Day and month: Give the day month and year.
  • Page numbers: Give the page range if available.
  • URL: Give the full URL of the web page including the protocol (http:// or https://).
  • Date of access: Give the day, month and year of access.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of an online newspaper article in Harvard style:

Author of the online newspaper article . ( Year of publication ) ' Title of the online newspaper article ', Title of the newspaper ( Edition ), Day and month , Page numbers . Available at: URL (Accessed: Date of access ).

Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the Harvard style guidelines in action:

An article from a digital newspaper

Greenslade, R . ( 2018 ) ' Opinion is valued more than fact in this digital era ', The Guardian , 29 July . Available at: from ">https://www.theguardian.com/"> (Accessed: 2 September 2019 ).
Steinhauser, G . ( 2018 ) ' Zimbabweans Turn Out in Droves for First Vote Without Mugabe ', Wall Street Journal , 30 July . Available at: https://www.wsj.com/ (Accessed: 6 September 2019 ).

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This citation style guide is based on the Cite Them Right (10 th edition) Harvard referencing guide.

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Harvard Referencing – How to Cite a Newspaper Article

2-minute read

  • 27th July 2016

Newspapers and magazines aren’t the most common sources in academic writing . Nevertheless, you may need to cite a magazine or newspaper article when writing about something that has been in the media (or when analysing the media itself). As such, we’re looking at how to cite a newspaper article or magazine in Harvard referencing.

In-Text Citations

As with most source types, Harvard referencing uses a standard author–date format for in-text citations of magazines and newspapers.

The important thing here is to check whether the article has a named author. If it does, use the author’s name in your citation alongside the year of publication. If it’s a print version of the article and you’re quoting it directly, you should also provide relevant page numbers:

Leicester’s season was ‘hailed as a sporting miracle’ (Wagg, 2016, p. 20).

If the article has no named author, simply use the newspaper/magazine’s name instead:

A Yorkshire terrier called Eddie was reunited with his owners after being missing for five years, despite living only half a mile away (The Guardian, 2016).

As you can see, we’ve picked the most hard-hitting news story we could find to use as an example in this post.

The only other things that take five years to travel half a mile are British trains.

Reference List

If you’ve cited a print version of a magazine or newspaper article, the information required in the reference list is as follows (if no author is named, as above, use the magazine/newspaper title):

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Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of Article’, Title of Newspaper/Magazine , issue number (if applicable), day and/or month of publication, page number(s).

The Wagg article in the example above would therefore appear as:

Wagg, S. (2016) ‘Under No Illusions’, When Saturday Comes , 352, June, pp. 20-21.

For online articles, the format is similar but with a URL and date of access given in place of page numbers:

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of Article’, Title of Newspaper/Magazine , issue number (if applicable), day and/or month of publication [Online]. Available at URL [Accessed date].

The Guardian article above would therefore appear in the reference list as:

The Guardian (2016) ‘Missing dog found half a mile from owners’ home after five years’, The Guardian , 20 May [Online]. Available at http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/may/20/missing-dog-found-five-years-yorkshire-terrier-eddie-microchip [Accessed 24 June 2016].

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To be made up of:

  • Author or authors (surname followed by initials).
  • Year of publication (in round brackets).
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of newspaper (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for).
  • Day and month.
  • Page reference.

In-text citation:

(Lewis, 2015)

Reference list:

Lewis, S. (2015). ‘Rainbow support for York pride’, The York Press , 18 June, p.6.

Newspaper Article Accessed Online

If you are referencing a newspaper article you accessed online, follow the same format as for a standard newspaper article, and add:

  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

Lewis, S. (2015). ‘Rainbow support for York pride’, The York Press,  18 June. Available at: https://www.yorkpress.co.uk/news/13337822.rainbow-support-for-york-pride/ (Accessed: 13 January 2021).

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About citing journal articles

Basic elements needed to reference a journal article:.

  • Year of publication
  • 'Title of the article'
  • Journal Title
  • Issue number
  • Page ranges of the article
  • DOI (if available)
  • A DOI is a series of numbers and punctuation that identifies a document. Unlike a URL, a DOI always stays the same.  DOIs are also internationally standardised .
  • Works that have DOIs include most journal articles, some e-books and some PDFs.
  • If the document has a DOI, include it in the citation in the reference list. Put it at the end of the citation and include the shortened form ‘doi’ in lower case before it.
  • How to find a DOI  - You can search for a DOI by going to  https://search.crossref.org/  and pasting in the article title. 

Kelleher T (2009) ‘Conversational voice’,  Journal of Communication , 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x.

One author, two authors, three or more authors, elements of the reference, author a (year) ‘title of article: subtitle of article’,  name of journal , volume(issue):page–page, doi:number., in-text citation, kelleher (2009) or (kelleher 2009:172), reference list, kelleher t (2009) ‘conversational voice’,  journal of communication , 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x., two authors, author a and author b (year) ‘title of article: subtitle of article’,  name of journal , volume(issue):page–page, doi:number., kelleher and edmunds (2009), kelleher t and edmunds m (2009) ‘conversational voice’,  journal of communication , 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x., three or more authors, author a, author b and author c (year) ‘title of article: subtitle of article’,  name of journal , volume(issue):page–page, doi:number., kelleher et al. (2009), kelleher t, edmunds m and hogel f (2009) ‘conversational voice’,  journal of communication , 59(1):172–188, doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01410.x., electronic journal article without a doi, from an online database.

  • Reference the journal as a print version.

Author A (Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’,  Name of Journal , volume(issue):page–page.

Jones (2022) ..., jones d (2022) 'looking to the future', journal of information , 6(2):31-36., journal article with an article number.

Sometimes a journal article will use an article number instead of volume/ issue or page numbers.

Author A (Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’, Name of Journal,  article number, doi.

Munro and lowe (2014) identified.., munro b and lowe m (2014) ‘learning within peer groups’,  journal of education,  article no. 25798, doi:10.3276/edu.v19.25798., advance online publication.

Advance online publication may or may not include a year and usually will not yet have volume, issue, or page(s).

If there is a year, include it in brackets before the title.

Include an accessed date after the journal name.

Author A (advance online publication) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’,  Name of Journal , accessed Day Month Year, doi.

In-text citation, kjellberg and jansson (advance online publication) found that ...., reference list , kjellberg i and jansson b (advance online publication) 'the capability approach in social work research: a scoping review of research addressing practical social work',  international social work , accessed 4 february 2022, doi:10.1177/0020872819896849, journal article in press/ not yet published, author a (in press) ‘title of article: subtitle of article’,  name of journal ..

  • For journal articles not yet published, use ‘in press’ instead of the year in the in-text citation.

Jackson (in press) reported similar results.

Jackson l (in press) ‘conversational voice’,  journal of communication ., journal article in foreign language, journal articles in foreign languages.

  • Provide a translation in parentheses immediately after the title of the article. The title of a foreign –language journal should be cited in the original language without translation - to enable interested readers to locate it.

Author A (Year) 'Title of article in original language' (English translation),  Title of journal in original language , volume(issue):page-page, doi number.

(hohler 2007) or hohler (2007:67), hohler s (2014) ’von biodiversität zu biodiversifizierung: eine neue okonomie der natur’ (biodiversity to biodiversification: a new economy of nature), berichte zur wissenschaftsgeschichte , 37(1):60–77, doi:10.1002/bewi.201401664., newspaper or magazine article.

  • For works like newspaper and magazine articles  include the full date – not just the year – in the reference list. It makes it easier for users to find this detail. 
  • For online newspaper and magazine articles , hyperlink the title . Include the date you accessed the article at the end of the reference.
  • If the article is behind a paywall , link the article title to the homepage of the magazine or newspaper.

Article with author listed

Author a (day month year) ‘title of article: subtitle of article’,  name of newspaper or magazine , accessed day month year., richardson (2018) .., richardson a (24 may 2018) ‘ australia imports almost all of its oil, and there are pitfalls all over the globe ’,  the conversation , accessed 29 january 2020., doman m, palmer a and scott n (31 january 2020) ‘ cracking the code to steve smith's batting success ’,  abc , accessed 5 february 2020., article with no author listed.

  • If a article doesn’t list an author, use the name of the newspaper or magazine.

Name of Newspaper or Magazine (Day Month Year) ‘Title of article: subtitle of article’,  Name of Newspaper or Magazine , accessed Day Month Year.

Abc (2020) .., abc (31 january 2020) ‘ cracking the code to steve smith's batting success ’,  abc , accessed 5 february 2020., article print version, author a (day month year) ‘title of article: subtitle of article’,  name of newspaper or magazine., mccoy (2020) .., mccoy m (31 january 2020) 'who's running the show', the sydney morning herald..

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Harvard Style Guide: Newspapers

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Print newspaper article

Reference : Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title’, Newspaper Title , date, page numbers.

Example : O'Dea, W. (2006) ‘Irish role in battle group concept will help to bolster UN’, Irish Times , 10 January, p.16.

In-Text-Citation :

  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Author(s) Last name, Year)
  • O’Dea (2006) proposed….
  • The article (O’Dea, 2006) argues….

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here .

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here . 

Online newspaper article

Reference : Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title’, Newspaper Title , day month of publication. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).

Example : Keenan, D. (2011) 'North voters go to polls today', Irish Times , 5 May. Available at: http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2011/0505/1224296146826.html. (Accessed 5 May 2011).

  • (Author(s)  Last name, Year)
  • Keenan (2011) reported….
  • In the report (Keenan, 2011)….

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here . 

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here .

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How to Cite a Newspaper Article in Harvard Referencing

3-minute read

  • 28th June 2019

Newspapers and magazines aren’t common sources in academic writing . Or, at least, academics tend to reference reputable journals like Nature and Science more often than Teen Vogue or the National Enquirer . But there are times when you may need to cite a magazine or newspaper article in your writing. So let’s look at how this works with Harvard referencing.

In-Text Citations for a Newspaper Article

Harvard referencing uses an author–date format for in-text citations. With a magazine or newspaper article, then, you’ll need to check whether it has a named author. If it does, use the author’s name in your citation alongside the year of publication. If it’s a print version of the article and you’re quoting it directly, you should also provide page numbers:

The team’s season was hailed as “a sporting miracle” (Wagg, 2016, p. 20).

If the article has no named author, you can simply use the newspaper or magazine’s name instead. For instance:

A Yorkshire terrier called Eddie was reunited with his owners after being missing for five years (The Guardian, 2016).

Now, let’s take a moment to appreciate Eddie’s return to his family. Good boy, Eddie. Well done on getting home. And… back to the referencing.

how to harvard reference a newspaper article online

Reference List

If you’ve cited a print magazine or newspaper article, you will need to provide full publication information in the reference list . The format for this is:

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) “Title of Article,”  Title of Newspaper/Magazine , issue number (if applicable), day and/or month of publication, page number(s).

The Wagg article in the example above would therefore appear as:

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Wagg, S. (2016) “Under No Illusions,”  When Saturday Comes , 352, June, pp. 20-21.

For an online newspaper article, meanwhile, you will need to give a URL and date of access in place of page numbers:

Surname, Initial(s). (Year) “Title of Article,”  Title of Newspaper/Magazine , issue number (if applicable), day and/or month of publication [Online]. Available at URL [Accessed date].

We would therefore list the Guardian article from above as follows:

The Guardian (2016) “Missing dog found half a mile from owners’ home after five years,”  The Guardian , May 20 [Online]. Available at http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/may/20/missing-dog-found-five-years-yorkshire-terrier-eddie-microchip [Accessed 24 June 2018].

As you can see in this case, when no author is named, we simply use the magazine/newspaper title at the start of the reference.

Finally, before submitting your work, don’t forget to have it proofread . This will help ensure that all of your referencing is clear and consistent.

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Harvard Citation Style: Newspapers

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Citing Newspaper Articles

  • Citing Newspaper articles is very similar to citing journal articles .  
  • As many newspapers are daily publications the date of the newspaper must be included
  • If accessed online, the access date and source should be included.

Citing Newspaper Articles: Examples

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A reference for an article from an online newspaper generally requires the following elements:

  • Author of the article
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of the article (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the newspaper (in italics - capitalise the first letter of each word in the title except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
  • Edition (if required - in round brackets)
  • Day and month
  • Page reference (if available)
  • Available at: URL (if required) (Accessed: date) OR doi (if available)

Note : For information regarding DOIs, see Online journal articles.

how to harvard reference a newspaper article online

In-text citation

Note  :  In this example, there are  no page numbers 

Full reference for the Reference List/Bibliography

Note  :  In this example, the edition (edn) is UK.

Periodicals

Journal article - online

Journal article - printed

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Referencing Newspaper Articles

Instructions how to reference a newspaper article

Click on the headings below for instructions

Online newspaper article

Instructions for referencing an online newspaper article

how to harvard reference a newspaper article online

Citing in the main text of your work

This example shows paraphrasing:

  • e.g. The Guardian (Young Powell 2019) suggests money saving tips for university students including budget setting, prioritising to pay large bills, buying food in bulk to cook with housemates, taking advantage of student discounts, and seeking support from the university.

This example shows quoting:

  • e.g. Young Powell (2019) reports "more than half of students regularly run out of money by the end of term, according to research by Campus Living Village".

If the article does not have a reporter's name, use the title of the newspaper.

Referencing at the end of your work

Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., (or Newspaper Title,) Year. Title of article. Newspaper Title , Day Month Year or Volume (Issue) (if available). Available from: URL [Accessed date].

  • e.g. Young Powell, A., 2019. Student saving tips: how to stretch your loan until the end of term. The Guardian , 16 May 2019. Available from:  https://www.theguardian.com/education/2019/may/16/student-saving-tips-how-to-stretch-your-loan-until-the-end-of-term  [Accessed 24 May 2019].

Print newspaper article

Referencing a print newspaper article: details, order and format

how to harvard reference a newspaper article online

  • e.g. In the Daily Telegraph, Aldrick (2011), discusses the CBI distributive trades survey which covers the first two weeks of December.
  • e.g. According to a 2011 newspaper article, Asda's chief financial officer stated retailers "don't expect sales to continue to grow into January" (Aldrick 2011, p.3).

Referencing in list at the end of your work

Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., (or Newspaper/Magazine Title,) Year. Title of article.  Newspaper/Magazine Title , Day Month Year or Volume (Issue) (if available), Page number/s and column (a, b, c etc.).

  • e.g. Aldrick, P., 2011. Christmas cheer for high street amid recession warning. The Daily Telegraph , 21 December 2011. 3.
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing / Harvard Referencing Style Examples / How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style

How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style

What is an article.

Almost all writers and academics reference other people’s writing in their works. Referencing demonstrates that you have researched your topic, are well versed in its arguments and theories, and it also helps avoid charges of plagiarism.  

The Harvard citation system is just one of many referencing styles – and which style you choose is normally guided by the institution or publication you are writing for.

In this article, you will learn how to use the Harvard citation system to reference the following types of articles:

  • journal article
  • newspaper article
  • magazine article

Properly citing article details in the reference list will help the readers to locate your source material if they wish to read more about a particular area or topic.

Information you need:

  • Author name
  • (Year published)  
  • ‘Article title’  
  • Journal/newspaper/magazine name  
  • Day and month published, if available
  • Volume number, if available
  • (Issue) number, if available
  • Page number(s), if available

If accessed online:

  • Available at: URL or DOI  
  • (Accessed: date).

Journal articles

Academic or scholarly journals are periodical publications about a specific discipline. No matter what your field is, if you are writing an academic paper, you will inevitably have to cite a journal article in your research. Journal articles often have multiple authors, so make sure you know when to use et al. in Harvard style . The method for referencing a journal article in the reference list is as follows:

Reference list (print) structure:

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Journal name , Volume(Issue), Page(s).

Shepherd, V. (2020) ‘An exploration around peer support for secondary pupils in Scotland with experience of self-harm’, Educational Psychology in Practice, 36(3), pp. 297-312.

Note that the article title uses sentence case. However, the title of the journal uses title case. Additionally, the volume number comes immediately after the journal title followed by the issue number in round brackets.

If the original material you are referencing was accessed online, then the method for citing it in the reference list will be the same as that in print, but with an additional line at the end.  

Reference list (online) structure:

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Journal Name , Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: date).  

Shepherd, V. (2020) ‘An exploration around peer support for secondary pupils in Scotland with experience of self-harm’, Educational Psychology in Practice, 36(3), pp. 297-312. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02667363.2020.1772726 (Accessed: 08 October 2020).

In-text citation (print or online) structure:

In-text citations are written within round brackets and start with the last name of the author followed by the year published, both separated by a comma.

You can also mention the author within the text and only include the publication year in round brackets.

Examples:  

In this article (Shepherd, 2020) deals with…  

According to Shepherd (2020), when peer support is available…  

Talking about the secondary education system, Shepherd (2020, p.299) suggests that…

Newspaper articles

Even if you are referring to an incident which is public knowledge, you still need to cite the source.  

The name of the author in a newspaper article is referred to as a byline. Below are examples for citing an article both with and without a byline.  

Reference list (print) structure:  

Last name, F. (Year published). ‘Article title’, Newspaper name , Day Month, Page(s).

Hamilton, J. (2018). ‘Massive fire at local department store’, The Daily Local, 10 August, p. 1.

Last name, F. (Year published). ‘Article title’, Newspaper name , Day Month, Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

Gambino, L. (2020) ‘Kamala Harris and Mike Pence clash over coronavirus response in vice-presidential debate,’ The Guardian, 8 October. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/oct/07/debate-kamala-harris-mike-pence-latest-news (Accessed: 8 October 2020).

Reference list structure, no byline:

The basic reference list structure for the reference is the same for both print and online articles. If information isn’t available, simply omit it from the reference.

Newspaper name (Year published) ‘Article Title’, Day Month, Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

The Chronicler (2016) ‘Local man wins lottery jackpot twice in one year’, 30 May, p. 14. Available at: https://thechroniclerpaper.com/local-man-wins-lottery-twice (Accessed: 1 October 2020).

In-text citation structure (print or online):

The last name of the author and date are written in round brackets, separated by a comma. The method is similar to referencing journal articles in in-text citations.

(Hamilton, 2018)

In his paper, Gambino (2020) mentioned that…

For articles accessed online which do not have an author, the name of the publication is mentioned in place of the author’s name and is italicized.

( The Chronicler , 2016)

Magazine articles  

The structure of magazine articles is similar to that of a journal article.

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Magazine Name , Volume(Issue), Page(s).

Ornes, S. (2020). “To save Appalachia’s endangered mussels, scientists hatched a bold plan”, ScienceNews, (198), p.2.

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Magazine name , Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Date).

Ornes, S. (2020) ‘To save Appalachia’s endangered mussels, scientists hatched a bold plan’, ScienceNews, (198), p.2. Available at: https://www.sciencenews.org/article/endangered-mussels-appalachia-rivers-biologists-conservation-plan (Accessed: 3 October 2020).

  In-text citation (print or online) structure:

(Author last name, Year published)

(Ornes, 2020)

Published October 29, 2020.

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How to Cite a Newspaper Article in Harvard Style

Published by Alaxendra Bets at August 30th, 2021 , Revised On August 23, 2023

Citing a newspaper article in Harvard style is the same as citing a journal article. However, the only difference lies in the fact that the volume and preferable issue number are also included in the reference list entry for a journal article. Neither of these is needed for citing or referencing a newspaper article.

The basic format for citing a newspaper article using Harvard style is:

In-text citation: (Author Surname, Year Published)

Reference list entry: Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year Published). Title. Publication Title, [online] p. or pp. Available at: http://Website URL [Accessed Date Accessed].

Note: In Harvard, if a couple of pages have been used, their references include ‘pp.’ for page range instead of ‘p.’, which is for a single page.

For example:

In-text citation: … particular problems stem from the original contracts signed before 2002. (Syal, 2013)

Reference list entry: Syal, R. (2013). Abandoned NHS IT system has cost £10bn so far. Then Guardian , [online] p.1. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/sep/18/nhs-records-system-10bn [Accessed 19 Oct. 2014].

Note: Such references, same as that for journal articles, are placed outside the punctuation marks at the end of sentence, as in the example above.

Types of In-Text Citation and Reference Formats For Newspapers with Examples

1.    citing a newspaper article without an author.

If a newspaper article’s author name is missing or unavailable, Harvard referencing dictates that all other details be included in the in-text citation, for example:

In-text citation: (Sydney Morning Herald 24 January 2000, p.12) OR

… in the Sydney Morning Herald (24 January 2000, p.12).

Reference list entry: There is no need to create a reference list entry for newspaper articles lacking the author’s name as per Harvard referencing.

Citing a newspaper article with no name or page number

If a newspaper article shows neither the author’s name nor page numbers, the following Harvard format is used:

In-text citation: (Article title Year)

Reference list entry: ‘Article title’ Year, Newspaper Title in italics, Day, Month, viewed Date Month Year, <URL>.

In-text citation: Footage captured by drone provides a new perspective on the ‘Rock’ (‘Uluru like you never seen it’ 2016).

Reference list entry: ‘Uluru like you’ve never seen it’ 2016, The Daily Telegraph , 29 August, viewed 31 August 2016,

<http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/voyages-indigenous-tourism-australia-releases-drone-footage-over-uluru/news-story/e33604c8e87a4d01a751a30c2e961ed0>.

2.    Citing a print newspaper article

The basic format for citing a print version of a newspaper article is:

In-text citation: (Author Surname Year) OR (Author Surname Year, p.#)

Reference list entry: Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper Title in italics, Day, Month, page range.

In-text citation: (Browne 2010) OR (Browne 2010, p. 45)

Reference list entry: Browne, R 2010, ‘This brainless patient is no dummy’, S ydney Morning Herald , 21 March, p. 45.

(Schwartz 1993)

3.    Citing an online newspaper article

Online newspaper articles generally include sources like online news-only websites or blogs, news journals, newspaper articles from a separately paginated section of a website or journal and media releases. No matter the kind of platform, since they are all online, the following format is used to cite newspaper articles from such sources:

Reference list entry: Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper Title in italics, Day, Month, page range, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

In-text citation: (Puvanenthiran 2016)

Reference list entry: Puvanenthiran, B 2016, ‘Holographic creation company gets boost from Alibaba’s investment arm’, Sydney Morning Herald , 28 September, viewed 08 January 2017, <http://www.smh.com.au/small-business/startup/holographic-creation-company-gets-boost-from-alibabas-investment-arm-20160927-grphjz.html>.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How do you cite a newspaper article.

To cite a newspaper article, use the following format: Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of the article. Title of the Newspaper, page range. URL (if online). In-text: (Author, Year).

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Citing Journals may vary slightly in style, depending on the style used by the journal.

In Harvard referencing style, the basics of in-text citation for personal communications.

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  • Leeds Harvard referencing examples

Leeds Harvard: Newspaper

Reference examples, newspaper article.

Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title of article.  Newspaper title . Date, page number(s).

Webster, B. 2006. New speed camera puts more drivers in the frame.  The Times . 24 May, p.1.

Newspaper article (online)

Family name, INITIAL(S). Year. Title of article.  Newspaper title.  [Online]. Date. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

Adewunmi, B. 2014. Caring for the carers: helping children who care for parents with mental illness.  The Guardian.  [Online]. 12 December. [Accessed 24 May 2017]. Available from:  http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/dec/12/-sp-guardian-observer-christmas-appeal-kidstime

Newspaper cartoon

Family name, INITIAL(S) (of cartoonist). Year. Title of cartoon.  Newspaper title . Date, page number.

Bell, S. 2006. The alleged al-Qaida threat to Los Angeles.  The Guardian.  10 February, p.29.

Use p. to reference a single page, and pp. for a range of pages.

Citation examples

Author and date.

When the author name is not mentioned in the text, the citation consists of the author’s name and the year of publication in brackets.

It was emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent (Jones, 2017).

If you have already named the author in the text, only the publication year needs to be mentioned in brackets.

Jones (2017) emphasised that citations in the text should be consistent.

Three or more authors

If a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase "et al."

It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2017).

Jones et al. (2017) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

Leeds Harvard does not use ibid to refer to previously cited items. If you are citing the same item twice in a row (i.e. you do not cite any other items in the text between the two citations) you must write the full citation again. As usual, if you are directly quoting or paraphrasing specific ideas, you should include a page number (if there is one). 

Jones et al. (2017, p.24) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent and argued that referencing is a key part of academic integrity (2017, p.27). Furthermore, having a broad range of references in a text is an indicator of the breadth of a scholar's reading and research (Jones et al., 2017, p.14).

When to include page numbers

You should include page numbers in your citation if you quote directly from the text, paraphrase specific ideas or explanations, or use an image, diagram, table, etc. from a source.

"It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent" (Jones, 2017, p.24).

When referencing a single page, you should use p. For a range of pages, use pp.

p.7 or pp.20-29.

If the page numbers are in Roman numerals, do not include p. before them.

(Amis, 1958, iv)

Corporate author

If the item is produced by an organisation, treat the organisation as a "corporate author". This means you can use the name of the organisation instead of that of an individual author. This includes government departments, universities or companies. Cite the corporate author in the text the same way as you would an individual author.

According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2017).  

Common issues

When you're referencing with Leeds Harvard you may come across issues with missing details, multiple authors, edited books, references to another author's work or online items, to name a few. Here are some tips on how to deal with some common issues when using Leeds Harvard.

Skip straight to the issue that affects you:

  • Online items
  • URL web addresses
  • Multiple authors
  • Corporate author(s) or organisation(s)
  • Multiple publisher details
  • Editions and reprints
  • Missing details
  • Multiple sources with different authors
  • Sources written by the same author in the same year
  • Sources with the same author in different years
  • Two authors with the same surname in the same year
  • The work of one author referred to by another
  • Anonymising sources for confidentiality
  • Identifying the authors’ family name (surname)

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LibAnswers: Referencing

How do i reference a newspaper article in harvard (cite them right) style.

Print newspapers

Articles should be formatted as below in your reference list:

Author(s) (Year) ‘Article title’. Newspaper title, Day and Month, Page(s), use p. or pp.

Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2018) '£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts',  The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.

Online newspapers

If you are specifically using the online version of a newspaper, which often varies from the print edition (for example no pagination), then you would reference it using the URL.

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria',  The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolution-90-days (Accessed: 9 September 2018).

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  • Referencing - Newspaper
  • Referencing - Harvard (Cite Them Right)
  • Last Updated 02 May, 2023
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Harvard Referencing

  • Summarising/Paraphrasing
  • Citations/Direct Quotations
  • Books (print or online)
  • Electronic Journal Article
  • Website/Web Document
  • Journal/Magazine Article
  • Academic publications
  • Audiovisual material
  • News Article (print or online)
  • Figures/Tables
  • Public documents
  • Performance
  • Reference List Example
  • More Information

Print Newspaper Articles With An Author

In-text citation:

'The initial impetus for a collection of haute couture gowns in the Victorian and Albert Museum came from Cecil Beaton (Money 2008, p. 24).

Pamela Warren, (Money 2008, p. 24) describing conditions immediately after the Second World War, stated, 'There was no fashion ... no silk stockings or anything else'. 

Reference list:

Surname, Initials. Year, ‘Article title in inverted commas’,  Newspaper title in italics , Date of Publication, page number. Money, L. 2008, 'A stitch in time', The Age , 19 December, p. 24.

Print Newspaper Articles Without an Author

Abbey Lee Kershaw has been named as the face of Gucci's new fragrance ( ' Abbey '  2008, p. 25).

The Herald Sun ('Abbey' 2008, p. 25) reported that Abbey Lee Kershaw had been named as the face of Gucci's new fragrance.

‘Article title in inverted commas’, Year, Newspaper title in italics , Date of Publication, page number. 'Abbey', 2008, Herald Sun , 19 December, p. 25.

Online News Article

According to research coming out of the USA and UK (de Jong, 2015), 47 per cent of middle-class jobs will become redundant due to robotics and new technologies.

Surname, Initials, Year. ‘Article title in inverted commas’,  Newspaper title in italics , Date of Publication, Retrieved: date accessed it, from: specific website address (best to copy and paste to ensure accuracy.)

de Jong, T. 2015, 'Inclusion and entrepreneurship the key to innovation',  The Age , 20 November, Retrieved: 29 May, 2017, from http://www.theage.com.au/comment/inclusion-and-entrepreneurship-the-key-to-innovation-20151111-gkwch1.html 

News Articles From an Electronic Database

This is for newspaper articles that are available on electronic databases, e.g. EBSCOhost.

Ted Lapidus was the first designer to introduce jeans into haute couture ('Ted Lapidus' ,  2008, p. 52).

 'Ted Lapidus', 2008, The Times,  31 December, p. 52, Retrieved: 15 October, 2010, from EBSCOhost - Australian/New Zealand Reference Centre.

Point to remember:

  • There is no author given for this article so the name of the article is used in place of the author's name in the in-text citation and in the reference list. If there is an author, replicate the examples above for newspaper articles with an author, and at the end of the reference, add the date retrieved, and database name as shown in this example.
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Reference a Newspaper

- powered by chegg, cite smarter, worry less with cite this for me premium, upgrade to save your work, check with plagiarism, and more, is your source credible don't forget to consider these factors:, purpose : reason the source exists.

  • Is the point of the information to inform, persuade, teach, or sell?
  • Do the authors/publishers make their intentions clear?
  • Does the information appear to be fact or opinion?
  • Does the point of view seem impartial? Do they identify counter-arguments?

Authority - Author:Source of the information

  • Who is the author? What are their credentials or qualifications?
  • What makes the author qualified to write on this topic?
  • Are there clearly defined contact information for the author?

Authority - Publisher:Source of the information

  • Who is the publisher? Is it a non-profit, government agency, or organisation? How might this affect their point of view?
  • What makes the publisher qualified to generate works on this subject?
  • What can the URL tell you about the publisher? For instance, .gov may signify that it is a government agency.

Accuracy : Reliability and truthfulness of the content

  • Where does the information come from?
  • Can the information presented be verified? Is it supported by evidence that is clearly cited?
  • Does the language used seem free of emotion, and does the work seem impartial and objective?
  • Are there any spelling or grammatical errors? If an online source, are all links working?
  • If it was reproduced, who edited/reproduced it? Where was the information originally published?
  • How original are the ideas presented in the work? Do they seem to be common knowledge?

Relevance : Importance of the information to your topic

  • Does the information relate to your topic, or answer the question you have presented?
  • Who is the intended audience of the work? Does that audience match with yours?
  • Have you looked at other sources related to this one? Does it seem there are many others on the topic?
  • Are you utilizing the entire source, or just a part of it?

Currency : Timeliness of the information

  • When was the information published? When was it last updated? Does it reflect the most current information available?
  • How does your topic fit in with this source’s publication date? Do you need current information to make your point or do older sources work better?

Comprehensiveness

  • Does the source present one or multiple viewpoints on your topic?
  • Does the source present a large amount of information on the topic? Or is it short and focused?
  • Are there any points you feel may have been left out, on purpose or accidentally, that affect its comprehensiveness?
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  • Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples

Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples

Published on 20 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.

In Harvard style, to reference a journal article, you need the author name(s), the year, the article title, the journal name, the volume and issue numbers, and the page range on which the article appears.

If you accessed the article online, add a DOI (digital object identifier) if available.

Scribbr’s free Harvard reference generator can instantly create accurate references for a wide variety of source types:

Harvard Reference Generator

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Table of contents

Online-only journal articles, articles with multiple authors, referencing a whole issue of a journal, referencing a preprint journal article, frequently asked questions about referencing journal articles in harvard style.

To reference an online journal article with no print version, always include the DOI if available. No access date is necessary with a DOI. Note that a page range may not be available for online-only articles; in this case, simply leave it out, as in this example.

Online-only article with no DOI

When you need to reference an online-only article which doesn’t have a DOI, use a URL instead – preferably the stable URL often listed with the article. In this case, you do need to include an access date.

Note that if an online article has no DOI but does have a print equivalent, you don’t need to include a URL. The details of the print journal should be enough for the reader to locate the article.

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Journal articles often have multiple authors. In both your in-text citations and reference list, list up to three authors in full. Use the first author’s name followed by ‘ et al. ’ when there are four or more.

When you want to reference an entire issue of a journal instead of an individual article, you list the issue editor(s) in the author position and give the title of the issue (if available) rather than of an individual article.

When you reference an article that’s been accepted for publication but not yet published, the format changes to acknowledge this.

If it’s unknown where or whether the article will be published, omit this information:

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).

You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 21 May 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-journal-article-reference/

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Pew Research Center conducted the analysis to examine how often online content that once existed becomes inaccessible. One part of the study looks at a representative sample of webpages that existed over the past decade to see how many are still accessible today. For this analysis, we collected a sample of pages from the Common Crawl web repository for each year from 2013 to 2023. We then tried to access those pages to see how many still exist.

A second part of the study looks at the links on existing webpages to see how many of those links are still functional. We did this by collecting a large sample of pages from government websites, news websites and the online encyclopedia Wikipedia .

We identified relevant news domains using data from the audience metrics company comScore and relevant government domains (at multiple levels of government) using data from get.gov , the official administrator for the .gov domain. We collected the news and government pages via Common Crawl and the Wikipedia pages from an archive maintained by the Wikimedia Foundation . For each collection, we identified the links on those pages and followed them to their destination to see what share of those links point to sites that are no longer accessible.

A third part of the study looks at how often individual posts on social media sites are deleted or otherwise removed from public view. We did this by collecting a large sample of public tweets on the social media platform X (then known as Twitter) in real time using the Twitter Streaming API. We then tracked the status of those tweets for a period of three months using the Twitter Search API to monitor how many were still publicly available. Refer to the report methodology for more details.

The internet is an unimaginably vast repository of modern life, with hundreds of billions of indexed webpages. But even as users across the world rely on the web to access books, images, news articles and other resources, this content sometimes disappears from view.

A new Pew Research Center analysis shows just how fleeting online content actually is:

  • A quarter of all webpages that existed at one point between 2013 and 2023 are no longer accessible, as of October 2023. In most cases, this is because an individual page was deleted or removed on an otherwise functional website.

A line chart showing that 38% of webpages from 2013 are no longer accessible

  • For older content, this trend is even starker. Some 38% of webpages that existed in 2013 are not available today, compared with 8% of pages that existed in 2023.

This “digital decay” occurs in many different online spaces. We examined the links that appear on government and news websites, as well as in the “References” section of Wikipedia pages as of spring 2023. This analysis found that:

  • 23% of news webpages contain at least one broken link, as do 21% of webpages from government sites. News sites with a high level of site traffic and those with less are about equally likely to contain broken links. Local-level government webpages (those belonging to city governments) are especially likely to have broken links.
  • 54% of Wikipedia pages contain at least one link in their “References” section that points to a page that no longer exists.

To see how digital decay plays out on social media, we also collected a real-time sample of tweets during spring 2023 on the social media platform X (then known as Twitter) and followed them for three months. We found that:

  • Nearly one-in-five tweets are no longer publicly visible on the site just months after being posted. In 60% of these cases, the account that originally posted the tweet was made private, suspended or deleted entirely. In the other 40%, the account holder deleted the individual tweet, but the account itself still existed.
  • Certain types of tweets tend to go away more often than others. More than 40% of tweets written in Turkish or Arabic are no longer visible on the site within three months of being posted. And tweets from accounts with the default profile settings are especially likely to disappear from public view.

How this report defines inaccessible links and webpages

There are many ways of defining whether something on the internet that used to exist is now inaccessible to people trying to reach it today. For instance, “inaccessible” could mean that:

  • The page no longer exists on its host server, or the host server itself no longer exists. Someone visiting this type of page would typically receive a variation on the “404 Not Found” server error instead of the content they were looking for.
  • The page address exists but its content has been changed – sometimes dramatically – from what it was originally.
  • The page exists but certain users – such as those with blindness or other visual impairments – might find it difficult or impossible to read.

For this report, we focused on the first of these: pages that no longer exist. The other definitions of accessibility are beyond the scope of this research.

Our approach is a straightforward way of measuring whether something online is accessible or not. But even so, there is some ambiguity.

First, there are dozens of status codes indicating a problem that a user might encounter when they try to access a page. Not all of them definitively indicate whether the page is permanently defunct or just temporarily unavailable. Second, for security reasons, many sites actively try to prevent the sort of automated data collection that we used to test our full list of links.

For these reasons, we used the most conservative estimate possible for deciding whether a site was actually accessible or not. We counted pages as inaccessible only if they returned one of nine error codes that definitively indicate that the page and/or its host server no longer exist or have become nonfunctional – regardless of how they are being accessed, and by whom. The full list of error codes that we included in our definition are in the methodology .

Here are some of the findings from our analysis of digital decay in various online spaces.

To conduct this part of our analysis, we collected a random sample of just under 1 million webpages from the archives of Common Crawl , an internet archive service that periodically collects snapshots of the internet as it exists at different points in time. We sampled pages collected by Common Crawl each year from 2013 through 2023 (approximately 90,000 pages per year) and checked to see if those pages still exist today.

We found that 25% of all the pages we collected from 2013 through 2023 were no longer accessible as of October 2023. This figure is the sum of two different types of broken pages: 16% of pages are individually inaccessible but come from an otherwise functional root-level domain; the other 9% are inaccessible because their entire root domain is no longer functional.

Not surprisingly, the older snapshots in our collection had the largest share of inaccessible links. Of the pages collected from the 2013 snapshot, 38% were no longer accessible in 2023. But even for pages collected in the 2021 snapshot, about one-in-five were no longer accessible just two years later.

A bar chart showing that Around 1 in 5 government webpages contain at least one broken link

We sampled around 500,000 pages from government websites using the Common Crawl March/April 2023 snapshot of the internet, including a mix of different levels of government (federal, state, local and others). We found every link on each page and followed a random selection of those links to their destination to see if the pages they refer to still exist.

Across the government websites we sampled, there were 42 million links. The vast majority of those links (86%) were internal, meaning they link to a different page on the same website. An explainer resource on the IRS website that links to other documents or forms on the IRS site would be an example of an internal link.

Around three-quarters of government webpages we sampled contained at least one on-page link. The typical (median) page contains 50 links, but many pages contain far more. A page in the 90th percentile contains 190 links, and a page in the 99th percentile (that is, the top 1% of pages by number of links) has 740 links.

Other facts about government webpage links:

  • The vast majority go to secure HTTP pages (and have a URL starting with “https://”).
  • 6% go to a static file, like a PDF document.
  • 16% now redirect to a different URL than the one they originally pointed to.

When we followed these links, we found that 6% point to pages that are no longer accessible. Similar shares of internal and external links are no longer functional.

Overall, 21% of all the government webpages we examined contained at least one broken link. Across every level of government we looked at, there were broken links on at least 14% of pages; city government pages had the highest rates of broken links.

A bar chart showing that 23% of news webpages have at least one broken link

For this analysis, we sampled 500,000 pages from 2,063 websites classified as “News/Information” by the audience metrics firm comScore. The pages were collected from the Common Crawl March/April 2023 snapshot of the internet.

Across the news sites sampled, this collection contained more than 14 million links pointing to an outside website. 1 Some 94% of these pages contain at least one external-facing link. The median page contains 20 links, and pages in the top 10% by link count have 56 links.

Like government websites, the vast majority of these links go to secure HTTP pages (those with a URL beginning with “https://”). Around 12% of links on these news sites point to a static file, like a PDF document. And 32% of links on news sites redirected to a different URL than the one they originally pointed to – slightly less than the 39% of external links on government sites that redirect.

When we tracked these links to their destination, we found that 5% of all links on news site pages are no longer accessible. And 23% of all the pages we sampled contained at least one broken link.

Broken links are about as prevalent on the most-trafficked news websites as they are on the least-trafficked sites. Some 25% of pages on news websites in the top 20% by site traffic have at least one broken link. That is nearly identical to the 26% of sites in the bottom 20% by site traffic.

For this analysis, we collected a random sample of 50,000 English-language Wikipedia pages and examined the links in their “References” section. The vast majority of these pages (82%) contain at least one reference link – that is, one that directs the reader to a webpage other than Wikipedia itself.

In total, there are just over 1 million reference links across all the pages we collected. The typical page has four reference links.

The analysis indicates that 11% of all references linked on Wikipedia are no longer accessible. On about 2% of source pages containing reference links, every link on the page was broken or otherwise inaccessible, while another 53% of pages contained at least one broken link.

A pie chart showing that Around 1 in 5 tweets disappear from public view within months

For this analysis, we collected nearly 5 million tweets posted from March 8 to April 27, 2023, on the social media platform X, which at the time was known as Twitter. We did this using Twitter’s Streaming API, collecting 3,000 public tweets every 30 minutes in real time. This provided us with a representative sample of all tweets posted on the platform during that period. We monitored those tweets until June 15, 2023, and checked each day to see if they were still available on the site or not.

At the end of the observation period, we found that 18% of the tweets from our initial collection window were no longer publicly visible on the site . In a majority of cases, this was because the account that originally posted the tweet was made private, suspended or deleted entirely. For the remaining tweets, the account that posted the tweet was still visible on the site, but the individual tweet had been deleted.

Which tweets tend to disappear?

A bar chart showing that Inaccessible tweets often come from accounts with default profile settings

Tweets were especially likely to be deleted or removed over the course of our collection period if they were:

  • Written in certain languages. Nearly half of all the Turkish-language tweets we collected – and a slightly smaller share of those written in Arabic – were no longer available at the end of the tracking period.
  • Posted by accounts using the site’s default profile settings. More than half of tweets from accounts using the default profile image were no longer available at the end of the tracking period, as were more than a third from accounts with a default bio field. Tweets from these accounts tend to disappear because the entire account has been deleted or made private, as opposed to the individual tweet being deleted.
  • Posted by unverified accounts.

We also found that removed or deleted tweets tended to come from newer accounts with relatively few followers and modest activityon the site. On average, tweets that were no longer visible on the site were posted by accounts around eight months younger than those whose tweets stayed on the site.

And when we analyzed the types of tweets that were no longer available, we found that retweets, quote tweets and original tweets did not differ much from the overall average. But replies were relatively unlikely to be removed – just 12% of replies were inaccessible at the end of our monitoring period.

Most tweets that are removed from the site tend to disappear soon after being posted. In addition to looking at how many tweets from our collection were still available at the end of our tracking period, we conducted a survival analysis to see how long these tweets tended to remain available. We found that:

  • 1% of tweets are removed within one hour
  • 3% within a day
  • 10% within a week
  • 15% within a month

Put another way: Half of tweets that are eventually removed from the platform are unavailable within the first six days of being posted. And 90% of these tweets are unavailable within 46 days.

Tweets don’t always disappear forever, though. Some 6% of the tweets we collected disappeared and then became available again at a later point. This could be due to an account going private and then returning to public status, or to the account being suspended and later reinstated. Of those “reappeared” tweets, the vast majority (90%) were still accessible on Twitter at the end of the monitoring period.

  • For our analysis of news sites, we did not collect or check the functionality of internal-facing on-page links – those that point to another page on the same root domain. ↩

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  • 15 May 2024

‘Quantum internet’ demonstration in cities is most advanced yet

  • Davide Castelvecchi

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

You have full access to this article via your institution.

A pair of researchers work at electronic equipment lit up in green and pink.

A quantum network node at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Credit: Marieke de Lorijn for QuTech

Three separate research groups have demonstrated quantum entanglement — in which two or more objects are linked so that they contain the same information even if they are far apart — over several kilometres of existing optical fibres in real urban areas. The feat is a key step towards a future quantum internet , a network that could allow information to be exchanged while encoded in quantum states.

Together, the experiments are “the most advanced demonstrations so far” of the technology needed for a quantum internet, says physicist Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck in Austria. Each of the three research teams — based in the United States, China and the Netherlands — was able to connect parts of a network using photons in the optical-fibre-friendly infrared part of the spectrum, which is a “major milestone”, says fellow Innsbruck physicist Simon Baier.

how to harvard reference a newspaper article online

How to build a quantum internet

A quantum internet could enable any two users to establish almost unbreakable cryptographic keys to protect sensitive information . But full use of entanglement could do much more, such as connecting separate quantum computers into one larger, more powerful machine. The technology could also enable certain types of scientific experiment, for example by creating networks of optical telescopes that have the resolution of a single dish hundreds of kilometres wide.

Two of the studies 1 , 2 were published in Nature on 15 May. The third was described last month in a preprint posted on arXiv 3 , which has not yet been peer reviewed.

Impractical environment

Many of the technical steps for building a quantum internet have been demonstrated in the laboratory over the past decade or so. And researchers have shown that they can produce entangled photons using lasers in direct line of sight of each other, either in separate ground locations or on the ground and in space.

But going from the lab to a city environment is “a different beast”, says Ronald Hanson, a physicist who led the Dutch experiment 3 at the Delft University of Technology. To build a large-scale network, researchers agree that it will probably be necessary to use existing optical-fibre technology. The trouble is, quantum information is fragile and cannot be copied; it is often carried by individual photons, rather than by laser pulses that can be detected and then amplified and emitted again. This limits the entangled photons to travelling a few tens of kilometres before losses make the whole thing impractical. “They also are affected by temperature changes throughout the day — and even by wind, if they’re above ground,” says Northup. “That’s why generating entanglement across an actual city is a big deal.”

The three demonstrations each used different kinds of ‘quantum memory’ device to store a qubit, a physical system such as a photon or atom that can be in one of two states — akin to the ‘1’ or ‘0’ of ordinary computer bits — or in a combination, or ‘quantum superposition’, of the two possibilities.

how to harvard reference a newspaper article online

The quantum internet has arrived (and it hasn’t)

In one of the Nature studies, led by Pan Jian-Wei at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei, qubits were encoded in the collective states of clouds of rubidium atoms 1 . The qubits’ quantum states can be set using a single photon, or can be read out by ‘tickling’ the atomic cloud to emit a photon. Pan’s team had such quantum memories set up in three separate labs in the Hefei area. Each lab was connected by optical fibres to a central ‘photonic server’ around 10 kilometres away. Any two of these nodes could be put in an entangled state if the photons from the two atom clouds arrived at the server at exactly the same time.

By contrast, Hanson and his team established a link between individual nitrogen atoms embedded in small diamond crystals with qubits encoded in the electron states of the nitrogen and in the nuclear states of nearby carbon atoms 3 . Their optical fibre went from the university in Delft through a tortuous 25-kilometre path across the suburbs of The Hague to reach a second laboratory in the city.

In the US experiment, Mikhail Lukin, a physicist at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his collaborators also used diamond-based devices, but with silicon atoms instead of nitrogen, making use of the quantum states of both an electron and a silicon nucleus 2 . Single atoms are less efficient than atomic ensembles at emitting photons on demand, but they are more versatile, because they can perform rudimentary quantum computations. “Basically, we entangled two small quantum computers,” says Lukin. The two diamond-based devices were in the same building at Harvard, but to mimic the conditions of a metropolitan network, the researchers used an optical fibre that snaked around the local Boston area. “It crosses the Charles River six times,” Lukin says.

Challenges ahead

The entanglement procedure used by the Chinese and the Dutch teams required photons to arrive at a central server with exquisite timing precision, which was one of the main challenges in the experiments. Lukin’s team used a protocol that does not require such fine-tuning: instead of entangling the qubits by getting them to emit photons, the researchers sent one photon to entangle itself with the silicon atom at the first node. The same photon then went around the fibre-optic loop and came back to graze the second silicon atom, thereby entangling it with the first.

Pan has calculated that at the current pace of advance, by the end of the decade his team should be able to establish entanglement over 1,000 kilometres of optical fibres using ten or so intermediate nodes, with a procedure called entanglement swapping . (At first, such a link would be very slow, creating perhaps one entanglement per second, he adds.) Pan is the leading researcher for a project using the satellite Micius , which demonstrated the first quantum-enabled communications in space, and he says there are plans for a follow-up mission.

“The step has now really been made out of the lab and into the field,” says Hanson. “It doesn’t mean it’s commercially useful yet, but it’s a big step.”

Nature 629 , 734-735 (2024)

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-024-01445-2

Knaut, C. M. et al. Nature 629 , 573–578 (2024).

Article   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Liu, J. L. et al. Nature 629 , 579–585 (2024).

Stolk, A. J. et al. Preprint at arXiv https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2404.03723 (2024).

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    Citing Newspaper Articles. Citing Newspaper articles is very similar to citing journal articles . As many newspapers are daily publications the date of the newspaper must be included. If accessed online, the access date and source should be included.

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  17. LibGuides: Harvard Referencing: News Article (print or online)

    News Article (print or online) - Harvard Referencing - LibGuides at Box Hill Institute. Print Newspaper Articles With An Author. In-text citation: 'The initial impetus for a collection of haute couture gowns in the Victorian and Albert Museum came from Cecil Beaton (Money 2008, p. 24). OR.

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  24. 'Quantum internet' demonstration in cities is most advanced yet

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