How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

The conclusion of a research paper is a crucial section that plays a significant role in the overall impact and effectiveness of your research paper. However, this is also the section that typically receives less attention compared to the introduction and the body of the paper. The conclusion serves to provide a concise summary of the key findings, their significance, their implications, and a sense of closure to the study. Discussing how can the findings be applied in real-world scenarios or inform policy, practice, or decision-making is especially valuable to practitioners and policymakers. The research paper conclusion also provides researchers with clear insights and valuable information for their own work, which they can then build on and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field.

The research paper conclusion should explain the significance of your findings within the broader context of your field. It restates how your results contribute to the existing body of knowledge and whether they confirm or challenge existing theories or hypotheses. Also, by identifying unanswered questions or areas requiring further investigation, your awareness of the broader research landscape can be demonstrated.

Remember to tailor the research paper conclusion to the specific needs and interests of your intended audience, which may include researchers, practitioners, policymakers, or a combination of these.

Table of Contents

What is a conclusion in a research paper, summarizing conclusion, editorial conclusion, externalizing conclusion, importance of a good research paper conclusion, how to write a conclusion for your research paper, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions.

A conclusion in a research paper is the final section where you summarize and wrap up your research, presenting the key findings and insights derived from your study. The research paper conclusion is not the place to introduce new information or data that was not discussed in the main body of the paper. When working on how to conclude a research paper, remember to stick to summarizing and interpreting existing content. The research paper conclusion serves the following purposes: 1

  • Warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem.
  • Recommend specific course(s) of action.
  • Restate key ideas to drive home the ultimate point of your research paper.
  • Provide a “take-home” message that you want the readers to remember about your study.

how to write an conclusion for a research paper

Types of conclusions for research papers

In research papers, the conclusion provides closure to the reader. The type of research paper conclusion you choose depends on the nature of your study, your goals, and your target audience. I provide you with three common types of conclusions:

A summarizing conclusion is the most common type of conclusion in research papers. It involves summarizing the main points, reiterating the research question, and restating the significance of the findings. This common type of research paper conclusion is used across different disciplines.

An editorial conclusion is less common but can be used in research papers that are focused on proposing or advocating for a particular viewpoint or policy. It involves presenting a strong editorial or opinion based on the research findings and offering recommendations or calls to action.

An externalizing conclusion is a type of conclusion that extends the research beyond the scope of the paper by suggesting potential future research directions or discussing the broader implications of the findings. This type of conclusion is often used in more theoretical or exploratory research papers.

The conclusion in a research paper serves several important purposes:

  • Offers Implications and Recommendations : Your research paper conclusion is an excellent place to discuss the broader implications of your research and suggest potential areas for further study. It’s also an opportunity to offer practical recommendations based on your findings.
  • Provides Closure : A good research paper conclusion provides a sense of closure to your paper. It should leave the reader with a feeling that they have reached the end of a well-structured and thought-provoking research project.
  • Leaves a Lasting Impression : Writing a well-crafted research paper conclusion leaves a lasting impression on your readers. It’s your final opportunity to leave them with a new idea, a call to action, or a memorable quote.

how to write an conclusion for a research paper

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper is essential to leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here’s a step-by-step process to help you create and know what to put in the conclusion of a research paper: 2

  • Research Statement : Begin your research paper conclusion by restating your research statement. This reminds the reader of the main point you’ve been trying to prove throughout your paper. Keep it concise and clear.
  • Key Points : Summarize the main arguments and key points you’ve made in your paper. Avoid introducing new information in the research paper conclusion. Instead, provide a concise overview of what you’ve discussed in the body of your paper.
  • Address the Research Questions : If your research paper is based on specific research questions or hypotheses, briefly address whether you’ve answered them or achieved your research goals. Discuss the significance of your findings in this context.
  • Significance : Highlight the importance of your research and its relevance in the broader context. Explain why your findings matter and how they contribute to the existing knowledge in your field.
  • Implications : Explore the practical or theoretical implications of your research. How might your findings impact future research, policy, or real-world applications? Consider the “so what?” question.
  • Future Research : Offer suggestions for future research in your area. What questions or aspects remain unanswered or warrant further investigation? This shows that your work opens the door for future exploration.
  • Closing Thought : Conclude your research paper conclusion with a thought-provoking or memorable statement. This can leave a lasting impression on your readers and wrap up your paper effectively. Avoid introducing new information or arguments here.
  • Proofread and Revise : Carefully proofread your conclusion for grammar, spelling, and clarity. Ensure that your ideas flow smoothly and that your conclusion is coherent and well-structured.

Remember that a well-crafted research paper conclusion is a reflection of the strength of your research and your ability to communicate its significance effectively. It should leave a lasting impression on your readers and tie together all the threads of your paper. Now you know how to start the conclusion of a research paper and what elements to include to make it impactful, let’s look at a research paper conclusion sample.

how to write an conclusion for a research paper

The research paper conclusion is a crucial part of your paper as it provides the final opportunity to leave a strong impression on your readers. In the research paper conclusion, summarize the main points of your research paper by restating your research statement, highlighting the most important findings, addressing the research questions or objectives, explaining the broader context of the study, discussing the significance of your findings, providing recommendations if applicable, and emphasizing the takeaway message. The main purpose of the conclusion is to remind the reader of the main point or argument of your paper and to provide a clear and concise summary of the key findings and their implications. All these elements should feature on your list of what to put in the conclusion of a research paper to create a strong final statement for your work.

A strong conclusion is a critical component of a research paper, as it provides an opportunity to wrap up your arguments, reiterate your main points, and leave a lasting impression on your readers. Here are the key elements of a strong research paper conclusion: 1. Conciseness : A research paper conclusion should be concise and to the point. It should not introduce new information or ideas that were not discussed in the body of the paper. 2. Summarization : The research paper conclusion should be comprehensive enough to give the reader a clear understanding of the research’s main contributions. 3 . Relevance : Ensure that the information included in the research paper conclusion is directly relevant to the research paper’s main topic and objectives; avoid unnecessary details. 4 . Connection to the Introduction : A well-structured research paper conclusion often revisits the key points made in the introduction and shows how the research has addressed the initial questions or objectives. 5. Emphasis : Highlight the significance and implications of your research. Why is your study important? What are the broader implications or applications of your findings? 6 . Call to Action : Include a call to action or a recommendation for future research or action based on your findings.

The length of a research paper conclusion can vary depending on several factors, including the overall length of the paper, the complexity of the research, and the specific journal requirements. While there is no strict rule for the length of a conclusion, but it’s generally advisable to keep it relatively short. A typical research paper conclusion might be around 5-10% of the paper’s total length. For example, if your paper is 10 pages long, the conclusion might be roughly half a page to one page in length.

In general, you do not need to include citations in the research paper conclusion. Citations are typically reserved for the body of the paper to support your arguments and provide evidence for your claims. However, there may be some exceptions to this rule: 1. If you are drawing a direct quote or paraphrasing a specific source in your research paper conclusion, you should include a citation to give proper credit to the original author. 2. If your conclusion refers to or discusses specific research, data, or sources that are crucial to the overall argument, citations can be included to reinforce your conclusion’s validity.

The conclusion of a research paper serves several important purposes: 1. Summarize the Key Points 2. Reinforce the Main Argument 3. Provide Closure 4. Offer Insights or Implications 5. Engage the Reader. 6. Reflect on Limitations

Remember that the primary purpose of the research paper conclusion is to leave a lasting impression on the reader, reinforcing the key points and providing closure to your research. It’s often the last part of the paper that the reader will see, so it should be strong and well-crafted.

  • Makar, G., Foltz, C., Lendner, M., & Vaccaro, A. R. (2018). How to write effective discussion and conclusion sections. Clinical spine surgery, 31(8), 345-346.
  • Bunton, D. (2005). The structure of PhD conclusion chapters.  Journal of English for academic purposes ,  4 (3), 207-224.

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Last Updated: June 29, 2023 Approved

This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD . Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 42 testimonials and 82% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 2,253,978 times.

The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without seeming too wooden or dry. Every basic conclusion must share several key elements, but there are also several tactics you can play around with to craft a more effective conclusion and several you should avoid to prevent yourself from weakening your paper's conclusion. Here are some writing tips to keep in mind when creating a conclusion for your next research paper.

Sample Conclusions

Writing a basic conclusion.

Step 1 Restate the topic.

  • Do not spend a great amount of time or space restating your topic.
  • A good research paper will make the importance of your topic apparent, so you do not need to write an elaborate defense of your topic in the conclusion.
  • Usually a single sentence is all you need to restate your topic.
  • An example would be if you were writing a paper on the epidemiology of infectious disease, you might say something like "Tuberculosis is a widespread infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year."
  • Yet another example from the humanities would be a paper about the Italian Renaissance: "The Italian Renaissance was an explosion of art and ideas centered around artists, writers, and thinkers in Florence."

Step 2 Restate your thesis.

  • A thesis is a narrowed, focused view on the topic at hand.
  • This statement should be rephrased from the thesis you included in your introduction. It should not be identical or too similar to the sentence you originally used.
  • Try re-wording your thesis statement in a way that complements your summary of the topic of your paper in your first sentence of your conclusion.
  • An example of a good thesis statement, going back to the paper on tuberculosis, would be "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease ."

Step 3 Briefly summarize your main points.

  • A good way to go about this is to re-read the topic sentence of each major paragraph or section in the body of your paper.
  • Find a way to briefly restate each point mentioned in each topic sentence in your conclusion. Do not repeat any of the supporting details used within your body paragraphs.
  • Under most circumstances, you should avoid writing new information in your conclusion. This is especially true if the information is vital to the argument or research presented in your paper.
  • For example, in the TB paper you could summarize the information. "Tuberculosis is a widespread disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Due to the alarming rate of the spread of tuberculosis, particularly in poor countries, medical professionals are implementing new strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and containment of this disease. In developing countries, such as those in Africa and Southeast Asia, the rate of TB infections is soaring. Crowded conditions, poor sanitation, and lack of access to medical care are all compounding factors in the spread of the disease. Medical experts, such as those from the World Health Organization are now starting campaigns to go into communities in developing countries and provide diagnostic testing and treatments. However, the treatments for TB are very harsh and have many side effects. This leads to patient non-compliance and spread of multi-drug resistant strains of the disease."

Step 4 Add the points up.

  • Note that this is not needed for all research papers.
  • If you already fully explained what the points in your paper mean or why they are significant, you do not need to go into them in much detail in your conclusion. Simply restating your thesis or the significance of your topic should suffice.
  • It is always best practice to address important issues and fully explain your points in the body of your paper. The point of a conclusion to a research paper is to summarize your argument for the reader and, perhaps, to call the reader to action if needed.

Step 5 Make a call to action when appropriate.

  • Note that a call for action is not essential to all conclusions. A research paper on literary criticism, for instance, is less likely to need a call for action than a paper on the effect that television has on toddlers and young children.
  • A paper that is more likely to call readers to action is one that addresses a public or scientific need. Let's go back to our example of tuberculosis. This is a very serious disease that is spreading quickly and with antibiotic-resistant forms.
  • A call to action in this research paper would be a follow-up statement that might be along the lines of "Despite new efforts to diagnose and contain the disease, more research is needed to develop new antibiotics that will treat the most resistant strains of tuberculosis and ease the side effects of current treatments."

Step 6 Answer the “so what” question.

  • For example, if you are writing a history paper, then you might discuss how the historical topic you discussed matters today. If you are writing about a foreign country, then you might use the conclusion to discuss how the information you shared may help readers understand their own country.

Making Your Conclusion as Effective as Possible

Step 1 Stick with a basic synthesis of information.

  • Since this sort of conclusion is so basic, you must aim to synthesize the information rather than merely summarizing it.
  • Instead of merely repeating things you already said, rephrase your thesis and supporting points in a way that ties them all together.
  • By doing so, you make your research paper seem like a "complete thought" rather than a collection of random and vaguely related ideas.

Step 2 Bring things full circle.

  • Ask a question in your introduction. In your conclusion, restate the question and provide a direct answer.
  • Write an anecdote or story in your introduction but do not share the ending. Instead, write the conclusion to the anecdote in the conclusion of your paper.
  • For example, if you wanted to get more creative and put a more humanistic spin on a paper on tuberculosis, you might start your introduction with a story about a person with the disease, and refer to that story in your conclusion. For example, you could say something like this before you re-state your thesis in your conclusion: "Patient X was unable to complete the treatment for tuberculosis due to severe side effects and unfortunately succumbed to the disease."
  • Use the same concepts and images introduced in your introduction in your conclusion. The images may or may not appear at other points throughout the research paper.

Step 3 Close with logic.

  • Include enough information about your topic to back the statement up but do not get too carried away with excess detail.
  • If your research did not provide you with a clear-cut answer to a question posed in your thesis, do not be afraid to indicate as much.
  • Restate your initial hypothesis and indicate whether you still believe it or if the research you performed has begun swaying your opinion.
  • Indicate that an answer may still exist and that further research could shed more light on the topic at hand.

Step 4 Pose a question.

  • This may not be appropriate for all types of research papers. Most research papers, such as one on effective treatment for diseases, will have the information to make the case for a particular argument already in the paper.
  • A good example of a paper that might ask a question of the reader in the ending is one about a social issue, such as poverty or government policy.
  • Ask a question that will directly get at the heart or purpose of the paper. This question is often the same question, or some version of it, that you may have started with when you began your research.
  • Make sure that the question can be answered by the evidence presented in your paper.
  • If desired you can briefly summarize the answer after stating the question. You could also leave the question hanging for the reader to answer, though.

Step 5 Make a suggestion.

  • Even without a call to action, you can still make a recommendation to your reader.
  • For instance, if you are writing about a topic like third-world poverty, you can various ways for the reader to assist in the problem without necessarily calling for more research.
  • Another example would be, in a paper about treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis, you could suggest donating to the World Health Organization or research foundations that are developing new treatments for the disease.

Avoiding Common Pitfalls

Step 1 Avoid saying

  • These sayings usually sound stiff, unnatural, or trite when used in writing.
  • Moreover, using a phrase like "in conclusion" to begin your conclusion is a little too straightforward and tends to lead to a weak conclusion. A strong conclusion can stand on its own without being labeled as such.

Step 2 Do not wait until the conclusion to state your thesis.

  • Always state the main argument or thesis in the introduction. A research paper is an analytical discussion of an academic topic, not a mystery novel.
  • A good, effective research paper will allow your reader to follow your main argument from start to finish.
  • This is why it is best practice to start your paper with an introduction that states your main argument and to end the paper with a conclusion that re-states your thesis for re-iteration.

Step 3 Leave out new information.

  • All significant information should be introduced in the body of the paper.
  • Supporting evidence expands the topic of your paper by making it appear more detailed. A conclusion should narrow the topic to a more general point.
  • A conclusion should only summarize what you have already stated in the body of your paper.
  • You may suggest further research or a call to action, but you should not bring in any new evidence or facts in the conclusion.

Step 4 Avoid changing the tone of the paper.

  • Most often, a shift in tone occurs when a research paper with an academic tone gives an emotional or sentimental conclusion.
  • Even if the topic of the paper is of personal significance for you, you should not indicate as much in your paper.
  • If you want to give your paper a more humanistic slant, you could start and end your paper with a story or anecdote that would give your topic more personal meaning to the reader.
  • This tone should be consistent throughout the paper, however.

Step 5 Make no apologies.

  • Apologetic statements include phrases like "I may not be an expert" or "This is only my opinion."
  • Statements like this can usually be avoided by refraining from writing in the first-person.
  • Avoid any statements in the first-person. First-person is generally considered to be informal and does not fit with the formal tone of a research paper.

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  • ↑ http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/724/04/
  • ↑ http://www.crlsresearchguide.org/18_Writing_Conclusion.asp
  • ↑ http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/PlanResearchPaper.html#conclusion
  • ↑ http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/conclusions/
  • ↑ http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/conclude.html

About This Article

Christopher Taylor, PhD

To write a conclusion for a research paper, start by restating your thesis statement to remind your readers what your main topic is and bring everything full circle. Then, briefly summarize all of the main points you made throughout your paper, which will help remind your readers of everything they learned. You might also want to include a call to action if you think more research or work needs to be done on your topic by writing something like, "Despite efforts to contain the disease, more research is needed to develop antibiotics." Finally, end your conclusion by explaining the broader context of your topic and why your readers should care about it, which will help them understand why your topic is relevant and important. For tips from our Academic co-author, like how to avoid common pitfalls when writing your conclusion, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research. For most college-level research papers, one or two well-developed paragraphs is sufficient for a conclusion, although in some cases, more paragraphs may be required in summarizing key findings and their significance.

Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of a Good Conclusion

A well-written conclusion provides you with important opportunities to demonstrate to the reader your understanding of the research problem. These include:

  • Presenting the last word on the issues you raised in your paper . Just as the introduction gives a first impression to your reader, the conclusion offers a chance to leave a lasting impression. Do this, for example, by highlighting key findings in your analysis that advance new understanding about the research problem, that are unusual or unexpected, or that have important implications applied to practice.
  • Summarizing your thoughts and conveying the larger significance of your study . The conclusion is an opportunity to succinctly re-emphasize  the "So What?" question by placing the study within the context of how your research advances past research about the topic.
  • Identifying how a gap in the literature has been addressed . The conclusion can be where you describe how a previously identified gap in the literature [described in your literature review section] has been filled by your research.
  • Demonstrating the importance of your ideas . Don't be shy. The conclusion offers you the opportunity to elaborate on the impact and significance of your findings. This is particularly important if your study approached examining the research problem from an unusual or innovative perspective.
  • Introducing possible new or expanded ways of thinking about the research problem . This does not refer to introducing new information [which should be avoided], but to offer new insight and creative approaches for framing or contextualizing the research problem based on the results of your study.

Bunton, David. “The Structure of PhD Conclusion Chapters.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (July 2005): 207–224; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Rules

The function of your paper's conclusion is to restate the main argument . It reminds the reader of the strengths of your main argument(s) and reiterates the most important evidence supporting those argument(s). Do this by stating clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem you investigated in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found in the literature. Make sure, however, that your conclusion is not simply a repetitive summary of the findings. This reduces the impact of the argument(s) you have developed in your essay.

When writing the conclusion to your paper, follow these general rules:

  • Present your conclusions in clear, simple language. Re-state the purpose of your study, then describe how your findings differ or support those of other studies and why [i.e., what were the unique or new contributions your study made to the overall research about your topic?].
  • Do not simply reiterate your findings or the discussion of your results. Provide a synthesis of arguments presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem and the overall objectives of your study.
  • Indicate opportunities for future research if you haven't already done so in the discussion section of your paper. Highlighting the need for further research provides the reader with evidence that you have an in-depth awareness of the research problem and that further investigations should take place.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is presented well:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument for your reader.
  • If, prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from the data. 

The conclusion also provides a place for you to persuasively and succinctly restate the research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic . Depending on the discipline you are writing in, the concluding paragraph may contain your reflections on the evidence presented. However, the nature of being introspective about the research you have conducted will depend on the topic and whether your professor wants you to express your observations in this way.

NOTE : If asked to think introspectively about the topics, do not delve into idle speculation. Being introspective means looking within yourself as an author to try and understand an issue more deeply, not to guess at possible outcomes or make up scenarios not supported by the evidence.

II.  Developing a Compelling Conclusion

Although an effective conclusion needs to be clear and succinct, it does not need to be written passively or lack a compelling narrative. Strategies to help you move beyond merely summarizing the key points of your research paper may include any of the following strategies:

  • If your essay deals with a critical, contemporary problem, warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem proactively.
  • Recommend a specific course or courses of action that, if adopted, could address a specific problem in practice or in the development of new knowledge.
  • Cite a relevant quotation or expert opinion already noted in your paper in order to lend authority and support to the conclusion(s) you have reached [a good place to look is research from your literature review].
  • Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change.
  • Restate a key statistic, fact, or visual image to emphasize the most important finding of your paper.
  • If your discipline encourages personal reflection, illustrate your concluding point by drawing from your own life experiences.
  • Return to an anecdote, an example, or a quotation that you presented in your introduction, but add further insight derived from the findings of your study; use your interpretation of results to recast it in new or important ways.
  • Provide a "take-home" message in the form of a succinct, declarative statement that you want the reader to remember about your study.

III. Problems to Avoid

Failure to be concise Your conclusion section should be concise and to the point. Conclusions that are too lengthy often have unnecessary information in them. The conclusion is not the place for details about your methodology or results. Although you should give a summary of what was learned from your research, this summary should be relatively brief, since the emphasis in the conclusion is on the implications, evaluations, insights, and other forms of analysis that you make. Strategies for writing concisely can be found here .

Failure to comment on larger, more significant issues In the introduction, your task was to move from the general [the field of study] to the specific [the research problem]. However, in the conclusion, your task is to move from a specific discussion [your research problem] back to a general discussion [i.e., how your research contributes new understanding or fills an important gap in the literature]. In short, the conclusion is where you should place your research within a larger context [visualize your paper as an hourglass--start with a broad introduction and review of the literature, move to the specific analysis and discussion, conclude with a broad summary of the study's implications and significance].

Failure to reveal problems and negative results Negative aspects of the research process should never be ignored. These are problems, deficiencies, or challenges encountered during your study should be summarized as a way of qualifying your overall conclusions. If you encountered negative or unintended results [i.e., findings that are validated outside the research context in which they were generated], you must report them in the results section and discuss their implications in the discussion section of your paper. In the conclusion, use your summary of the negative results as an opportunity to explain their possible significance and/or how they may form the basis for future research.

Failure to provide a clear summary of what was learned In order to be able to discuss how your research fits within your field of study [and possibly the world at large], you need to summarize briefly and succinctly how it contributes to new knowledge or a new understanding about the research problem. This element of your conclusion may be only a few sentences long.

Failure to match the objectives of your research Often research objectives in the social sciences change while the research is being carried out. This is not a problem unless you forget to go back and refine the original objectives in your introduction. As these changes emerge they must be documented so that they accurately reflect what you were trying to accomplish in your research [not what you thought you might accomplish when you began].

Resist the urge to apologize If you've immersed yourself in studying the research problem, you presumably should know a good deal about it [perhaps even more than your professor!]. Nevertheless, by the time you have finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you have produced. Repress those doubts! Don't undermine your authority by saying something like, "This is just one approach to examining this problem; there may be other, much better approaches that...." The overall tone of your conclusion should convey confidence to the reader.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Concluding Paragraphs. College Writing Center at Meramec. St. Louis Community College; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Freedman, Leora  and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Leibensperger, Summer. Draft Your Conclusion. Academic Center, the University of Houston-Victoria, 2003; Make Your Last Words Count. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin Madison; Miquel, Fuster-Marquez and Carmen Gregori-Signes. “Chapter Six: ‘Last but Not Least:’ Writing the Conclusion of Your Paper.” In Writing an Applied Linguistics Thesis or Dissertation: A Guide to Presenting Empirical Research . John Bitchener, editor. (Basingstoke,UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), pp. 93-105; Tips for Writing a Good Conclusion. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; Writing Conclusions. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University; Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College.

Writing Tip

Don't Belabor the Obvious!

Avoid phrases like "in conclusion...," "in summary...," or "in closing...." These phrases can be useful, even welcome, in oral presentations. But readers can see by the tell-tale section heading and number of pages remaining to read, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your readers if you belabor the obvious.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8.

Another Writing Tip

New Insight, Not New Information!

Don't surprise the reader with new information in your conclusion that was never referenced anywhere else in the paper and, as such, the conclusion rarely has citations to sources. If you have new information to present, add it to the discussion or other appropriate section of the paper. Note that, although no actual new information is introduced, the conclusion, along with the discussion section, is where you offer your most "original" contributions in the paper; the conclusion is where you describe the value of your research, demonstrate that you understand the material that you’ve presented, and locate your findings within the larger context of scholarship on the topic, including describing how your research contributes new insights or valuable insight to that scholarship.

Assan, Joseph. "Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing." Liverpool: Development Studies Association (2009): 1-8; Conclusions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.

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how to write an conclusion for a research paper

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Your Guide

how to write an conclusion for a research paper

What Is a Conclusion in Research Papers

A conclusion in research paper is the final piece of the puzzle, the last chapter in the story, the grand finale of a long and arduous journey. It is the point where the researcher can finally step back and say, 'I have found what I was looking for.' But it is more than just a summary of the findings. A conclusion is a reflection on the entire research process, a chance for the researcher to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their methodology and to make recommendations for future research. It is a time to celebrate successes, acknowledge limitations, and offer suggestions for improvement.

You may know how to start a research paper ; however, making a compelling ending requires a thorough understanding too. A conclusion is an opportunity to connect the research findings to a larger context, discuss how the results contribute to the broader field of study and suggest possible applications in real-world scenarios. It is a moment of closure but also a starting point for new avenues of inquiry.

So, let's delve into the following sections to find out how to write a conclusion for a research paper that will leave a lasting impression on your audience.

What to Avoid in Your Research Paper Conclusion

Outline for a Research Paper Conclusion

When wondering how to make a research paper outline , the first step is to get familiar with the general structure. Here we prepared a research paper conclusion example, so let's take a close look at what information to include in a conclusion outline:

I. Summary of main findings

  • Briefly summarize the main findings of the research, including any significant results or discoveries made.

II. Restate the research question/objective

  • Restate the thesis statement or objective and indicate whether it was answered or achieved.

III. Discuss the implications of the findings

  • Discuss the implications of the findings and explain why they matter, including any practical applications or theoretical implications.

IV. Acknowledge limitations and suggest future research

  • Acknowledge any limitations or weaknesses of the study and suggest directions for future research, including any areas where further investigation is needed.

V. Concluding statement

  • Conclude your final paragraph with a statement that ties together the main points of the conclusion research paper and emphasizes their significance.

Tips on How to Make a Conclusion in Research

By following these tips, you won't have to wonder 'how to make a conclusion in research' anymore and will effectively highlight its significance.

Research Paper Conclusion

  • Emphasize the significance of the findings: When discussing the implications, emphasize the practical or theoretical implications. Use language that emphasizes the importance of the findings and how they contribute to the broader field of study. For example, 'The study findings have important implications for clinical practice and highlight the need for further research in this area.'
  • Tie back to the introduction: When concluding, tie the findings back to the introduction by reminding readers of the original purpose of the research. This helps to provide closure to the research and emphasizes the significance of the findings. For example, 'This study has successfully answered the research question of whether stress is a risk factor for heart disease in middle-aged adults, and provides important insights into the relationship between stress and cardiovascular health.'
  • Avoid introducing new information: It's important to avoid introducing new information in the conclusion, as this can confuse readers and detract from the key arguments of the research. Stick to summarizing the main findings, discussing the implications, acknowledging limitations, and suggesting future research possibilities.
  • Use clear and concise language: When making a conclusion, use clear and concise language. Avoid using technical jargon or overly complex language; instead, focus on using language accessible to a broad audience.
  • End with a strong concluding statement: End your paper's conclusion with a strong concluding statement that ties together the main points and emphasizes their significance. This provides closure to the research and leaves readers with a lasting impression. Here is a conclusion in research example: 'Overall, the findings of this study provide important insights into the relationship between X and Y and highlight the need for further research in this area.'

How to Develop a Compelling Conclusion

Here are some main points to help you not just summarize the key thoughts of your work, but to go deeper to warrant a better grade:

  • If you have been writing about a contemporary problem, talk about what can happen if the problem is not solved, but do not add new information. Do not bring in new evidence or new facts.
  • Don’t hesitate to offer or to recommend some course of action.
  • Use relevant quotations or expert opinions to make your conclusion more authoritative.
  • Repeat a key statistic, fact, or even a visual image that represents the main point of your paper.
  • Express personal reflection. You can even talk about your own life experiences.
  • Interpret the results in your own way to give them a fresh perspective. Do not be afraid to be a researcher who introduces something new—even for the most common problems.
  • Finish your conclusions with a short, but powerful message which will help others remember your study. This message is something that can differentiate you from others.
  • Do not say "in conclusion" or similar sayings. This includes "in summary" or "in closing." Why? These sayings sound a bit unnatural and stiff. They make your work appear too formal and pragmatic. A strong conclusion does not need the word - “In conclusion”. It will stand on its own.
  • Use the same consistent tone through your entire paper. It sounds unnatural if you suddenly use an absolutely different tone or style of presenting the information.
  • Check your entire paper to make sure that you have not left any really important points behind.

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How to Make a Conclusion Effective Rhetorically

Here are some unique tips on how to start conclusion in research rhetorically from our service:

  • Use rhetorical questions : Rhetorical questions are a powerful tool that can help to engage readers and prompt them to think critically about the research. For example, 'What impact will these findings have on the field of X? How can we use these findings to improve clinical practice?'
  • Use strong language: Using strong, impactful language can help emphasize the research's significance and leave a lasting impression on readers. For example, 'These findings have the potential to revolutionize the way we approach X, and could have far-reaching implications for future research in this area.'
  • Use repetition: Repetition can be an effective rhetorical tool that can help to reinforce key points and leave a lasting impression on readers. For example, repeating a phrase such as 'These findings underscore the importance of...' can help emphasize the research's significance.
  • Use anecdotes : Using anecdotes or stories can help to make the research more relatable and engaging for readers. For example, sharing a personal story or case study that illustrates the research's practical applications can help emphasize its significance.
  • Use vivid imagery : It can help bring the research to life and make it more memorable for readers. For example, using descriptive language to describe the impact of the research, such as 'This study sheds new light on X, illuminating a path forward for researchers in this field.'

Making a Conclusion Effective Logically

By using these logical strategies from our custom dissertation writing , you can make your research paper conclusion more coherent, persuasive, and effective.

  • Use logical transitions : To make the conclusion flow smoothly and logically, use transition words and phrases such as 'therefore,' 'thus,' 'consequently,' and 'in conclusion.' This helps to signal to readers that the conclusion is a logical extension of the research that has been presented.
  • Summarize key findings in order : To make the conclusion logical, summarize the key findings of the research in the order in which they were presented. This helps readers follow the research's progression and understand how the various findings fit together.
  • Address potential counterarguments: Researchers can demonstrate a thorough and logical approach to their research by acknowledging and addressing these potential criticisms.
  • Use quantitative data: This helps provide concrete evidence for the conclusions being drawn and makes the research more convincing.
  • Provide a clear and concise summary: This helps readers understand the main takeaways from the research and provides a logical conclusion.

Things to Avoid in the Conclusion of Your Research Paper

By avoiding these common pitfalls, you can ensure that their conclusions are clear, concise, and effective in summarizing their research's main findings and implications.

Avoid in Your Research Paper Conclusion

  • Don't introduce new information: The conclusion is not the place to introduce new information or data that was not discussed in the main body of the paper. Stick to summarizing the key findings and insights that were already presented.
  • Don't repeat information : While it's important to summarize key findings in the example of conclusion in research paper, don't simply repeat information already presented earlier. Instead, focus on synthesizing and connecting the various findings in a new way.
  • Don't make unsupported claims: Avoid making sweeping or unsupported claims in the conclusion. Make sure that all conclusions are backed up by the data and evidence presented in the main body of the paper.
  • Don't be overly emotional: While being passionate about your research topic is important, avoid being overly emotional or sentimental in the conclusion. Stick to a professional and objective tone.
  • Don't end abruptly: Don't end the conclusion of research paper abruptly without providing a clear sense of closure. Instead, summarize the main points and insights, and consider ending with a call to action or a suggestion for future research.

Research Paper Conclusion Example

That’s pretty much everything you need to know about how to summarize a research paper. There are two things left: to take a look at the research paper conclusion example from our team.

If you liked the sample, you might also be interested in a research proposal example APA . And if you'd rather have experts handle the writing for you, contact us today! We provide writing, editing, and proofreading help to anyone who needs a quick solution to academic stress. Just send us your request and buy a research paper easy.

Final Thoughts

Now that you know what is a conclusion in research, you can agree that it requires careful consideration and planning. By following the general rules and tips outlined in this article, researchers can write paper that effectively summarizes the key findings and insights of their research in a logical and rhetorically effective manner.

At EssayPro, we offer a range of writing services to help researchers and students succeed in their academic pursuits. Whether you need help with writing academic research papers, editing, or proofreading, we have the expertise and skills to help you achieve your goals.

So why wait? Contact our professional essay writers today to learn more about our services and how we can help you succeed in your academic and professional endeavors. Let us help you craft an effective research paper conclusion sample that will leave a lasting impression on your readers and elevate the impact of your research.

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Research Paper Conclusion – Writing Guide and Examples

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Research Paper Conclusion

Research Paper Conclusion

Definition:

A research paper conclusion is the final section of a research paper that summarizes the key findings, significance, and implications of the research. It is the writer’s opportunity to synthesize the information presented in the paper, draw conclusions, and make recommendations for future research or actions.

The conclusion should provide a clear and concise summary of the research paper, reiterating the research question or problem, the main results, and the significance of the findings. It should also discuss the limitations of the study and suggest areas for further research.

Parts of Research Paper Conclusion

The parts of a research paper conclusion typically include:

Restatement of the Thesis

The conclusion should begin by restating the thesis statement from the introduction in a different way. This helps to remind the reader of the main argument or purpose of the research.

Summary of Key Findings

The conclusion should summarize the main findings of the research, highlighting the most important results and conclusions. This section should be brief and to the point.

Implications and Significance

In this section, the researcher should explain the implications and significance of the research findings. This may include discussing the potential impact on the field or industry, highlighting new insights or knowledge gained, or pointing out areas for future research.

Limitations and Recommendations

It is important to acknowledge any limitations or weaknesses of the research and to make recommendations for how these could be addressed in future studies. This shows that the researcher is aware of the potential limitations of their work and is committed to improving the quality of research in their field.

Concluding Statement

The conclusion should end with a strong concluding statement that leaves a lasting impression on the reader. This could be a call to action, a recommendation for further research, or a final thought on the topic.

How to Write Research Paper Conclusion

Here are some steps you can follow to write an effective research paper conclusion:

  • Restate the research problem or question: Begin by restating the research problem or question that you aimed to answer in your research. This will remind the reader of the purpose of your study.
  • Summarize the main points: Summarize the key findings and results of your research. This can be done by highlighting the most important aspects of your research and the evidence that supports them.
  • Discuss the implications: Discuss the implications of your findings for the research area and any potential applications of your research. You should also mention any limitations of your research that may affect the interpretation of your findings.
  • Provide a conclusion : Provide a concise conclusion that summarizes the main points of your paper and emphasizes the significance of your research. This should be a strong and clear statement that leaves a lasting impression on the reader.
  • Offer suggestions for future research: Lastly, offer suggestions for future research that could build on your findings and contribute to further advancements in the field.

Remember that the conclusion should be brief and to the point, while still effectively summarizing the key findings and implications of your research.

Example of Research Paper Conclusion

Here’s an example of a research paper conclusion:

Conclusion :

In conclusion, our study aimed to investigate the relationship between social media use and mental health among college students. Our findings suggest that there is a significant association between social media use and increased levels of anxiety and depression among college students. This highlights the need for increased awareness and education about the potential negative effects of social media use on mental health, particularly among college students.

Despite the limitations of our study, such as the small sample size and self-reported data, our findings have important implications for future research and practice. Future studies should aim to replicate our findings in larger, more diverse samples, and investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the association between social media use and mental health. In addition, interventions should be developed to promote healthy social media use among college students, such as mindfulness-based approaches and social media detox programs.

Overall, our study contributes to the growing body of research on the impact of social media on mental health, and highlights the importance of addressing this issue in the context of higher education. By raising awareness and promoting healthy social media use among college students, we can help to reduce the negative impact of social media on mental health and improve the well-being of young adults.

Purpose of Research Paper Conclusion

The purpose of a research paper conclusion is to provide a summary and synthesis of the key findings, significance, and implications of the research presented in the paper. The conclusion serves as the final opportunity for the writer to convey their message and leave a lasting impression on the reader.

The conclusion should restate the research problem or question, summarize the main results of the research, and explain their significance. It should also acknowledge the limitations of the study and suggest areas for future research or action.

Overall, the purpose of the conclusion is to provide a sense of closure to the research paper and to emphasize the importance of the research and its potential impact. It should leave the reader with a clear understanding of the main findings and why they matter. The conclusion serves as the writer’s opportunity to showcase their contribution to the field and to inspire further research and action.

When to Write Research Paper Conclusion

The conclusion of a research paper should be written after the body of the paper has been completed. It should not be written until the writer has thoroughly analyzed and interpreted their findings and has written a complete and cohesive discussion of the research.

Before writing the conclusion, the writer should review their research paper and consider the key points that they want to convey to the reader. They should also review the research question, hypotheses, and methodology to ensure that they have addressed all of the necessary components of the research.

Once the writer has a clear understanding of the main findings and their significance, they can begin writing the conclusion. The conclusion should be written in a clear and concise manner, and should reiterate the main points of the research while also providing insights and recommendations for future research or action.

Characteristics of Research Paper Conclusion

The characteristics of a research paper conclusion include:

  • Clear and concise: The conclusion should be written in a clear and concise manner, summarizing the key findings and their significance.
  • Comprehensive: The conclusion should address all of the main points of the research paper, including the research question or problem, the methodology, the main results, and their implications.
  • Future-oriented : The conclusion should provide insights and recommendations for future research or action, based on the findings of the research.
  • Impressive : The conclusion should leave a lasting impression on the reader, emphasizing the importance of the research and its potential impact.
  • Objective : The conclusion should be based on the evidence presented in the research paper, and should avoid personal biases or opinions.
  • Unique : The conclusion should be unique to the research paper and should not simply repeat information from the introduction or body of the paper.

Advantages of Research Paper Conclusion

The advantages of a research paper conclusion include:

  • Summarizing the key findings : The conclusion provides a summary of the main findings of the research, making it easier for the reader to understand the key points of the study.
  • Emphasizing the significance of the research: The conclusion emphasizes the importance of the research and its potential impact, making it more likely that readers will take the research seriously and consider its implications.
  • Providing recommendations for future research or action : The conclusion suggests practical recommendations for future research or action, based on the findings of the study.
  • Providing closure to the research paper : The conclusion provides a sense of closure to the research paper, tying together the different sections of the paper and leaving a lasting impression on the reader.
  • Demonstrating the writer’s contribution to the field : The conclusion provides the writer with an opportunity to showcase their contribution to the field and to inspire further research and action.

Limitations of Research Paper Conclusion

While the conclusion of a research paper has many advantages, it also has some limitations that should be considered, including:

  • I nability to address all aspects of the research: Due to the limited space available in the conclusion, it may not be possible to address all aspects of the research in detail.
  • Subjectivity : While the conclusion should be objective, it may be influenced by the writer’s personal biases or opinions.
  • Lack of new information: The conclusion should not introduce new information that has not been discussed in the body of the research paper.
  • Lack of generalizability: The conclusions drawn from the research may not be applicable to other contexts or populations, limiting the generalizability of the study.
  • Misinterpretation by the reader: The reader may misinterpret the conclusions drawn from the research, leading to a misunderstanding of the findings.

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

3-minute read

  • 29th August 2023

If you’re writing a research paper, the conclusion is your opportunity to summarize your findings and leave a lasting impression on your readers. In this post, we’ll take you through how to write an effective conclusion for a research paper and how you can:

·   Reword your thesis statement

·   Highlight the significance of your research

·   Discuss limitations

·   Connect to the introduction

·   End with a thought-provoking statement

Rewording Your Thesis Statement

Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis statement in a way that is slightly different from the wording used in the introduction. Avoid presenting new information or evidence in your conclusion. Just summarize the main points and arguments of your essay and keep this part as concise as possible. Remember that you’ve already covered the in-depth analyses and investigations in the main body paragraphs of your essay, so it’s not necessary to restate these details in the conclusion.

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Highlighting the Significance of Your Research

The conclusion is a good place to emphasize the implications of your research . Avoid ambiguous or vague language such as “I think” or “maybe,” which could weaken your position. Clearly explain why your research is significant and how it contributes to the broader field of study.

Here’s an example from a (fictional) study on the impact of social media on mental health:

Discussing Limitations

Although it’s important to emphasize the significance of your study, you can also use the conclusion to briefly address any limitations you discovered while conducting your research, such as time constraints or a shortage of resources. Doing this demonstrates a balanced and honest approach to your research.

Connecting to the Introduction

In your conclusion, you can circle back to your introduction , perhaps by referring to a quote or anecdote you discussed earlier. If you end your paper on a similar note to how you began it, you will create a sense of cohesion for the reader and remind them of the meaning and significance of your research.

Ending With a Thought-Provoking Statement

Consider ending your paper with a thought-provoking and memorable statement that relates to the impact of your research questions or hypothesis. This statement can be a call to action, a philosophical question, or a prediction for the future (positive or negative). Here’s an example that uses the same topic as above (social media and mental health):

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  • How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

The discussion section contains the results and outcomes of a study. An effective discussion informs readers what can be learned from your experiment and provides context for the results.

What makes an effective discussion?

When you’re ready to write your discussion, you’ve already introduced the purpose of your study and provided an in-depth description of the methodology. The discussion informs readers about the larger implications of your study based on the results. Highlighting these implications while not overstating the findings can be challenging, especially when you’re submitting to a journal that selects articles based on novelty or potential impact. Regardless of what journal you are submitting to, the discussion section always serves the same purpose: concluding what your study results actually mean.

A successful discussion section puts your findings in context. It should include:

  • the results of your research,
  • a discussion of related research, and
  • a comparison between your results and initial hypothesis.

Tip: Not all journals share the same naming conventions.

You can apply the advice in this article to the conclusion, results or discussion sections of your manuscript.

Our Early Career Researcher community tells us that the conclusion is often considered the most difficult aspect of a manuscript to write. To help, this guide provides questions to ask yourself, a basic structure to model your discussion off of and examples from published manuscripts. 

how to write an conclusion for a research paper

Questions to ask yourself:

  • Was my hypothesis correct?
  • If my hypothesis is partially correct or entirely different, what can be learned from the results? 
  • How do the conclusions reshape or add onto the existing knowledge in the field? What does previous research say about the topic? 
  • Why are the results important or relevant to your audience? Do they add further evidence to a scientific consensus or disprove prior studies? 
  • How can future research build on these observations? What are the key experiments that must be done? 
  • What is the “take-home” message you want your reader to leave with?

How to structure a discussion

Trying to fit a complete discussion into a single paragraph can add unnecessary stress to the writing process. If possible, you’ll want to give yourself two or three paragraphs to give the reader a comprehensive understanding of your study as a whole. Here’s one way to structure an effective discussion:

how to write an conclusion for a research paper

Writing Tips

While the above sections can help you brainstorm and structure your discussion, there are many common mistakes that writers revert to when having difficulties with their paper. Writing a discussion can be a delicate balance between summarizing your results, providing proper context for your research and avoiding introducing new information. Remember that your paper should be both confident and honest about the results! 

What to do

  • Read the journal’s guidelines on the discussion and conclusion sections. If possible, learn about the guidelines before writing the discussion to ensure you’re writing to meet their expectations. 
  • Begin with a clear statement of the principal findings. This will reinforce the main take-away for the reader and set up the rest of the discussion. 
  • Explain why the outcomes of your study are important to the reader. Discuss the implications of your findings realistically based on previous literature, highlighting both the strengths and limitations of the research. 
  • State whether the results prove or disprove your hypothesis. If your hypothesis was disproved, what might be the reasons? 
  • Introduce new or expanded ways to think about the research question. Indicate what next steps can be taken to further pursue any unresolved questions. 
  • If dealing with a contemporary or ongoing problem, such as climate change, discuss possible consequences if the problem is avoided. 
  • Be concise. Adding unnecessary detail can distract from the main findings. 

What not to do

Don’t

  • Rewrite your abstract. Statements with “we investigated” or “we studied” generally do not belong in the discussion. 
  • Include new arguments or evidence not previously discussed. Necessary information and evidence should be introduced in the main body of the paper. 
  • Apologize. Even if your research contains significant limitations, don’t undermine your authority by including statements that doubt your methodology or execution. 
  • Shy away from speaking on limitations or negative results. Including limitations and negative results will give readers a complete understanding of the presented research. Potential limitations include sources of potential bias, threats to internal or external validity, barriers to implementing an intervention and other issues inherent to the study design. 
  • Overstate the importance of your findings. Making grand statements about how a study will fully resolve large questions can lead readers to doubt the success of the research. 

Snippets of Effective Discussions:

Consumer-based actions to reduce plastic pollution in rivers: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

Identifying reliable indicators of fitness in polar bears

  • How to Write a Great Title
  • How to Write an Abstract
  • How to Write Your Methods
  • How to Report Statistics
  • How to Edit Your Work

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Sumalatha G

Table of Contents

Writing a conclusion for a research paper is a critical step that often determines the overall impact and impression the paper leaves on the reader. While some may view the conclusion as a mere formality, it is actually an opportunity to wrap up the main points, provide closure, and leave a lasting impression. In this article, we will explore the importance of a well-crafted conclusion and discuss various tips and strategies to help you write an engaging and impactful conclusion for your research paper.

Introduction

Before delving into the specifics of writing a conclusion, it is important to understand why it is such a crucial component of a research paper. The conclusion serves to summarize the main points of the paper and reemphasize their significance. A well-written conclusion can leave the reader satisfied and inspired, while a poorly executed one may undermine the credibility of the entire paper. Therefore, it is essential to give careful thought and attention to crafting an effective conclusion.

When writing a research paper, the conclusion acts as the final destination for the reader. It is the point where all the information, arguments, and evidence presented throughout the paper converge. Just as a traveler reaches the end of a journey, the reader reaches the conclusion to find closure and a sense of fulfillment. This is why the conclusion should not be taken lightly; it is a critical opportunity to leave a lasting impact on the reader.

Moreover, the conclusion is not merely a repetition of the introduction or a summary of the main points. It goes beyond that by providing a deeper understanding of the research findings and their implications. It allows the writer to reflect on the significance of their work and its potential contributions to the field. By doing so, the conclusion elevates the research paper from a mere collection of facts to a thought-provoking piece of scholarship.

In the following sections, we will explore various strategies and techniques for crafting a compelling conclusion. By understanding the importance of the conclusion and learning how to write one effectively, you will be equipped to create impactful research papers.

Structuring the Conclusion

In order to create an effective conclusion, it is important to consider its structure. A well-structured conclusion should begin by restating the thesis statement and summarizing the main points of the paper. It should then move on to provide a concise synthesis of the key findings and arguments, highlighting their implications and relevance. Finally, the conclusion should end with a thought-provoking statement that leaves the reader with a lasting impression.

Additionally, using phrases like "this research demonstrates," "the findings show," or "it is clear that" can help to highlight the significance of your research and emphasize your main conclusions.

Tips for Writing an Engaging Conclusion

Writing an engaging conclusion requires careful consideration and attention to detail. Here are some tips to help you create an impactful conclusion for your research paper:

  • Revisit the Introduction: Start your conclusion by referencing your introduction. Remind the reader of the research question or problem you initially posed and show how your research has addressed it.
  • Summarize Your Main Points: Provide a concise summary of the main points and arguments presented in your paper. Be sure to restate your thesis statement and highlight the key findings.
  • Offer a Fresh Perspective: Use the conclusion as an opportunity to provide a fresh perspective or offer insights that go beyond the main body of the paper. This will leave the reader with something new to consider.
  • Leave a Lasting Impression: End your conclusion with a thought-provoking statement or a call to action. This will leave a lasting impression on the reader and encourage further exploration of the research topic.

Addressing Counter Arguments In Conclusion

While crafting your conclusion, you can address any potential counterarguments or limitations of your research. This will demonstrate that you have considered alternative perspectives and have taken them into account in your conclusions. By acknowledging potential counterarguments, you can strengthen the credibility and validity of your research. And by openly discussing limitations, you demonstrate transparency and honesty in your research process.

Language and Tone To Be Used In Conclusion

The language and tone of your conclusion play a crucial role in shaping the overall impression of your research paper. It is important to use clear and concise language that is appropriate for the academic context. Avoid using overly informal or colloquial language that may undermine the credibility of your research. Additionally, consider the tone of your conclusion – it should be professional, confident, and persuasive, while still maintaining a respectful and objective tone.

When it comes to the language used in your conclusion, precision is key. You want to ensure that your ideas are communicated effectively and that there is no room for misinterpretation. Using clear and concise language will not only make your conclusion easier to understand but will also demonstrate your command of the subject matter.

Furthermore, it is important to strike the right balance between formality and accessibility. While academic writing typically requires a more formal tone, you should still aim to make your conclusion accessible to a wider audience. This means avoiding jargon or technical terms that may confuse readers who are not familiar with the subject matter. Instead, opt for language that is clear and straightforward, allowing anyone to grasp the main points of your research.

Another aspect to consider is the tone of your conclusion. The tone should reflect the confidence you have in your research findings and the strength of your argument. By adopting a professional and confident tone, you are more likely to convince your readers of the validity and importance of your research. However, it is crucial to strike a balance and avoid sounding arrogant or dismissive of opposing viewpoints. Maintaining a respectful and objective tone will help you engage with your audience in a more persuasive manner.

Moreover, the tone of your conclusion should align with the overall tone of your research paper. Consistency in tone throughout your paper will create a cohesive and unified piece of writing.

Common Mistakes to Avoid While Writing a Conclusion

When writing a conclusion, there are several common mistakes that researchers often make. By being aware of these pitfalls, you can avoid them and create a more effective conclusion for your research paper. Some common mistakes include:

  • Repeating the Introduction: A conclusion should not simply be a reworded version of the introduction. While it is important to revisit the main points, try to present them in a fresh and broader perspective, by foregrounding the implications/impacts of your research.
  • Introducing New Information: The conclusion should not introduce any new information or arguments. Instead, it should focus on summarizing and synthesizing the main points presented in the paper.
  • Being Vague or General: Avoid using vague or general statements in your conclusion. Instead, be specific and provide concrete examples or evidence to support your main points.
  • Ending Abruptly: A conclusion should provide a sense of closure and completeness. Avoid ending your conclusion abruptly or leaving the reader with unanswered questions.

Editing and Revising the Conclusion

Just like the rest of your research paper, the conclusion should go through a thorough editing and revising process. This will help to ensure clarity, coherence, and impact in the conclusion. As you revise your conclusion, consider the following:

  • Check for Consistency: Ensure that your conclusion aligns with the main body of the paper and does not introduce any new or contradictory information.
  • Eliminate Redundancy: Remove any repetitive or redundant information in your conclusion. Instead, focus on presenting the key points in a concise and engaging manner.
  • Proofread for Clarity: Read your conclusion aloud or ask someone else to read it to ensure that it is clear and understandable. Check for any grammatical or spelling errors that may distract the reader.
  • Seek Feedback: Consider sharing your conclusion with peers or mentors to get their feedback and insights. This can help you strengthen your conclusion and make it more impactful.

How to Write Conclusion as a Call to Action

Finally, consider using your conclusion as a call to action. Encourage the reader to take further action, such as conducting additional research or considering the implications of your findings. By providing a clear call to action, you can inspire the reader to actively engage with your research and continue the conversation on the topic.

Adapting to Different Research Paper Types

It is important to adapt your conclusion approach based on the type of research paper you are writing. Different research paper types may require different strategies and approaches to writing the conclusion. For example, a scientific research paper may focus more on summarizing the key findings and implications, while a persuasive research paper may emphasize the call to action and the potential impact of the research. Tailor your conclusion to suit the specific goals and requirements of your research paper.

Final Thoughts

A well-crafted conclusion can leave a lasting impression on the reader and enhance the impact of your research. By following the tips and strategies outlined in this article, you can create an engaging and impactful conclusion that effectively summarizes your main points, addresses potential counterarguments, and leaves the reader with a sense of closure and inspiration. Embrace the importance of the conclusion and view it as an opportunity to showcase the significance and relevance of your research.

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  • Dissertation

How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

Published on September 6, 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on November 20, 2023.

The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation . It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question .

In it, you should:

  • Clearly state the answer to your main research question
  • Summarize and reflect on your research process
  • Make recommendations for future work on your thesis or dissertation topic
  • Show what new knowledge you have contributed to your field
  • Wrap up your thesis or dissertation

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Table of contents

Discussion vs. conclusion, how long should your conclusion be, step 1: answer your research question, step 2: summarize and reflect on your research, step 3: make future recommendations, step 4: emphasize your contributions to your field, step 5: wrap up your thesis or dissertation, full conclusion example, conclusion checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.

While your conclusion contains similar elements to your discussion section , they are not the same thing.

Your conclusion should be shorter and more general than your discussion. Instead of repeating literature from your literature review , discussing specific research results , or interpreting your data in detail, concentrate on making broad statements that sum up the most important insights of your research.

As a rule of thumb, your conclusion should not introduce new data, interpretations, or arguments.

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Depending on whether you are writing a thesis or dissertation, your length will vary. Generally, a conclusion should make up around 5–7% of your overall word count.

An empirical scientific study will often have a short conclusion, concisely stating the main findings and recommendations for future research. A humanities dissertation topic or systematic review , on the other hand, might require more space to conclude its analysis, tying all the previous sections together in an overall argument.

Your conclusion should begin with the main question that your thesis or dissertation aimed to address. This is your final chance to show that you’ve done what you set out to do, so make sure to formulate a clear, concise answer.

  • Don’t repeat a list of all the results that you already discussed
  • Do synthesize them into a final takeaway that the reader will remember.

An empirical thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

A case study –based thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

In the second example, the research aim is not directly restated, but rather added implicitly to the statement. To avoid repeating yourself, it is helpful to reformulate your aims and questions into an overall statement of what you did and how you did it.

Your conclusion is an opportunity to remind your reader why you took the approach you did, what you expected to find, and how well the results matched your expectations.

To avoid repetition , consider writing more reflectively here, rather than just writing a summary of each preceding section. Consider mentioning the effectiveness of your methodology , or perhaps any new questions or unexpected insights that arose in the process.

You can also mention any limitations of your research, but only if you haven’t already included these in the discussion. Don’t dwell on them at length, though—focus on the positives of your work.

  • While x limits the generalizability of the results, this approach provides new insight into y .
  • This research clearly illustrates x , but it also raises the question of y .

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You may already have made a few recommendations for future research in your discussion section, but the conclusion is a good place to elaborate and look ahead, considering the implications of your findings in both theoretical and practical terms.

  • Based on these conclusions, practitioners should consider …
  • To better understand the implications of these results, future studies could address …
  • Further research is needed to determine the causes of/effects of/relationship between …

When making recommendations for further research, be sure not to undermine your own work. Relatedly, while future studies might confirm, build on, or enrich your conclusions, they shouldn’t be required for your argument to feel complete. Your work should stand alone on its own merits.

Just as you should avoid too much self-criticism, you should also avoid exaggerating the applicability of your research. If you’re making recommendations for policy, business, or other practical implementations, it’s generally best to frame them as “shoulds” rather than “musts.” All in all, the purpose of academic research is to inform, explain, and explore—not to demand.

Make sure your reader is left with a strong impression of what your research has contributed to the state of your field.

Some strategies to achieve this include:

  • Returning to your problem statement to explain how your research helps solve the problem
  • Referring back to the literature review and showing how you have addressed a gap in knowledge
  • Discussing how your findings confirm or challenge an existing theory or assumption

Again, avoid simply repeating what you’ve already covered in the discussion in your conclusion. Instead, pick out the most important points and sum them up succinctly, situating your project in a broader context.

The end is near! Once you’ve finished writing your conclusion, it’s time to wrap up your thesis or dissertation with a few final steps:

  • It’s a good idea to write your abstract next, while the research is still fresh in your mind.
  • Next, make sure your reference list is complete and correctly formatted. To speed up the process, you can use our free APA citation generator .
  • Once you’ve added any appendices , you can create a table of contents and title page .
  • Finally, read through the whole document again to make sure your thesis is clearly written and free from language errors. You can proofread it yourself , ask a friend, or consider Scribbr’s proofreading and editing service .

Here is an example of how you can write your conclusion section. Notice how it includes everything mentioned above:

V. Conclusion

The current research aimed to identify acoustic speech characteristics which mark the beginning of an exacerbation in COPD patients.

The central questions for this research were as follows: 1. Which acoustic measures extracted from read speech differ between COPD speakers in stable condition and healthy speakers? 2. In what ways does the speech of COPD patients during an exacerbation differ from speech of COPD patients during stable periods?

All recordings were aligned using a script. Subsequently, they were manually annotated to indicate respiratory actions such as inhaling and exhaling. The recordings of 9 stable COPD patients reading aloud were then compared with the recordings of 5 healthy control subjects reading aloud. The results showed a significant effect of condition on the number of in- and exhalations per syllable, the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable, and the ratio of voiced and silence intervals. The number of in- and exhalations per syllable and the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable were higher for COPD patients than for healthy controls, which confirmed both hypotheses.

However, the higher ratio of voiced and silence intervals for COPD patients compared to healthy controls was not in line with the hypotheses. This unpredicted result might have been caused by the different reading materials or recording procedures for both groups, or by a difference in reading skills. Moreover, there was a trend regarding the effect of condition on the number of syllables per breath group. The number of syllables per breath group was higher for healthy controls than for COPD patients, which was in line with the hypothesis. There was no effect of condition on pitch, intensity, center of gravity, pitch variability, speaking rate, or articulation rate.

This research has shown that the speech of COPD patients in exacerbation differs from the speech of COPD patients in stable condition. This might have potential for the detection of exacerbations. However, sustained vowels rarely occur in spontaneous speech. Therefore, the last two outcome measures might have greater potential for the detection of beginning exacerbations, but further research on the different outcome measures and their potential for the detection of exacerbations is needed due to the limitations of the current study.

Checklist: Conclusion

I have clearly and concisely answered the main research question .

I have summarized my overall argument or key takeaways.

I have mentioned any important limitations of the research.

I have given relevant recommendations .

I have clearly explained what my research has contributed to my field.

I have  not introduced any new data or arguments.

You've written a great conclusion! Use the other checklists to further improve your dissertation.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.

The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.

While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:

  • Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the discussion section and results section
  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion …”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g., “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:

  • A restatement of your research question
  • A summary of your key arguments and/or results
  • A short discussion of the implications of your research

Cite this Scribbr article

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George, T. & McCombes, S. (2023, November 20). How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion. Scribbr. Retrieved February 26, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/write-conclusion/

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How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion Section

how to write an conclusion for a research paper

What is a conclusion in a research paper?

The conclusion in a research paper is the final paragraph or two in a research paper. In scientific papers, the conclusion usually follows the Discussion section , summarizing the importance of the findings and reminding the reader why the work presented in the paper is relevant.

However, it can be a bit confusing to distinguish the conclusion section/paragraph from a summary or a repetition of your findings, your own opinion, or the statement of the implications of your work. In fact, the conclusion should contain a bit of all of these other parts but go beyond it—but not too far beyond! 

The structure and content of the conclusion section can also vary depending on whether you are writing a research manuscript or an essay. This article will explain how to write a good conclusion section, what exactly it should (and should not) contain, how it should be structured, and what you should avoid when writing it.  

Table of Contents:

What does a good conclusion section do, what to include in a research paper conclusion.

  • Conclusion in an Essay
  • Research Paper Conclusion 
  • Conclusion Paragraph Outline and Example
  • What Not to Do When Writing a Conclusion

The conclusion of a research paper has several key objectives. It should:

  • Restate your research problem addressed in the introduction section
  • Summarize your main arguments, important findings, and broader implications
  • Synthesize key takeaways from your study

The specific content in the conclusion depends on whether your paper presents the results of original scientific research or constructs an argument through engagement with previously published sources.

You presented your general field of study to the reader in the introduction section, by moving from general information (the background of your work, often combined with a literature review ) to the rationale of your study and then to the specific problem or topic you addressed, formulated in the form of the statement of the problem in research or the thesis statement in an essay.

In the conclusion section, in contrast, your task is to move from your specific findings or arguments back to a more general depiction of how your research contributes to the readers’ understanding of a certain concept or helps solve a practical problem, or fills an important gap in the literature. The content of your conclusion section depends on the type of research you are doing and what type of paper you are writing. But whatever the outcome of your work is, the conclusion is where you briefly summarize it and place it within a larger context. It could be called the “take-home message” of the entire paper.

What to summarize in the conclusion

Your conclusion section needs to contain a very brief summary of your work , a very brief summary of the main findings of your work, and a mention of anything else that seems relevant when you now look at your work from a bigger perspective, even if it was not initially listed as one of your main research questions. This could be a limitation, for example, a problem with the design of your experiment that either needs to be considered when drawing any conclusions or that led you to ask a different question and therefore draw different conclusions at the end of your study (compared to when you started out).

Once you have reminded the reader of what you did and what you found, you need to go beyond that and also provide either your own opinion on why your work is relevant (and for whom, and how) or theoretical or practical implications of the study , or make a specific call for action if there is one to be made.   

How to Write an Essay Conclusion

Academic essays follow quite different structures than their counterparts in STEM and the natural sciences. Humanities papers often have conclusion sections that are much longer and contain more detail than scientific papers. There are three main types of academic essay conclusions.

Summarizing conclusion

The most typical conclusion at the end of an analytical/explanatory/argumentative essay is a summarizing conclusion . This is, as the name suggests, a clear summary of the main points of your topic and thesis. Since you might have gone through a number of different arguments or subtopics in the main part of your essay, you need to remind the reader again what those were, how they fit into each other, and how they helped you develop or corroborate your hypothesis.

For an essay that analyzes how recruiters can hire the best candidates in the shortest time or on “how starving yourself will increase your lifespan, according to science”, a summary of all the points you discussed might be all you need. Note that you should not exactly repeat what you said earlier, but rather highlight the essential details and present those to your reader in a different way. 

Externalizing conclusion

If you think that just reminding the reader of your main points is not enough, you can opt for an externalizing conclusion instead, that presents new points that were not presented in the paper so far. These new points can be additional facts and information or they can be ideas that are relevant to the topic and have not been mentioned before.

Such a conclusion can stimulate your readers to think about your topic or the implications of your analysis in a whole new way. For example, at the end of a historical analysis of a specific event or development, you could direct your reader’s attention to some current events that were not the topic of your essay but that provide a different context for your findings.

Editorial conclusion

In an editorial conclusion , another common type of conclusion that you will find at the end of papers and essays, you do not add new information but instead present your own experiences or opinions on the topic to round everything up. What makes this type of conclusion interesting is that you can choose to agree or disagree with the information you presented in your paper so far. For example, if you have collected and analyzed information on how a specific diet helps people lose weight, you can nevertheless have your doubts on the sustainability of that diet or its practicability in real life—if such arguments were not included in your original thesis and have therefore not been covered in the main part of your paper, the conclusion section is the place where you can get your opinion across.    

How to Conclude an Empirical Research Paper

An empirical research paper is usually more concise and succinct than an essay, because, if it is written well, it focuses on one specific question, describes the method that was used to answer that one question, describes and explains the results, and guides the reader in a logical way from the introduction to the discussion without going on tangents or digging into not absolutely relevant topics.

Summarize the findings

In a scientific paper, you should include a summary of the findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth  results  and  discussion  already), but do clearly express the answers to the  research questions  you investigated.

Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones anticipated, and explain the conclusion they led you to. Explain these findings in as few words as possible.

Instead of beginning with “ In conclusion, in this study, we investigated the effect of stress on the brain using fMRI …”, you should try to find a way to incorporate the repetition of the essential (and only the essential) details into the summary of the key points. “ The findings of this fMRI study on the effect of stress on the brain suggest that …” or “ While it has been known for a long time that stress has an effect on the brain, the findings of this fMRI study show that, surprisingly… ” would be better ways to start a conclusion. 

You should also not bring up new ideas or present new facts in the conclusion of a research paper, but stick to the background information you have presented earlier, to the findings you have already discussed, and the limitations and implications you have already described. The one thing you can add here is a practical recommendation that you haven’t clearly stated before—but even that one needs to follow logically from everything you have already discussed in the discussion section.

Discuss the implications

After summing up your key arguments or findings, conclude the paper by stating the broader implications of the research , whether in methods , approach, or findings. Express practical or theoretical takeaways from your paper. This often looks like a “call to action” or a final “sales pitch” that puts an exclamation point on your paper.

If your research topic is more theoretical in nature, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.

Future research example

Future research into education standards should focus on establishing a more detailed picture of how novel pedagogical approaches impact young people’s ability to absorb new and difficult concepts. Moreover, observational studies are needed to gain more insight into how specific teaching models affect the retention of relationships and facts—for instance, how inquiry-based learning and its emphasis on lateral thinking can be used as a jumping-off point for more holistic classroom approaches.

Research Conclusion Example and Outline

Let’s revisit the study on the effect of stress on the brain we mentioned before and see what the common structure for a conclusion paragraph looks like, in three steps. Following these simple steps will make it easy for you to wrap everything up in one short paragraph that contains all the essential information: 

One: Short summary of what you did, but integrated into the summary of your findings:

While it has been known for a long time that stress has an effect on the brain, the findings of this fMRI study in 25 university students going through mid-term exams show that, surprisingly, one’s attitude to the experienced stress significantly modulates the brain’s response to it. 

Note that you don’t need to repeat any methodological or technical details here—the reader has been presented with all of these before, they have read your results section and the discussion of your results, and even (hopefully!) a discussion of the limitations and strengths of your paper. The only thing you need to remind them of here is the essential outcome of your work. 

Two: Add implications, and don’t forget to specify who this might be relevant for: 

Students could be considered a specific subsample of the general population, but earlier research shows that the effect that exam stress has on their physical and mental health is comparable to the effects of other types of stress on individuals of other ages and occupations. Further research into practical ways of modulating not only one’s mental stress response but potentially also one’s brain activity (e.g., via neurofeedback training) are warranted.

This is a “research implication”, and it is nicely combined with a mention of a potential limitation of the study (the student sample) that turns out not to be a limitation after all (because earlier research suggests we can generalize to other populations). If there already is a lot of research on neurofeedback for stress control, by the way, then this should have been discussed in your discussion section earlier and you wouldn’t say such studies are “warranted” here but rather specify how your findings could inspire specific future experiments or how they should be implemented in existing applications. 

Three: The most important thing is that your conclusion paragraph accurately reflects the content of your paper. Compare it to your research paper title , your research paper abstract , and to your journal submission cover letter , in case you already have one—if these do not all tell the same story, then you need to go back to your paper, start again from the introduction section, and find out where you lost the logical thread. As always, consistency is key.    

Problems to Avoid When Writing a Conclusion 

  • Do not suddenly introduce new information that has never been mentioned before (unless you are writing an essay and opting for an externalizing conclusion, see above). The conclusion section is not where you want to surprise your readers, but the take-home message of what you have already presented.
  • Do not simply copy your abstract, the conclusion section of your abstract, or the first sentence of your introduction, and put it at the end of the discussion section. Even if these parts of your paper cover the same points, they should not be identical.
  • Do not start the conclusion with “In conclusion”. If it has its own section heading, that is redundant, and if it is the last paragraph of the discussion section, it is inelegant and also not really necessary. The reader expects you to wrap your work up in the last paragraph, so you don’t have to announce that. Just look at the above example to see how to start a conclusion in a natural way.
  • Do not forget what your research objectives were and how you initially formulated the statement of the problem in your introduction section. If your story/approach/conclusions changed because of methodological issues or information you were not aware of when you started, then make sure you go back to the beginning and adapt your entire story (not just the ending). 

Consider Receiving Academic Editing Services

When you have arrived at the conclusion of your paper, you might want to head over to Wordvice AI’s AI Writing Assistant to receive a free grammar check for any academic content. 

After drafting, you can also receive English editing and proofreading services , including paper editing services for your journal manuscript. If you need advice on how to write the other parts of your research paper , or on how to make a research paper outline if you are struggling with putting everything you did together, then head over to the Wordvice academic resources pages , where we have a lot more articles and videos for you.

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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.

Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:

In a general way,

  • Restate your topic and why it is important,
  • Restate your thesis/claim,
  • Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
  • Call for action or overview future research possibilities.

Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.

The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:

Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).

Tell them (body).

Tell them what you told them (conclusion).

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How to write a strong conclusion for your research paper

Last updated

17 February 2024

Reviewed by

Writing a research paper is a chance to share your knowledge and hypothesis. It's an opportunity to demonstrate your many hours of research and prove your ability to write convincingly.

Ideally, by the end of your research paper, you'll have brought your readers on a journey to reach the conclusions you've pre-determined. However, if you don't stick the landing with a good conclusion, you'll risk losing your reader’s trust.

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper involves a few important steps, including restating the thesis and summing up everything properly.

Find out what to include and what to avoid, so you can effectively demonstrate your understanding of the topic and prove your expertise.

  • Why is a good conclusion important?

A good conclusion can cement your paper in the reader’s mind. Making a strong impression in your introduction can draw your readers in, but it's the conclusion that will inspire them.

  • What to include in a research paper conclusion

There are a few specifics you should include in your research paper conclusion. Offer your readers some sense of urgency or consequence by pointing out why they should care about the topic you have covered. Discuss any common problems associated with your topic and provide suggestions as to how these problems can be solved or addressed.

The conclusion should include a restatement of your initial thesis. Thesis statements are strengthened after you’ve presented supporting evidence (as you will have done in the paper), so make a point to reintroduce it at the end.

Finally, recap the main points of your research paper, highlighting the key takeaways you want readers to remember. If you've made multiple points throughout the paper, refer to the ones with the strongest supporting evidence.

  • Steps for writing a research paper conclusion

Many writers find the conclusion the most challenging part of any research project . By following these three steps, you'll be prepared to write a conclusion that is effective and concise.

  • Step 1: Restate the problem

Always begin by restating the research problem in the conclusion of a research paper. This serves to remind the reader of your hypothesis and refresh them on the main point of the paper. 

When restating the problem, take care to avoid using exactly the same words you employed earlier in the paper.

  • Step 2: Sum up the paper

After you've restated the problem, sum up the paper by revealing your overall findings. The method for this differs slightly, depending on whether you're crafting an argumentative paper or an empirical paper.

Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments

Argumentative papers involve introducing a thesis statement early on. In crafting the conclusion for an argumentative paper, always restate the thesis, outlining the way you've developed it throughout the entire paper.

It might be appropriate to mention any counterarguments in the conclusion, so you can demonstrate how your thesis is correct or how the data best supports your main points.

Empirical paper: Summarize research findings

Empirical papers break down a series of research questions. In your conclusion, discuss the findings your research revealed, including any information that surprised you.

Be clear about the conclusions you reached, and explain whether or not you expected to arrive at these particular ones.

  • Step 3: Discuss the implications of your research

Argumentative papers and empirical papers also differ in this part of a research paper conclusion. Here are some tips on crafting conclusions for argumentative and empirical papers.

Argumentative paper: Powerful closing statement

In an argumentative paper, you'll have spent a great deal of time expressing the opinions you formed after doing a significant amount of research. Make a strong closing statement in your argumentative paper's conclusion to share the significance of your work.

You can outline the next steps through a bold call to action, or restate how powerful your ideas turned out to be.

Empirical paper: Directions for future research

Empirical papers are broader in scope. They usually cover a variety of aspects and can include several points of view.

To write a good conclusion for an empirical paper, suggest the type of research that could be done in the future, including methods for further investigation or outlining ways other researchers might proceed.

If you feel your research had any limitations, even if they were outside your control, you could mention these in your conclusion.

After you finish outlining your conclusion, ask someone to read it and offer feedback. In any research project you're especially close to, it can be hard to identify problem areas. Having a close friend or someone whose opinion you value read the research paper and provide honest feedback can be invaluable. Take note of any suggested edits and consider incorporating them into your paper if they make sense.

  • Things to avoid in a research paper conclusion

Keep these aspects to avoid in mind as you're writing your conclusion and refer to them after you've created an outline.

Dry summary

Writing a memorable, succinct conclusion is arguably more important than a strong introduction. Take care to avoid just rephrasing your main points, and don't fall into the trap of repeating dry facts or citations.

You can provide a new perspective for your readers to think about or contextualize your research. Either way, make the conclusion vibrant and interesting, rather than a rote recitation of your research paper’s highlights.

Clichéd or generic phrasing

Your research paper conclusion should feel fresh and inspiring. Avoid generic phrases like "to sum up" or "in conclusion." These phrases tend to be overused, especially in an academic context and might turn your readers off.

The conclusion also isn't the time to introduce colloquial phrases or informal language. Retain a professional, confident tone consistent throughout your paper’s conclusion so it feels exciting and bold.

New data or evidence

While you should present strong data throughout your paper, the conclusion isn't the place to introduce new evidence. This is because readers are engaged in actively learning as they read through the body of your paper.

By the time they reach the conclusion, they will have formed an opinion one way or the other (hopefully in your favor!). Introducing new evidence in the conclusion will only serve to surprise or frustrate your reader.

Ignoring contradictory evidence

If your research reveals contradictory evidence, don't ignore it in the conclusion. This will damage your credibility as an expert and might even serve to highlight the contradictions.

Be as transparent as possible and admit to any shortcomings in your research, but don't dwell on them for too long.

Ambiguous or unclear resolutions

The point of a research paper conclusion is to provide closure and bring all your ideas together. You should wrap up any arguments you introduced in the paper and tie up any loose ends, while demonstrating why your research and data are strong.

Use direct language in your conclusion and avoid ambiguity. Even if some of the data and sources you cite are inconclusive or contradictory, note this in your conclusion to come across as confident and trustworthy.

  • Examples of research paper conclusions

Your research paper should provide a compelling close to the paper as a whole, highlighting your research and hard work. While the conclusion should represent your unique style, these examples offer a starting point:

Ultimately, the data we examined all point to the same conclusion: Encouraging a good work-life balance improves employee productivity and benefits the company overall. The research suggests that when employees feel their personal lives are valued and respected by their employers, they are more likely to be productive when at work. In addition, company turnover tends to be reduced when employees have a balance between their personal and professional lives. While additional research is required to establish ways companies can support employees in creating a stronger work-life balance, it's clear the need is there.

Social media is a primary method of communication among young people. As we've seen in the data presented, most young people in high school use a variety of social media applications at least every hour, including Instagram and Facebook. While social media is an avenue for connection with peers, research increasingly suggests that social media use correlates with body image issues. Young girls with lower self-esteem tend to use social media more often than those who don't log onto social media apps every day. As new applications continue to gain popularity, and as more high school students are given smartphones, more research will be required to measure the effects of prolonged social media use.

What are the different kinds of research paper conclusions?

There are no formal types of research paper conclusions. Ultimately, the conclusion depends on the outline of your paper and the type of research you’re presenting. While some experts note that research papers can end with a new perspective or commentary, most papers should conclude with a combination of both. The most important aspect of a good research paper conclusion is that it accurately represents the body of the paper.

Can I present new arguments in my research paper conclusion?

Research paper conclusions are not the place to introduce new data or arguments. The body of your paper is where you should share research and insights, where the reader is actively absorbing the content. By the time a reader reaches the conclusion of the research paper, they should have formed their opinion. Introducing new arguments in the conclusion can take a reader by surprise, and not in a positive way. It might also serve to frustrate readers.

How long should a research paper conclusion be?

There's no set length for a research paper conclusion. However, it's a good idea not to run on too long, since conclusions are supposed to be succinct. A good rule of thumb is to keep your conclusion around 5 to 10 percent of the paper's total length. If your paper is 10 pages, try to keep your conclusion under one page.

What should I include in a research paper conclusion?

A good research paper conclusion should always include a sense of urgency, so the reader can see how and why the topic should matter to them. You can also note some recommended actions to help fix the problem and some obstacles they might encounter. A conclusion should also remind the reader of the thesis statement, along with the main points you covered in the paper. At the end of the conclusion, add a powerful closing statement that helps cement the paper in the mind of the reader.

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Writing a research paper is tedious, and after all that work, you’d think the conclusion would be the easy part. In reality, this is often one of the most difficult sections of a research paper to write, since you have to neatly tie up pages and pages of research in a short amount of time.

To help you with this, we’ve put together some instructions and tips on how to write a research paper conclusion. We’ll also talk about what conclusions are, why they’re important, and different ways you can format them.

Key Takeaways

Research paper conclusions serve to close the argument the introduction opened and restate the main points of the research paper.

There are three research paper conclusion formats: summarization, reflective, and projective.

Your research paper conclusion should be concise, straightforward, and accurate.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

How To Write A Research Paper Conclusion

6 tips for writing a research paper conclusion, different formats of research paper conclusions, what is the conclusion of a research paper, why is writing a conclusion important for a research paper, research paper conclusion faq.

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Many students understand that the conclusion is a crucial part of their research paper, but they don’t know how to go about writing one.

Follow the steps below for how to write a research paper conclusion.

Open With The Research Topic. To begin a conclusion paragraph, use the first sentence to reiterate the comprehensive subject matter that your paper covered. Since this is just a sentence-long retelling of your research topic and why it’s important, it doesn’t have to be specific, but it does need clarity.

Dragonflies are a magnificently complex insect whose advanced physical mechanics and vast species differences make them a notable study in the scientific community.

Focus On Your Specific Thesis. Every research paper focuses on targetted intricacies within a larger topic. Now that the more extensive topic of the research paper has been mentioned, the next sentence or two highlights the specific thesis presented.

Don’t merely copy and paste the introduction of your thesis from the first paragraph. Restate it in different words that illicit a more in-depth understanding from the reader .

The overall characteristics found only within the Odonata family unites the dragonfly under a singular title. All species of dragonfly faced the same path towards the modern structure known today, and therefore, they are all similar in one way or another. However, there are also significant differences apparent to the naked eye between a species that shares so much of the same structure.

Summarize And Connect Main Points. Throughout a research paper, the writer presents points to support the initial thesis claim. Very briefly summarize and tie together these points in a way that supports your thesis. This is the place to restate your research findings.

By examining the striped meadowhawk and migrant hawker dragonflies, it is shown that habitat governs many aspects pertaining to that specific species’ lifestyle. It is also proven that color and patterns perceived on this insect serve a greater purpose of individualizing and distinguishing between these two species.

Bring It All Together. It sounds redundant to say you need to conclude your conclusion, but that’s the final step. You’ve done the mini recap of your research paper through the beginning sentences of your essay. Close the conclusion by making a final encouragement for an action, idea, or fact.

The dragonfly is a unique insect with uniting factors and specialization. However, the most attributed aspect to this insect as a whole is the enormity of their differences. The evolved genetic features attributed to various species of dragonflies both individualize them and apply unification to the insect as a whole.

Consider What Conclusion Format To Use Carefully. The way you structure a conclusion has a massive effect on how impactful it will be to a reader.

Some types of writing can work well with a variety of conclusion formats, but others will confuse a paper’s message. For example, using a reflective style conclusion on a scientific research paper comes across as too opinion-based for a topic that’s shrouded in measurable fact.

Don’t Make It Too Complex. It’s best to use plain language when summarizing the information presented in a research paper or making a claim. Many students are tempted to use impressive wording and complex writing in a research paper conclusion to present themselves as experts in the subject , but it only gives the reader a headache.

Conclusions Should Be Concise . Research papers give the writer pages of leeway to make all the drawn-out points that they need, but conclusions don’t offer as much room. An essay’s conclusion needs to be short by definition because it’s merely a last takeaway for the reader. A research paper conclusion is a final paragraph, not the entire page .

Double Check Your Information. There’s nothing worse for a research paper’s validity than confidently making a claim in the conclusion that turns out to be false. It’s fundamental that all the facts and information your detail in a research paper are backed up with credible sources listed neatly on the works cited page.

Empathize With The Reader. Whether you’re submitting a research paper for an introductory university class or publishing a scholarly journal, you still need to keep the reader in mind when writing a conclusion. Think about who you’re communicating with through your research paper and what you’re hoping to accomplish with it.

Do Research . One way to fix the problem if you’re unsure of what makes an essay conclusion compelling is researching the topic. Reading articles (like this one) is helpful because they give you a clear demonstration of how to create a conclusion, but applying this structure to your own work can be difficult. A case of easier said than done.

Based on the goal or subject of your research paper, the structure of your conclusion changes. Pick a type of conclusion that will strengthen the point of your essay. Below are examples of different formats to use when writing research paper conclusions.

Summarization. The summarization conclusion is most commonly used for research papers that are presenting a series of concrete facts.

It’s the form of conclusion that most people are familiar with. Using the summary technique requires a succinct compiling of the most critical points you’ve made in an essay.

Summarization Conclusion Formatting Works Best For:

Solution-Based Research

Persuasive Writing

History and Science Studies

Structuring An Argument

Reflective. A conclusion that uses a reflective structure takes the information outlined in the research paper to arrive at a grander insight about the topic at hand. This type of conclusion is popular when you’re attempting to change the reader’s viewpoint with a paper.

Reflective Conclusion Formatting Works Best For:

Persuasive Essays

English and Political Studies

Projective. When using a projective conclusion, the writer applies their work presented earlier in the thesis to eventual outcomes that can arise. It is called a projective conclusion because it is more results-based than summarizing facts or establishing an overarching lesson.

Projective Conclusion Formatting Works Best For:

Research Paper

Expository Essay

Narrative Works (Sometimes)

The conclusion of a research paper ties together all the prior information you’ve covered. It leaves the reader with a final thought about the research paper and the message it’s trying to convey.

Unlike the body paragraphs of a research paper, which aim at specificity and focus on developing a single concept or piece of information, conclusions are broader. The goal is to gloss over what’s already been stated earlier in the essay to solidify it with the reader.

The conclusion also serves a different purpose than the introduction . An introductory paragraph is for establishing what the reader will be learning more about. It opens the metaphorical door towards understanding a research endeavor or topic. The conclusion closes the argument that the introductory paragraph opens.

Including a conclusion is an important part of writing a research paper because it creates an organized summarization of information and outlines inferences about the subject studied. It provides an additional layer of clarity in a short written work.

Research papers are often lengthy and dull, so it’s easy for a reader’s attention to stray. A conclusion brings the reader back and offers them the most critical takeaways from the paper.

How long should a good conclusion be?

A good conclusion should be one paragraph or three to five sentences long. Your research paper conclusion should be concise, which means you don’t need to take up a whole page for just your conclusion. Instead, try to stick to about one paragraph in length.

What are the general rules in crafting conclusions in your research paper?

The general rules for crafting conclusions for your research paper include:

Choose the right conclusion format.

Keep it simple.

Be concise.

Be accurate.

Keep the reader’s needs (or requirements) in mind.

Remind the reader of your thesis.

Summarize and connect main points.

End with a concluding sentence.

What is a better way to say, “In conclusion”?

A better way to say, “In conclusion,” is “Therefore,” “Finally,” or “Lastly.” Other good words include, “As expressed” or “As a result.” You can also simply launch into your concluding paragraph if a transition isn’t needed.

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Sky Ariella is a professional freelance writer, originally from New York. She has been featured on websites and online magazines covering topics in career, travel, and lifestyle. She received her BA in psychology from Hunter College.

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how to write an conclusion for a research paper

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Do you ever feel like you’re inside a black hole when it comes time to write your research paper conclusion? You’ve spent weeks (or months!) gathering reliable sources and supporting evidence, but now that the big moment has come, you don’t know how to sum up all of your hard work! But fear not: even though reaching an effective conclusion for a research paper can seem daunting at times, with a few tips and tricks from experts in the field, anyone can learn how to master this crucial writing skill. In this blog post, we’ll talk about some of the most successful strategies for crafting an impressive conclusion for your next masterpiece.

Summarize the main points of your research paper

One of the most important parts of research writing is the conclusion, as it acts as not only a summary of not only your research paper but also a representation of your overall writing ability. Crafting an effective research paper conclusion requires careful consideration of the research evidence and an ability to identify themes and draw connections between these themes. Fortunately, there are several tips to help writers in their journey to composing an effective research paper conclusion. From making sure the conclusion connects to the introduction to summarizing research findings in new and creative ways, following a few simple steps can ensure that writers finish their research papers with confidence.

Identify any unresolved questions or issues in the paper

Finishing up a research paper can often be the hardest part, leading to advice such as “write the conclusion last.” Unaddressed questions and issues within the paper present an additional challenge when writing the closing remarks. Careful consideration of how to end a research paper should include an honest assessment of what remains unresolved after studying the topic. Addressing any remaining questions or issues will not only ensure closure on your research paper; it also has lasting benefits by providing advice for future studies on similar topics.

Offer a solution or suggestion for future research

To successfully conclude a research paper, it is important to apply certain tricks and advice from experts. Future research should focus on understanding the ways in which a good conclusion can be written so as to add value to the overall paper. Discussions could focus on elements that are generally valued in concluding paragraphs, such as summarizing key findings and implications of the study, validating the research problem statement, and linking back to previously presented evidence. With this kind of insight into concluding statements, researchers would have better chances of producing worthwhile scholarly contributions .

Reflect on the overall implications of your findings

After completing the research process and coming to a conclusion, it is important to reflect on its overall implication. When it comes to how to end a research paper, one must think about what the conclusion implies for future endeavors and application of knowledge. Reflecting on implications can create questions for further research opportunities or exalt original interpretations from the conclusion. Writing with this in mind allows conclusion statements that truly encapsulate the importance of research outcomes.

Restate the thesis in different terms

Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper can be tricky, but there are tips and tricks that can help. One great technique is to restate the thesis in different terms. Doing so allows you to emphasize the main points of your paper and tie them all together into one appealing conclusion. Additionally, it needs to follow from the content covered throughout the body of your essay and connect it with other information presented at the beginning or throughout the paper. With some clever word choices and rhetorical devices, you have the potential to create an effective ending that will leave your reader with a lasting impression.

End with a call to action for readers to take away from your work

As concluding a research paper can be challenging, it is important to reiterate the main ideas and provide an actionable call to conclusion. While providing advice to readers is a great way to tie up loose ends in any research paper, one must also think carefully about what advice they provide. Offer up a course of action that pushes forward your thesis while remaining conscious of the limitations and complexities behind your work. An effective concluding statement speaks on behalf of both those researching and reading, leaving a lasting impression without unintentionally oversimplifying the material.

If you would like help transforming your ideas into clear and well-structured writing, contact Elite Editing today.

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how to write an conclusion for a research paper

Workshop / Seminar

PDI Event: Writing the Conclusion for a Research Article – A Graduate Writing Center Collaboration

About the event.

This event is free for graduate and undergraduate students, as well as for faculty and staff!

Event offered via Zoom-only. A Zoom link will be provided the day before the event.

How do you write a conclusion that’s not repeating the introduction but complementing it—by being uniquely theoretical, integrated with the field, and connected to the real world and practical applications? This workshop mirrors the Writing Introductions workshop from Fall semester with a close reading of sample conclusions to identify rhetorical and organizational writing “moves” you can make for an effective conclusion. The workshop will also emphasize appropriate phrases to generalize your study’s findings and contextualize your study’s limitations. Participants must come to the workshop with (at least) one published article they admire from a research journal relevant to their field; this published article will be used as a model.

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Period 7: 1890-1945.

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Debates over Imperialism

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7.3 : Participation in a series of global conflicts propelled the United States into a position of international power while renewing domestic debates over the nation’s proper role in the world.

Illustration about American imperialism.

Empire Builders

By robert w. cherny.

Learn about the reactions to the growth of an American overseas empire.

Illustration of US navy in Cuba.

Our Victorious Fleet in Cuban Waters

Print depicting American naval forces off Cuba during the Spanish-American War

  • Primary Source

Illustration about US involvement in the Philippines.

The War against Spain in the Philippines in 1898

By richard meixel.

Learn about US naval actions in Southeast Asia during the Spanish-American War.

1901 photo of Ha-ta-men Gate.

The US in China

By warren cohen.

Learn about the US support of the Open Door Policy and reaction to the Boxer Rebellion.

Political cartoon showing America being drawn into war.

The Open Door Policy and the Boxer War

Learn about how the Open Door Policy served US economic, cultural, and strategic interests in China.

Political cartoon showing problem of child labor in America.

The Politics of Reform

By julie des jardins.

Learn about the politics of reform during the Progressive era.

Lithograph of women marching in suffrage parade in Washington DC.

Women in American Politics in the Twentieth Century

By sara evans.

Learn about women who advocated full participation in American public and political life during the suffrage movement.

Photo of Teddy Roosevelt giving a speech.

The Square Deal

By kirsten swinth.

Learn about themes of Progressive reform and Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal.

Photo of Women's Suffrage picket of the White House.

The Progressive Era to the New Era, 1900-1929

By daniel rodgers.

The Progressive Era to the New Era (1900-1929) Timeline and essay explaining the domestic and global challenges facing the US.

Negro Business League response to legal bars to voting in Virginia.

Disfranchisement of African American voters

Negro Business League response to legal bars to voting in Virginia

Yiddish music about the Triangle Shirtwaist fire.

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

Sheet music in Yiddish lamenting the deaths in Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire

A purple silk banner with gold fringe and the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs' motto, "Lifting As We Climb" painted in large gold letters.

Women and the Progressive Movement

By miriam cohen.

Learn about the women who sought to address a variety of social problems associated with industrialization

Lithograph depicting women's role promoting prohibition.

The Supreme Court upholds national prohibition

The Supreme Court upholds Prohibition and the Volstead Act

Pamphlet showing how to vote for women's suffrage.

Modern Women Persuading Modern Men

By jonathan soffer .

Learn about the women's struggle for suffrage.

Pamphlet decrying lynching crisis.

Lynching in America

NAACP broadside presenting the shocking statistics regarding lynching in America

World War 1 poster.

World War I poems: “In Flanders Fields” & “The Answer"

Nurse's diary containing McCrae’s poem reflecting upon the horrors of WWI

Photo of troops in World War 1.

by Jennifer D. Keene

Learn about America's role in WWI.

Recruitment poster targeting black enlistment.

Recruiting posters for African American soldiers

Military recruitment of Black troops during World War I

Teddy Roosavelt letter expressing thoughts about the Lusitania.

Theodore Roosevelt on the sinking of the Lusitania

Former president urges US involvement in WWI

Political cartoon showing Roman soldier walking towards horizon with piece of paper on the ground saying "15 Nations Sign Anti-War Treaty"

America's role in the world

By michael neiberg.

Read about American foreign policy between the world wars.

Cabinet secretary statement defending Wilson.

Treaty of Versailles and President Wilson

1919 and 1921.

Former Cabinet secretary's statement that "Woodrow Wilson did not fail"

Pamphlet criticizing use of Espionage and Sedition Acts.

Deportation: Its Meaning and Menace

Pamphlet criticizing the US government for its use of the Espionage and Sedition Acts

Cartoon showing wall labeled "Literacy Test" with family on one side and Uncle Sam on the other

The Dillingham Commission

By robert zeidel.

Learn about the background to the 1917 Literacy Test Act and the 1921 Quota Act.

Photo of Ford Model T car.

The Rise of Consumerism in the 1920s

By michael flamm.

Listen to a discussion about purchasing power, occupation, and identity

Ford advertisement in 1908 newspaper.

Motor City: The Story of Detroit

By thomas sugrue.

Read about the origins of Henry Ford's factory system in Detroit and its legacy.

"Big Business Banishes the Flapper" article from Morning Tulsa Daily World.

The Roaring Twenties

By joshua zeitz.

Examine why the 1920s heralded a dramatic break in American social, economic, and political policies.

"Advice Sheet" for theaters restricting access to Birth of a Nation for African Americans

Birth of a Nation

"Advice Sheet" for theaters restricting access to Birth of a Nation for African Americans

Herbert Hoover signature

The Great Depression

By david kennedy.

Learn about some of the causes and consequences of the Great Depression.

Photo of FDR.

The New Deal

By thomas kessner.

Learn about FDR's New Deal.

Photo of the Silent Protest in 1917.

Jim Crow and the Great Migration

By jonathan scott holloway.

Learn about the reasons behind the Great Migration.

Roosevelt memo to House Speaker.

The Hundred Days and Beyond

By anthony j. badger.

Understand how the New Deal functioned as  a "laboratory for economic learning."

Recruitment poster for Arizona Civilian Conservation Corps

Civilian Conservation Corps poster

Enlistment poster for the CCC, which put young men to work improving parks and creating infrastructure

Photo showing WPA worker receiving a paycheck with sign in background "USA Work Program WPA"

Why the New Deal Matters

By eric rauchway .

Watch a discussion of FDR's New Deal.

Photo of farmers during the Dust Bowl.

Photograph of an abandoned farm in the Dust Bowl

Dorothea Lange photograph depicting the devastation caused by the Dust Bowl

1870s engraving depicing the interior of the New York Clearing House featuring lines of people come to enact financial transactions

The US Banking System

By richard sylla.

Read about the emergence of the banking industry in the United States.

WWII poster showing four soldiers planting the US flag with text saying "Now All Together"

by Kenneth T. Jackson

Learn about US involvement in WWII.

US Citizens Defense Corps logos.

Civilian defense on the home front

Excerpt from The US Citizens Defense Corp handbook explaining the duties and responsibilities of home-front volunteers

Army photo celebrating women's contribution to war effort.

The World War II Home Front

By allan m. winkler.

Learn how activities on the home front supported US efforts during WWII.

Japan's declaration of war.

Japan declares war

Japan's Declaration of War coinciding with the attach on Pearl Harbor

Photo of Japanese storefront for rent.

From Citizen to Enemy

Learn about the internment of Japanese Americans during WWII.

Notice to Japanese to assemble for transport to detention camps.

Japanese internment

Broadside instructing the Japanese "to assemble for transport to detention camps"

Scientists' statement on atomic bomb.

Physicists predict a nuclear arms race

"Preliminary Statement of the Association of Manhattan District Scientists" emphasizing the need to control atomic weaponry

Photo of Potsdam meeting.

Truman and His Doctrine

By elizabeth edwards spalding.

Read about how and why Truman devised a strategy of containment

Harry Truman letter to Dean Acheson.

Harry S. Truman responds to McCarthy

Truman response to McCarthy, characterizing him as "the best asset that the Kremlin can have"

Photograph showing Clement Atlee, Harry Truman, and Joseph Stalin stead outdoors at the Potsdam Conference

The Origins of the Cold War

By john lewis gaddis.

Learn about U.S.-Soviet relations from the nineteenth century through the end of World War II.

American History Timeline: 1890-1945

Image citations.

Listed in order of appearance in the sections above

  • Keppler, Udo J. "His 128th birthday. 'Gee, But This Is an Awful Stretch!'" Puck, June 29, 1904. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Currier & Ives. Our Victorious Fleets in Cuban Waters. New York, 1898. Chromolithograph. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC03534.
  • Ehrhart, Samuel D. "If They'll Only Be Good." Puck, January 31, 1900. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Ricalton, James. West from Ha-ta-men Gate along Huge Ancient Wall between Tartar and Chinese Peking, Scene of a Desperate Charge during Siege - China. New York: Underwood & Underwood, 1901. Photograph. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Keppler, Udo J. "The Tug of War in the Far East." Puck, September 14, 1898. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Riis, Jacob A. Street Arabs in "sleeping quarters." New York, ca. 1888. Photograph. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Woman Suffrage Procession, Washington, DC. Official Program. March 3, 1913. Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Collections Division.
  • Underwood & Underwood. "Good Government Is Practically Applying the Principles Which Make a Man a Good Citizen" - President [Theodore] Roosevelt, Waterville, Maine. 1902. Stereoview. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC06449.22.
  • Harris & Ewing. Woman Suffrage Pickets at White House. Washington, DC, 1917. Photograph. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Jackson, Giles B. Letter to R. C. Burrow, June 22, 1901. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC08907.
  • Rumshisky, Joseph, and Anshel Schorr. "'Mamenu' or The Triangle Victims" (in Yiddish). New York: Hebrew Publishing Co., 1911. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC06225.
  • National Association of Colored Women’s Club. "Lifting As We Climb." Banner, ca. 1924. silk (fiber), wood, paint.
  • Currier & Ives. Woman's Holy War :Grand Charge on the Enemy's Works. New York, 1874. Lithograph. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. 
  • N. Y. State Woman Suffrage Party. How to Vote for Woman Suffrage Amendment, Election Day, November 6th, 1917. Albany, NY, 1917. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC08961.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. For the Good of America. New York, ca. 1926. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC06197.
  • Chandler, Howard John. The Spirit of America -- Join. American Red Cross, 1919. Color lithograph. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Come Out! [Volume 1, No. 2 (January 10, 1970)] Newspaper, GLC09872.02
  • Renesch, Edward George. Colored Man Is No Slacker. Chicago, 1918. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC06134.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore. Letter to Oscar King Davis, June 23, 1915. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC08003.
  • Berryman, Clifford Kennedy. 15 Nations Sign Anti-war Treaty. August 27, 1928. Berryman Political Cartoon Collection, 1896-1949; Records of the U.S. Senate, Record Group 46. National Archives.
  • McAdoo, William G. Statement given out by Ex-Secreatry of the Treasury on Woodrow Wilson, March 4, 1921. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC03967.
  • Berkman, Alexander, and Emma Goldman. Deportation, Its Meaning and Menace. New York, 1918. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC06222.
  • Evans, Raymond Oscar. “The Americanese Wall, as Congressman Burnett Would Build It .” Puck, March 25, 1916. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Unknown photographer. The First Model T Ford. New York, 1908. Photograph. New York Public Library Digital Collections. 
  • Ford Touring Car advertisement. Alma (Mich.) Record, October 1, 1908, p. 4. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Library of Congress.
  • "Big Business Banishes the Flapper." Morning Tulsa Daily World, July 16, 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Library of Congress.
  • Edwards, Jack. "Advice Sheet. D. W. Griffith's 'The Birth of a Nation.'" ca. 1915. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC05091.
  • Hoover, Herbert. Letter to Louis L. Emmerson, July 10, 1931. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC03146.
  • Harris & Ewing. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Washington DC, ca. 1941. Photograph. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Underwood & Underwood. Silent Protest Parade in New York City against the East St. Louis Riots. New York, 1917. Photograph. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Roosevelt, Franklin D. Letter to Henry T. Rainey, June 10, 1933. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC07468.
  • Arizona Civilian Conservation Corps. "Great Oaks from Little Acorns." 1938. Recruitment poster. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC06196.262.
  • Unknown photographer. Photograph of Works Progress Administration Worker Receiving Paycheck. January 1939. Photograph. Record Group 594956. WPA Information Division Photographic Index. National Archives.
  • Lange, Dorothea. Dust Bowl Farmers of West Texas in Town. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information, June 1937. Photograph. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Pennsylvania. Two shilling and Six-pence note, No. 4665. April 3, 1772. Printed by Hall and Sellers. Signed by Cadwalader Morris, Joseph Swift, and Samuel Hudson. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC01450.226.01.
  • United States. War Division. 7th war loan/now all together. Poster. 1945. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC09520.34.
  • US Office of Civilian Defense. Special Civilian Defense Insignia. 1942. Poster. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC09520.36.
  • Treidler, Adolph, and US Army. Soldiers Without Guns. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1944. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • Hirohito, Emperor of Japan. Declaration of War against the United States and Britain [in Japanese]. December 8, 1941. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC01415.
  • Albers, Clem. Los Angeles, Calif. Apr. 1942. A store for rent in “Little Tokyo” after residents of Japanese ancestry were assigned to War Relocation Authority centers for the duration. Washington DC: War Relocation Authority, April 11, 1942. Photograph. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
  • DeWitt, J. L. US Army. Instructions to All Persons of Japanese Ancestry.  May 3, 1942. Broadside. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC06360.
  • Kaplan, Irving. "Preliminary Statement of the Association of Manhattan District Scientists." ca. August 1945. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC03152.02.
  • United States. Army. Signal Corps. Winston Churchill, Harry Truman, and Joseph Stalin at Potsdam. ca. July-August 1945. Photograph. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC04457.
  • Truman, Harry S. Letter to Dean Acheson, March 31, 1950. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, GLC00782.22.
  • Clement Attlee, Harry Truman, and Joseph Stalin, seated outdoors at Berlin conference. Germany Potsdam, 1945. Aug. 1. Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/96522042/ .

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New York Tech

Best Research Paper Writing Services: TOP 5 Cheap Custom Writing Help Websites Reviews

T he workload in colleges and universities is so enormous that students only have time for some of their responsibilities or extracurricular activities. Aside from the day-long lectures and seminars, each course comes with assignments, especially in the form of research work or paper writing. 

To cut down on this vast workload, students employ professional research assistants and writers to complete these tasks for them. However, advancements in technology have even made this service more easily accessible. With research paper writing websites, students can generate their assignments in a few days. Hence, five of the best research paper writing services online have been highlighted and discussed in detail below. Here is a list with the TOP 5 research paper writing websites:

  • PaperHelp - the best research paper writing service overall.
  • SpeedyPaper - #1 research paper writing website in the U.S.
  • GradeMiners - custom paper writers to hire online for help with homework.
  • PaperWriter - the cheapest research paper writing company in the world.
  • PaperCoach - the fastest research paper & proposal writing provider.

Research assignments are highly valuable to students. It is an avenue for them to learn something new that may not be discussed during the lecture. It could even be a good opportunity for students to improve their critical thinking and problem-solving skills, depending on the technicality of the research topic. Students can likewise deep dive into career experts or work closely with a mentor within or outside the educational system. However, students still do not take an interest in paper writing assignments. This attitude persists among them, even knowing that research and paper writing contribute anywhere between 20% and 80% of a course's grade.

A lot of reasons can be associated with students' poor interest in this aspect of their schooling. As mentioned in the introduction, the workload of colleges and universities forces students to give low consideration to such projects. In close relation to envy workloads, many students do not have the time, mental resources, or skillset for carrying out research or paper writing. According to Marco Learning, 40% of students could not write at a college level. Nevertheless, no student will settle for a low grade, even with terrible research and writing skills. Hence, the quest for a high grade will propel them to either contract the task to a physical professional or employ an online service. Some of the top-notch online services have been thoroughly dissected below.

5 Best Research Paper Writing Services Reviews

Each of the research paper writing services has its strengths. However, PaperHelp is the overall best research paper writing service. And that is why it is number one on this special list. A reviewer by the name of Betty showed her excitement about using this service by saying, "Very great support; they followed me through the whole process for a great essay! Thank you! Very excellent writer! The essay is very clear, and he finished before the deadline! For sure, I will release more orders."  PaperHelp is a writing platform for students with intuitive, customizable features. This platform was created to help students ease the burden of being overworked.

It is an easy-to-use service with only four phases of order placement. Firstly, clients have to choose the type of paper they want in the order form. The options available are academic writing, editing and proofreading, and calculations. Users will find essay writing services like rewriting, custom writing, programming homework help, etc. Students can also request term paper help, paper rating or grading, and several other services. Secondly, users are expected to provide details of their project, like the number of pages, line spacing, other text format, and deadline.

Extra files can also be uploaded where available. Then, they can proceed to input a valid email to generate secure login information. Finally, the process is completed by paying with a credit card or alternative payment system. Once the order has been set, users can follow their order in multiple ways. They can get updates through email, login to their control panel on a web or mobile app, or contact the support team. The support team can be reached via email, Facebook Messenger, phone, or in-app chat. If customers would like to get updates via SMS constantly, they can add the VIP Customer Service extra when they want to order.

The platform owners pride themselves on offering professional service, keeping interactions friendly, and ensuring customers are happy. The platform has a privacy policy for end users. They adhere strictly to Personal Data Protection law and only employ users’ data for legal reasons. Hence, they have a safe and secure service. Clients on PaperHelp can freely withdraw or give their consent to the use of their personal data. When users have complaints about how personal data is collected and processed, they can file a complaint under the PDP law. The platform updates and tests its platform security consistently to make personal data theftproof.

Such an important research paper writing service would not be appealing to students if they did not find the price pocket-friendly. Their pricing is based on school levels. For instance, a high school paper costs $9 per page, an undergraduate essay costs $12 per page, a bachelor's writing costs $17 per page, and a professional essay costs $20 per page. In addition to this, users can select helpful extra services like VIP customer support, plagiarism reports, sources used, etc., all at prices below $15. Not only does PaperHelp have affordable prices, but it also gives users incentives that make it very appealing, especially for multiple orders. There are bonuses, referral discount codes, a 7% feedback discount, and increased discounts on increased orders.

SpeedyPaper

Making it to number two on this list is the leading research paper writing website in the U.S. SpeedyPaper has second-to-none ratings on rating sites like Sitejabber, Reviews.io, and ScamFighter with 5/5, 4.9/5, and 4.9/5 on each site, respectively. This online writing assistant helps students scale through projects ranging from college admission essays to postgraduate or doctoral theses. Even if they have written the research paper and need it edited or proofread, SpeedyPaper is their reliable solution. Other solutions available for them include getting correct answers to multi-choice questions and receiving explanations on school or business projects.

This platform is everyone's go-to service provider for transforming old papers into new ones with paraphrasing or rewriting. In addition, SpeedyPaper can be used as a source of inspiration for writing a research paper. They have over 20,000 free paper samples that you can go through. These free samples cut across all topics, including catalogs on education, law, finance, books, history, etc. Aside from connecting students with writing professionals, it has features that cater to student growth. For instance, this paper writing service comes with an impressive blog that gives students insight into being better writers and overall students.

Using SpeedyPaper is quite easy. End-users begin by filling out the order form with paper details and uploading additional files when available. Some of the details end users can set include paper types like research papers, reports, essays, dissertations, application letters, theses, and much more. Other key details about the paper types you can set are subject, title, reference type, and requirements. Then, they proceed to set the price they want to pay by adjusting the number of pages, academic level, and deadline of the research paper. Additionally, this ordering stage will allow users to set page formats, like line spacing.

To complete the ordering process, the customer chooses the kind of writer they want and additional features, like summary, abstract, plagiarism, Grammarly report, etc. This stage is when users enter their discount code if they have one. For new users, they have to proceed to create an account by entering their email, phone contact, and preferred password. They can opt to create an account directly with their Facebook, Google, or Apple account. However, return users only need to log in to their account with their email and password. Afterward, they submit their payment details to complete the ordering phase.

When the assigned writer is done, the customer will get an email to preview their submission. At this junction, the customer can either approve the submission or request a revision. These revisions are free, but you can make your research paper writing payment using credit card options such as MasterCard, Visa, American Express, or Discover. You can also pay using Bitcoin. The cost of ordering ranges from a 20-day deadline to a 6-hour deadline. For instance, high school prices range from $9 to $26. Similarly, undergraduate would cost between $11 and $32, while Masters varies from $14 to $39. PhD articles are available for prices between $19 and $52. Lastly, you can get admission orders for $34 and $99. These prices are limited to requests for just a page and writing the research paper from scratch.

GradeMiners

"Another great product! I received extra points on this assignment along with all the others. Thanks for helping me pass my class with an A+." These were the words of a satisfied HRM client of GradeMiners. The reviews speak for themselves: this platform offers professional custom paper writers to hire online for help with homework. Our number-three research paper writing service is quite unique for its broad paper-type options, such as lab reports, movie reviews, PowerPoint presentations, etc. But this platform is even more special because of its team of writers, proofreaders, editors, and managers.

A breakdown of this team shows that there is a surplus of 3,600 writers and 250 editors. Each of these experts has an MA or PhD qualification and over three years of experience. This statistic means this platform allows users to pick from a large pool of proven and excellent professionals. Furthermore, it has some impressive features, such as over 50 writing and editing services and more than 40 disciplines covered. Over the years, an excess of 45,000 papers have been completed by the professionals on this platform. Yet, GradeMiners have retained their 100% plagiarism-free status. Likewise, every customer request gets a swift response because of the 24/7 service available on the platform.

The process of ordering a research paper is similar to the previous platforms already considered. Customers are to pick the type of work they want to order. As mentioned already, GradeMiners has a very impressive list that is not common to many other platforms. After picking a type of paper, users can set the subject they want the paper to be written on. Setting the academic level to undergraduate, master's, or PhD is the next step. After which, page number, line spacing, deadline, and type of writer are customized to the client's taste. To complete this stage, the user has to include their email and phone number, enable or disable status updates via SMS, and agree to the Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

As part of its commitment to the agreed-upon T&C and Privacy Policy, GradeMiners process clients' payments using a secure system. They do not have access to users' credit card data. This data, along with other clients' data, remains confidential. By extension, using their service will not be known to anyone, especially third-party individuals or institutions. However, they would issue a refund to clients if something dissatisfying happened. For instance, if the customer has convincing evidence against the delivery, especially when a writer has not followed the given requirement, the client's money will be refunded. To avoid unnecessary cancellations, users can request unlimited revisions for up to two weeks after receiving their order.

The price on this platform starts at $11.64. This price is considered steep compared to those of previously considered platforms. Also, it comes with a longer deadline of 30 days. However, if customers want their research paper in 3 hours, they need to pay about $32.62. To soothe customer's experiences on the platform, every first-time user gets a generous 15% discount. On subsequent orders, return buyers will keep getting discounts of 5%. Aside from the research paper writing service on GradeMiners, it has a grammar online checker. With this feature, students can put together error-free writeups and upgrade their assignment language.

PaperWriter

Do you have a write my research paper request, but you do not want to pay too much? Then, this is an exceptional option for you. PaperWriter is the cheapest research paper-writing company in the world. The service owners crafted the platform to help students with affordable, qualitative, and trustworthy solutions. This concise research writing service is highly rated by its users and reviewers. It has high ratings on Sitejabber (4.8), Reviews (4.8), and ResellerRatings (4.9). Importantly, its services cut across writing from scratch, editing finished paper to ensure it is flawless and rewriting paper to fit a unique style or voice tone.

PaperWriter places high value on their customers’ time, experience, and data. Writers are very punctual on this platform, given the sensitivity of deadlines to their customers’ grades. Even in the shortest amount of time, writers on this platform are always on hand to help customers with their writing requests. The app interface is seamless, and users will have a good time navigating it. It is easy on the eyes and visually excellent. To show how valuable customer's personal data is, they do not share it with ad agencies or any other third parties. In addition, all payments are made through tested and trusted online commercial service stores.

To order on PaperWriter is very intuitive. Customers can start by filling out the requirements of the research paper in the order form. They will then be required to input assignment type, education level, deadline, page number, word count, and line spacing, among other details. Their paper requirement will be used to suggest the available writers. These writers have ratings and reviews clients can check before hiring them. To ensure that there is no miscommunication in the order requirement, customers are welcome to chat with writers before hiring them. Complete the process by depositing money first in the balance and only release it after receiving the order.

Students can get a college-level paper for as low as $10. Alongside the ridiculously low price on this platform, customers will get several premium services for free. Some of these services are originality reports, generated title pages, formatting, outline, and reference pages. As if these incentives are not enough, they have a mouthwatering discount structure. Their discount allows end-users to get bigger discounts as they place more orders. At the end of each order, customers are notified via email and SMS. Overall, students can trust writers on PaperWriter to submit a faultless order.

If you are trying to salvage a last-minute research assignment, use PaperCoach. It is the fastest research paper & proposal writing service provider. This research paper writing service is committed to providing high quality. They are aware of customer's demand for plagiarism-free papers, and they are determined to achieve that. Ensuring that the quality remains 100% in the nick of time is hard to achieve. However, that is what PaperCoach excels at. They apply a multi-level approach that includes monitoring the progress of writers to avoid any kind of lateness.

The experienced teams in PaperCoach have helped it maintain an unbroken result of quality and timeliness. Some of these teams are the quality assurance department, dispute department, writer department, customer service department, etc. With division of labor, the company can scale effectively and meet their customers’ needs. That is why Customers can select a good range of research papers, essay and dissertation writing services. They also keep non-disclosure of all users' personal data. After receiving an order, clients are entitled to three free revisions. If they are still not satisfied, they can change the writer by contacting the support department.

Follow these steps to order on PaperCoach. Fill out the order form and click on the "Order Now" icon. This form-filling stage also allows you to add comments to your paper requirement. You can include other information, including a description file, if one is available for the assignment. Proceed to place your order. Now, set the number of pages, academic level, and when you want the deadline to adjust the order price to fit your financial means. After that, you can patiently wait for your order to be delivered.

To use PaperCoach, you can set your school level to high school, undergraduate, master's, PhD, and admissions. High school prices range from $7.99 to $23, and undergraduates cost $10 to $29. For master's students, they can pay between $14 and $36, while PhDs will pay in the range of $19 and $49. Lastly, users can pay from $20 to $66. Each of these above-listed prices is for one page of research paper that will be written from scratch. PaperCoach offers some extra services such as plagiarism reports, progressive delivery, summary, etc.

What Is a Research Paper?

A research paper is an academic writing that allows students to offer their interpretation of an argument. It is also called an academic paper, defined as an informative piece of essay for sharing personal discovery about a subject. To arrive at a conclusion, the student subjects their argument to in-depth analysis and evaluation. Through this thorough evaluation and analysis, there may be new results or inventions. After which, the evaluator, in most cases a lecturer or examiner, questions the research paper to judge the student’s understanding of the subject. After being examined, this paper is published in academic journals.

Is Writing a Research Paper Easy?

There is no straight answer to this question. While some students are comfortable with researching a theory and documenting it, it is not so for many other students. However, a research paper is not so complicated that any student cannot learn to write it. Given that it is a task that takes critical thinking, time, and dedication, several students avoid it. Hence, in the eyes of an average student, this is a hard task or project. To get past the difficulty encountered in writing a research paper, the students need to pay attention to the instructions given by the lecturer and apply them one after the other.

Can I Write a Research Paper in a Day?

Yes, you can write a research paper in a day. While it might not be a mean feat, you can get it done by simply following instructions. Since libraries, encyclopaedias, and even labs are all available on your mobile phone, you have all the research material you need. Hence, collect data online regarding the topic you want to write a research paper on. Use the resources you have gathered to write an introduction, abstract, and conclusion. You have to also be careful of the popular formats of research paper writing you are working with. That way, you can insert the appropriate citation without having to waste more time on it.

How Much Does Research Paper Writing Cost?

Research paper writing costs about $9 to $15 per page for basic writing. The more experience the writer has, the higher the price they will charge for it. Research paper writing is highly priced compared to other writing because of the meticulousness and skill needed to get the project done. For instance, writing research papers requires sourcing materials, interpretation of data, citations, etc. If other requirements are included in the request to write a research paper, the price may go up significantly.  Hence, you could pay as much as $99 for a page of research paper.

What Are Some Popular Formats of Research Paper Writing?

Writing formats are very important for research papers. Below are pinpoint explanations of the most popular format types, especially for you to distinguish them.

  • # APA (American Psychological Association): APA is mostly used for science papers in fields such as physics, psychology, chemistry, etc. It requires a title page at the start and a citation page titled "References." Its in-text citation should include the author's name, publication date, and page number introduced by “p.”
  • # MLA (Modern Language Association): This is the most popular format among the humanities. This format does not need a footnote. It uses only in-text citations. Thereafter, references are listed in alphabetic order at the closing of the paper under the title "Works Cited."
  • # CMS/CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style): This format is common among publishers and academic paper writers in arts, history, philosophy, and religion. Chicago style uses a superscript number and footnote to indicate cited resources.
  • # Harvard: It is a simple research paper format and has a close similarity to the APA format. However, the Harvard format does not use commas to separate the author's name and year of publication. In addition, its citation page is tagged "Reference List."

Can I Really Hire Someone to Write My Research Paper Online?

Yes, you can pay someone to write your research paper for you online. The best way to do it is to pick the most reliable research writing service. In this article, five of those top-notch services have been discussed. They vary slightly in feature, interface, and application. However, they will get the job done for you without having to task yourself with the responsibility of writing the research paper yourself. Our top pick is PaperHelp. However, you can consider other alternatives, such as SpeedyPaper, GradeMiners, PaperWriter, and PaperCoach.

What Research Paper Writing Service Today is the Best?

The overall best research paper writing service today is PaperHelp. Not only is it highly ranked on popular rating sites, but it is also well appreciated by first-hand users. Talking about its features, PaperHelp is the trailblazer platform for students to customize their research paper writing service intuitively. This user-friendly interface of the app makes it easy for users to order. Furthermore, the platform offers customers the chance to get research paper writing services at affordable prices. To further sweeten the offers, there are discounts and bonuses up for grabs.

What Is the Cheapest Research Paper Writing Service Overall?

The most pocket-friendly research paper writing service available is PaperWriter. PaperWriter is a very concise solution for students who want to spend less and still maintain good grades. The platform has a cozy effect on the user and makes it worth more than it costs. In addition, $10 is a ridiculous price for all the extra benefits that its users have access to on the platform. Counterpart service providers offer the same extra bonuses or services for heftier prices than the base price customers will pay on PaperWriter. In addition, there are discounts for new and loyal customers.

Do Paper Writing Services Really Work?

Yes, paper writing services really work. They have helped me write research and essays on short notice. When a student does not possess the inquisitive, critical thinking, or writing skills to write their paper, paper writing services have been helpful. They have helped proofread and edit near-perfect projects. And for research paper writing projects that are far from required, these solutions have helped rewrite them. Additionally, more students can ease the burden of the education system and free up some time with paper writing services.

Can I Be Caught Using Essay Writing Services?

Yes, you can get caught using essay writing services. While it is not illegal to use essay writing services, you do not want to get caught by your examiner, supervisor, or lecturer. One of the ways to ensure you make your essay writing service detection proof is by studying the submitted document. Since your examiner will be quizzing you to know how well you understand the subject, you can also get familiar with what is written inside. Another possible way to get caught is by using a service without a privacy policy or security terms. Such a service is likely to share your personal data with ad agencies and third parties.

Can You Trust Essay Writing Services?

Yes, you can trust essay writing services. The tons of reviews and feedback from customers show they can be trusted. That is why you have to examine the ratings and reviews well before you start using an essay writing service. Likewise, it is essential to be cautious before choosing a writing service. For instance, you want to choose one of the options discussed above before considering other options. Even if you do not pick any of these options, ensure the essay writing service you choose has a privacy and security policy agreement.

Ordering your research paper from any of the services discussed above is highly advantageous. Firstly, these platforms offer the best paper writing services. Hence, their premium service is a guarantee that you will be able to impress your lecturer or supervisor and get the best grade in the course. Even though good grades are the most important reason students would want to contact a professional writer, one cannot rule out exceptional students who would like to free up some time. Free time can be spent in several ways, which include but are not limited to extracurricular activities, recreation, makeup class or reading, religious activity, or an extra job/internship.

When a student is not freeing up some time, they may be trying to improve their writing. Hence, these services offer rewriting, editing, and proofreading. That way, they can still get a good grade without good enough writing skills. Furthermore, many of the best research paper writing services discussed help students become better all-round. In other words, students can be more studious, better writers, and improve their research and critical thinking skills with the aid of these tools. Lastly, the low rate of these services also means that students can get the most results for the least amount of money.

The workload in colleges and universities is so enormous that students only have time for some of their responsibilitie

How to write a research paper outline

How to write a research paper outline: top things to keep in mind.

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So, you need to create an excellent research paper outline. What is the best point to start? Which features should it have? Many students face serious issues when composing a proper paper structure. Well, we are here to help you cope with this challenge in an easy and stress-free way. So, leave all your worries behind and explore our freshest tips below.

Are there different kinds of research paper outlines?

First, let’s get the answer to a more important question. What is the outline of a research paper? Should you develop a long or short research paper outline? Feel free to choose any type of outline mentioned below:

  • Alphanumeric: This research paper outline example uses letters and numbers to clearly convey the hierarchy of ideas and information within an outline.
  • Decimal: If you need to write research paper outline, you can simply apply decimals, which is about creating an easy hierarchy with numbers.
  • Full Sentence: This style implies completing sentences for every main point and subpoint.
  • Topic: This solution involves short phrases to highlight your paper’s main topics and subtopics without too many details.
  • Chronological: Organizing your outline chronologically makes sense if your paper follows a timeline or sequence of events.
  • Spatial: This type of research paper outline is useful for topics about physical spaces or relationships. You can organize your ideas based on their spatial relevance, like discussing locations or structures.

How to do a research outline? What research paper steps do you need to complete to get an excellent grade? Discover some unique prompts to cope with your assignment within the shortest terms below.

Deciphering the Outline: Purpose and Requirements

Understanding the purpose and requirements of the outline is essential. Any academic paper has its unique objective, writing rules, voice, and tone. Before writing, ensure you fully understand the professor’s requirements. Double-check whether you are familiar with these aspects:

  • A research paper outline helps organize thoughts, structure the paper, and guide research.
  • Understand the specific guidelines provided by your instructor or institution.

Mastering Topic Clarity: Main and Subtopic Tips

One of the most common mistakes of many learners is that they write about a particular topic too generally. As a result, identifying the main topic and subtopics of your essay is becoming difficult. To avoid this issue, pay attention to these tips:

  • Clearly define the primary subject of your research paper.
  • Break down the main topic into smaller, manageable subtopics that support your thesis.

Crafting a Cohesive Structure: Streamlining Your Writing Process

Organizing the outline based on the paper's structure means you need to select only the most relevant and striking options that fully support your idea. After that, continue with the following:

  • Decide on a logical sequence for presenting your ideas.
  • Coherently arrange subtopics to maintain the flow of your paper.

Integrating Thesis and Arguments: Harmonizing Your Paper's Core

Incorporating the thesis statement and main arguments is another task you will need to complete. What is more important, your facts and examples should organically fit your thesis statement. In other words, consider the following:

  • Craft a strong thesis statement that encapsulates your paper's main argument or purpose.
  • Ensure each main argument aligns with and supports your thesis statement.

Crowds of learners face serious difficulties writing a research paper outline. Some of them don’t have a clear vision of what's an outline for a research paper, while others may fail with doing advanced research, structuring, and formatting. If you can’t organize your ideas or feel like you are drowning in loads of data, you can start using professional academic writing services anytime! Expert writers will complete the entire assignment for you within the shortest terms. Also, they can write an outline for a paper according to your specific topic and requirements. However, don’t forget to read writing services reviews when choosing a company for fruitful cooperation.

Research paper outline examples

Is there any easy yet successful way to develop a research paper outline? Well, that is pretty simple. You just need to use the introduction, body, and conclusion sections.

Introduction: The beginning of your essay makes the entire tone of your paper. Moreover, some professors can tell you whether your essay is good from a single glance at your introduction! Make sure your intro has the following features:

  • Captures the reader's attention with a compelling opening.
  • Provides background information on the topic.
  • Has a clear thesis statement.

Body: You are wrong if you still think that the body is the simplest part to compose. To craft a top-notch research paper outline, you have to complete these steps:

  • Divide into sections or paragraphs based on your outlined subtopics.
  • Support each subtopic with evidence, examples, or research findings.
  • Maintain coherence and transition smoothly between sections.

Conclusion: Finalizing your research paper outline is another puzzle you need to solve. Fortunately, things will come easier if you put these rules into practice:

  • Summarize the main points discussed in the body.
  • Reinforce the significance of your thesis statement and main arguments.
  • Offer insights, suggestions, or implications for further research, if applicable.

Remember, your outline serves as a roadmap for your research paper. Keep it concise, organized, and aligned with the overall structure of your paper. Here is a comparison table on what a good and bad outline for a research paper might look like.

So, which of these is a benefit of creating an outline for a research paper? In the research paper outline, each section is clearly labeled with main points and subpoints organized hierarchically. The outline provides a logical flow of ideas and includes specific strategies, examples, and tips. In contrast, the bad outline lacks specificity, coherence, and proper structure. It presents vague statements without clear direction or supporting details.

Research outline example

But what if you are feeling stuck with ideas? Facing issues with writing a research paper format? No worries! Here are a few sample outlines for research paper for any need and taste!

Artificial intelligence in healthcare

AI is one of the most disputable topics for many experts. You can show off your knowledge and dive deeper into this sphere using the following research paper outline example:

  • Introduction
  • Background of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • Importance of AI in Healthcare
  • Thesis Statement
  • Overview of AI Applications in Healthcare
  • Diagnostic Systems
  • Treatment Planning and Personalized Medicine
  • Health Monitoring and Predictive Analytics
  • Benefits of AI in Healthcare
  • Improved Diagnosis Accuracy
  • Enhanced Patient Care and Outcomes
  • Cost Reduction and Efficiency
  • Ethical and Legal Considerations
  • Patient Privacy and Data Security
  • Bias and Fairness in AI Algorithms
  • Regulatory Frameworks and Guidelines
  • Challenges and Future Directions
  • Integration with Existing Healthcare Systems
  • Overcoming Technological Limitations
  • Potential Impact on Healthcare Workforce
  • Summary of Key Points
  • Implications for the Future of Healthcare
  • Call to Action for Further Research and Implementation

Climate change and its impact on biodiversity

Climate and pollution have been among the hottest questions for years. If you decide to choose any topic from this field, feel free to use the following research paper structure:

  • Background on Climate Change
  • Importance of Biodiversity
  • Climate Change Effects on Biodiversity
  • Habitat Loss and Fragmentation
  • Species Extinction and Population Decline
  • Changes in Ecosystem Dynamics
  • Case Studies and Examples
  • Coral Reef Bleaching Events
  • Polar Bear Population Decline
  • Shifts in Migration Patterns
  • Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies
  • Conservation Efforts and Protected Areas
  • Sustainable Land Use Practices
  • Policy Initiatives and International Cooperation
  • Socio-Economic Implications
  • Impact on Indigenous Communities
  • Economic Losses and Resource Scarcity
  • Human Health Risks
  • Summary of Findings
  • Urgency for Action and Global Cooperation
  • Recommendations for Future Research and Policy Implementation

The role of social media in political activism

How to create an outline for a research paper? When writing a paper outline about social media and activism, you can plan your paper using the following schema:

  • Definition and Importance of Political Activism
  • Rise of Social Media Platforms
  • Social Media and Political Mobilization
  • Case Studies on Successful Campaigns
  • Role of Online Communities and Networks
  • Impact of Viral Content and Hashtag Movements
  • Challenges and Controversies
  • Spread of Misinformation and Fake News
  • Algorithmic Bias and Echo Chambers
  • Government Regulation and Censorship
  • Influence on Democratic Processes
  • Voter Engagement and Civic Participation
  • Electoral Campaign Strategies
  • Public Opinion Formation and Influence
  • Global Perspectives and Comparative Analysis
  • Cross-Cultural Variations in Social Media Use
  • Case Studies from Different Regions
  • Lessons Learned and Best Practices
  • Summary of Key Findings
  • Reflections on the Power and Limitations of Social Media
  • Recommendations for Future Research and Advocacy Efforts

The psychology of addiction and recovery

So, how to write a research paper outline on psychological topics? You can easily take our draft and customize it according to your needs. This research paper outline example can be used as a standard schema (with adequate changes) for many essays.

  • Definition and Types of Addiction
  • Importance of Understanding Addiction Psychology
  • Biological Basis of Addiction
  • Neurochemical Processes and Reward Pathways
  • Genetic Predispositions and Vulnerabilities
  • Impact of Substance Abuse on Brain Structure and Function
  • Psychological Factors in Addiction
  • Behavioral Conditioning and Reinforcement
  • Coping Mechanisms and Self-Medication
  • Co-occurring Mental Health Disorders
  • Treatment Approaches and Interventions
  • Pharmacotherapy and Medication-Assisted Treatment
  • Behavioral Therapies and Cognitive Restructuring
  • Support Groups and Peer Counseling
  • Challenges in Recovery
  • Relapse Prevention Strategies
  • Social Stigma and Discrimination
  • Access to Treatment and Support Services
  • Personalized Approaches and Holistic Recovery Models
  • Trauma-Informed Care and Healing Practices
  • Integrative Medicine and Mind-Body Techniques
  • Family Dynamics and Social Support Networks
  • Summary of Key Insights
  • Importance of a Comprehensive Approach to Addiction
  • Implications for Policy and Public Health Initiatives

These outlines should provide a structure for your research paper and guide you through organizing your ideas effectively. Of course, you can use your own template for research paper outline.

How to write a research paper outline? Well, this is never an easy task. However, composing your research paper can be much easier when using an expert writing service. You can try to complete an assignment by yourself, but remember, we are always here to help!

A research paper outline serves as a roadmap for your writing process, helping you organize your thoughts, structure your paper, and ensure coherence and clarity in your arguments.

Start by identifying your main ideas and supporting evidence, then arrange them logically in a hierarchical order. Use headings and subheadings to delineate different sections and ensure a smooth flow of ideas throughout your paper.

Be concise yet comprehensive, focusing on key points and omitting unnecessary details. Ensure consistency in formatting and adhere to any specific guidelines provided by your instructor or academic institution. Lastly, revising and refining your outline as you conduct research and develop your ideas will enhance the quality of your final paper.

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  1. Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

    Step 1: Restate the problem The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem. You will have discussed this problem in depth throughout the body, but now the point is to zoom back out from the details to the bigger picture.

  2. How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion

    1 Urgency or consequences A good conclusion answers the question, Why should the reader care? To connect the information to the reader, point out why your topic should matter to them. What happens if the problem persists, or how can the problem be solved?

  3. How to Write a Conclusion for Research Papers (with Examples)

    I provide you with three common types of conclusions: Summarizing Conclusion A summarizing conclusion is the most common type of conclusion in research papers. It involves summarizing the main points, reiterating the research question, and restating the significance of the findings.

  4. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper (with Pictures)

    1 Restate the topic. You should briefly restate the topic as well as explain why it is important. [1] [2] Do not spend a great amount of time or space restating your topic. A good research paper will make the importance of your topic apparent, so you do not need to write an elaborate defense of your topic in the conclusion.

  5. 9. The Conclusion

    Summarizing your thoughts and conveying the larger significance of your study. The conclusion is an opportunity to succinctly re-emphasize the "So What?" question by placing the study within the context of how your research advances past research about the topic. Identifying how a gap in the literature has been addressed.

  6. PDF Conclusion Section for Research Papers

    of a research paper to write. This handout will focus on the purpose of a conclusion, as well as provide tips about what to do and what to avoid when writing a conclusion. This handout also contains two annotated examples--a short one and a longer one--from published articles.The Purpose of a Conclusion Conclusions aren't simply an overview ...

  7. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Your Guide

    How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Your Guide Written by Samantha W. March 5, 2023 10 min read Share the article Table of Contents What Is a Conclusion in Research Papers A conclusion in research paper is the final piece of the puzzle, the last chapter in the story, the grand finale of a long and arduous journey.

  8. Research Paper Conclusion

    Here are some steps you can follow to write an effective research paper conclusion: Restate the research problem or question: Begin by restating the research problem or question that you aimed to answer in your research. This will remind the reader of the purpose of your study. Summarize the main points: Summarize the key findings and results ...

  9. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis statement in a way that is slightly different from the wording used in the introduction. Avoid presenting new information or evidence in your conclusion. Just summarize the main points and arguments of your essay and keep this part as concise as possible. Remember that you've already covered the ...

  10. Conclusions

    In a short paper—even a research paper—you don't need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary.

  11. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Research paper conclusion examples. Below, we've created basic templates showing the key parts of a research paper conclusion. Keep in mind that the length of your conclusion will depend on the length of your paper. The order of the parts may vary, too; these templates only demonstrate how to tie them together. 1. Empirical research paper ...

  12. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Effective Tips and

    In terms of length, the conclusions of professional empirical research articles usually have five to six paragraphs, while student/novice papers typically have two- to three-paragraph conclusions (Powner, 2017). Effective Strategies in Writing a Conclusion

  13. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper Audrey Eads Updated March 29, 2023 Show Transcript Video: The Only Research Paper Conclusion Guide You Need The best conclusions for a research paper summarize the paper without being redundant and express the impact of the research.

  14. How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

    It should include: the results of your research, a discussion of related research, and a comparison between your results and initial hypothesis. Tip: Not all journals share the same naming conventions. You can apply the advice in this article to the conclusion, results or discussion sections of your manuscript.

  15. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    A well-written conclusion can leave the reader satisfied and inspired, while a poorly executed one may undermine the credibility of the entire paper. Therefore, it is essential to give careful thought and attention to crafting an effective conclusion. When writing a research paper, the conclusion acts as the final destination for the reader.

  16. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

    The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation. It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question. In it, you should: Clearly state the answer to your main research question Summarize and reflect on your research process

  17. How to Write a Research Paper Conclusion Section

    The conclusion of a research paper has several key objectives. It should: Restate your research problem addressed in the introduction section. Summarize your main arguments, important findings, and broader implications. Synthesize key takeaways from your study. The specific content in the conclusion depends on whether your paper presents the ...

  18. Conclusions

    Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research.

  19. How to write a strong conclusion for your research paper

    Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper involves a few important steps, including restating the thesis and summing up everything properly. Find out what to include and what to avoid, so you can effectively demonstrate your understanding of the topic and prove your expertise. Why is a good conclusion important?

  20. How To Write A Conclusion For A Research Paper

    To begin a conclusion paragraph, use the first sentence to reiterate the comprehensive subject matter that your paper covered. Since this is just a sentence-long retelling of your research topic and why it's important, it doesn't have to be specific, but it does need clarity. Example

  21. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Writing a strong conclusion for your research paper can be tricky, but there are tips and tricks that can help. One great technique is to restate the thesis in different terms. Doing so allows you to emphasize the main points of your paper and tie them all together into one appealing conclusion. Additionally, it needs to follow from the content ...

  22. Conclusion Examples: Strong Endings for Any Paper

    Your conclusion should also refer back to your introduction, summarize three main points of your essay and wrap it all up with a final observation. If you conclude with an interesting insight, readers will be happy to have spent time on your writing. See how a professional writer creates a thought-provoking conclusion.

  23. PDF Strategies for Essay Writing

    In a short paper—even a research paper—you don't need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that

  24. PDI Event: Writing the Conclusion for a Research Article

    This workshop mirrors the Writing Introductions workshop from Fall semester with a close reading of sample conclusions to identify rhetorical and organizational writing "moves" you can make for an effective conclusion.

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  27. How to write a research paper outline: top things you need to know

    Of course, you can use your own template for research paper outline. Conclusion. How to write a research paper outline? Well, this is never an easy task. However, composing your research paper can be much easier when using an expert writing service. You can try to complete an assignment by yourself, but remember, we are always here to help! FAQs

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