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  • Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples

Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples

Published on 30 April 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 5 May 2022.

An in-text citation should appear wherever you quote or paraphrase a source in your writing, pointing your reader to the full reference .

In Harvard style , citations appear in brackets in the text. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author,  the year of publication, and a page number if relevant.

Up to three authors are included in Harvard in-text citations. If there are four or more authors, the citation is shortened with et al .

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Table of contents

Including page numbers in citations, where to place harvard in-text citations, citing sources with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard in-text citations.

When you quote directly from a source or paraphrase a specific passage, your in-text citation must include a page number to specify where the relevant passage is located.

Use ‘p.’ for a single page and ‘pp.’ for a page range:

  • Meanwhile, another commentator asserts that the economy is ‘on the downturn’ (Singh, 2015, p. 13 ).
  • Wilson (2015, pp. 12–14 ) makes an argument for the efficacy of the technique.

If you are summarising the general argument of a source or paraphrasing ideas that recur throughout the text, no page number is needed.

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When incorporating citations into your text, you can either name the author directly in the text or only include the author’s name in brackets.

Naming the author in the text

When you name the author in the sentence itself, the year and (if relevant) page number are typically given in brackets straight after the name:

Naming the author directly in your sentence is the best approach when you want to critique or comment on the source.

Naming the author in brackets

When you  you haven’t mentioned the author’s name in your sentence, include it inside the brackets. The citation is generally placed after the relevant quote or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence, before the full stop:

Multiple citations can be included in one place, listed in order of publication year and separated by semicolons:

This type of citation is useful when you want to support a claim or summarise the overall findings of sources.

Common mistakes with in-text citations

In-text citations in brackets should not appear as the subject of your sentences. Anything that’s essential to the meaning of a sentence should be written outside the brackets:

  • (Smith, 2019) argues that…
  • Smith (2019) argues that…

Similarly, don’t repeat the author’s name in the bracketed citation and in the sentence itself:

  • As Caulfield (Caulfield, 2020) writes…
  • As Caulfield (2020) writes…

Sometimes you won’t have access to all the source information you need for an in-text citation. Here’s what to do if you’re missing the publication date, author’s name, or page numbers for a source.

If a source doesn’t list a clear publication date, as is sometimes the case with online sources or historical documents, replace the date with the words ‘no date’:

When it’s not clear who the author of a source is, you’ll sometimes be able to substitute a corporate author – the group or organisation responsible for the publication:

When there’s no corporate author to cite, you can use the title of the source in place of the author’s name:

No page numbers

If you quote from a source without page numbers, such as a website, you can just omit this information if it’s a short text – it should be easy enough to find the quote without it.

If you quote from a longer source without page numbers, it’s best to find an alternate location marker, such as a paragraph number or subheading, and include that:

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).

You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.

When you want to use a quote but can’t access the original source, you can cite it indirectly. In the in-text citation , first mention the source you want to refer to, and then the source in which you found it. For example:

It’s advisable to avoid indirect citations wherever possible, because they suggest you don’t have full knowledge of the sources you’re citing. Only use an indirect citation if you can’t reasonably gain access to the original source.

In Harvard style referencing , to distinguish between two sources by the same author that were published in the same year, you add a different letter after the year for each source:

  • (Smith, 2019a)
  • (Smith, 2019b)

Add ‘a’ to the first one you cite, ‘b’ to the second, and so on. Do the same in your bibliography or reference list .

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing / Harvard Referencing Style Examples / Harvard Referencing In-text Citations

In-text Citations in Harvard Referencing Style

When you incorporate quotes or ideas of other authors in your work, you must provide an in-text citation in order to credit those authors properly. For in-text citations, Harvard referencing style uses author-date format. In other words, Harvard style uses parenthetical and narrative citations that show the name of the author and the publication year of the source.  

Harvard style does not use footnotes or endnotes.  

For details about the in-text citation format for different types of sources, see these Harvard referencing examples .

In-text citations and references

Every Harvard style in-text citation has a corresponding reference in a reference list.  

In-text citations only refer to the author surname, publication year, and sometimes the page numbers.  Less information is included here so as not to interrupt the flow of the reader. This guide on formatting page numbers in Harvard style provides more details on how to include page numbers in your citations.

References include additional information about a source, such as its title, publisher name, location, etc. More information is given here, so the reader can track down the source, should they want to read more details. All references are consolidated into a single reference list that is placed at the end of the work.

Narrative and parenthetical citations

As mentioned above, there are two types of in-text citation: narrative and parenthetical. Both have the following source details:

  • Author surname
  • Publication year
  • Page numbers; only needed if you are using a direct quotation AND there are page numbers available

A parenthetical citation includes all of the information within round brackets in the sentence that contains the borrowed information.

(Author Surname, Publication Year)  

(Author, Year, p. nn)  

(Author, Year, pp. nn-nn)

A narrative citation includes the author’s name in the text of the sentence and the other information within round brackets.

Author Surname (Publication Year)  

(Year, p. nn)  

(Year, pp. nn-nn)

Let’s look at several examples of these citations below.

One author/company  

When you are providing a Harvard style in-text citation for a work that has only one author or one company accredited to its name, the following format is used:

Basic citation structures:  

(Author Surname or Company Name, Publication Year, p. nn)

Author Surname or Company Name (Publication Year, p. nn)

Only include a page number if you are using a direct quotation and if page numbers exist in the source.

Examples:  

“Miss Maudie had known Uncle Jack Finch, Atticus’s brother, since they were children.” (Lee, 1960, p. 48)

In the online report, Smith postulated that the cause was due to vasodilation (2019).

When including a direct or paraphrased quote that spans multiple pages, use ‘pp.’ instead of ‘p.’ to denote a range of pages.

The author talks about ‘the events of a summer in the countryside while the British army prepared for the Second World War’ (Henderson, 1955, pp. 11-21).

Two authors

Sometimes the work that you are referring to has two or three authors. In such cases, the following format is used for in-text citation in Harvard style:

Citation structure (two authors) :  

(Author 1 Surname and Author 2 Surname, Publication Year, p. nn)

Author 1 and Author 2 (Year, p. nn)

Examples :  

The stock market predictions were right, based on their educated theories (Holland and Smithson, 2011).

Holland and Smithson (2011) stated in their work that…

“The president’s predictions were right on target” (Holland and Smithson, 2011, p. 55).

Three authors

Citation structure (three authors):

(Author 1 Surname, Author 2 Surname and Author 3 Surname, Publication Year, p. nn)

Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3 (Year, p. nn)

A closer examination of the study demonstrated that researcher biases had influenced the data (Bolton, Lopez and Dawson, 2018).

Bolton, Lopez and Dawson stated that “the data was biased towards local businesses” (2018, p. 11).

More than four authors

When the work that you are citing has more than four authors, you only show the first author listed, then use the Latin term ‘ et al.’ in italics. This helps you succinctly show that the source has four or more authors.

Citation structure (four or more authors):

(Author 1 Surname et al. , Publication Year, p. nn)

Author 1 et al. (Year, p. nn)

Watson et al. found that “nothing more could be gained from continued experimentation” (1999, p. 271).

Research began because of urgings by the local ethics board (Watson et al. , 1999).

No author or editor

When the work that you are citing does not have a known author or editor, first consider that the name of the publishing company could be used in place of the author. This is often the case with reports or white papers put out by associations and organizations.

The online report showed that lychee demand increased internationally by 50 percent (Lychee Growers Association, 2002).

According to the Lychee Growers Association, international demand for lychee grew by 50 percent (2002).

If it does not make sense to use a company name, use the title of the source instead of the author’s name.

“Music is a universal language” ( Music Theory for Dummies , 2012, p. 13).

If you cannot find the date of publication of the document or paper that you are citing, then [n.d.] should be used in place of the date.

Example :  

“Nothing they said would convince them otherwise” (Cristosomo, [n.d.], p. 32).

Footnotes are used to reference quotes or paraphrases of a text used in another work. The Harvard style referencing does not use footnotes . The citation of the sources is provided in the text instead of in footnotes.

The Harvard author-date style is often used by both writers and readers of academic texts, as it does not interrupt the flow of reading. It saves time and keeps the attention focused on the text, whereas, in the styles that incorporate footnotes, the attention of the reader is constantly diverted to the footnotes.  

Published October 29, 2020.

Harvard Formatting Guide

Harvard Formatting

  • et al Usage
  • Direct Quotes
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Page Numbers
  • Writing an Outline
  • View Harvard Guide

Reference Examples

  • View all Harvard Examples

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Harvard Referencing Examples

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Harvard Citation Style: Internet / Websites

Introduction

  • Books / E-Books

Company Information

Conference Proceedings

  • Internet / Websites

Journal Articles

Lecture Notes

  • Multi-Media Formats
  • Patents and Standards

All Examples

  • Writing Support
  • Citation Support

In This Guide...

Click on the links below for further information on referencing each material type

  • Why is Referencing Important?
  • Getting Started

Reference Formats

  • References by Format
  • Citing Info Someone Else has Cited

Books/eBooks

  • 1, 2 or More Authors
  • 1, 2 or More Editors
  • Chapters in Books
  • Company Reports
  • Company Profiles

Internet/Websites

  • Web Documents
  • Computer Software
  • CMO Articles

Multimedia Formats

  • Audio-Visual Material

Newspaper Articles

Patents & Standards

  • Citing Patents: Examples
  • Citing Patents: Standards
  • Citing Theses: Examples
  • A table of examples in all formats for quick reference

Citing Material from the Internet / Websites

When citing web sites or pages which may change it's important to make a note of the date you accessed the page or retrieved information from the page, and also note the URL of the page. You will need this information for your references.

Websites can sometimes be difficult to cite as you might have to draw information from different areas of the webpage or website to put into your citation. Some information, like authorship or publication date can be hard to find or identify. Scroll to the bottom of this page to see two brief video tutorials that give you some useful tips on where to look for information to make your citation as complete as possible.

Citing Material from the Internet/Websites: Examples

Video tutorials on citing websites.

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Harvard Referencing Guide

About citing websites.

  • Use the same capitalisation as the organisation uses for the name of a website.
  • You don’t need to include the URL at the end of the reference in digital content.
  • Hyperlink the title of the webpage.
  • If the source is behind a paywall, hyperlink to the homepage of the website.
  • Include the date you accessed the work. This is important because online sources can change. The information you’re linking to could be different to what users will find in the future.

Basic elements you need to reference a web page / document

  • Author (person or organization)
  • Year (or most recent date page created or revised) 
  • Title of the website / webpage / blog / document / etc
  • Name of website
  • Date accessed (Day Month Year)

Entire website

  • Hyperlink the name of the website . 
  • Always include the date you accessed the site at the end of the reference.
  • Include the word ‘website’ after the name of the website in square brackets.
  • You can include the website URL after the website name (optional). If you do this omit the word website in square brackets.

Elements of the reference

Author a (year)  name of website , url [optional], accessed day month year., in-text citation, (esafety commissioner n.d.), australian public service commission (apsc 2021), reference list, esafety commissioner (n.d.)  esafety  [website], accessed 3 december 2020. , url included, apsc (australian public service commission) (2021)  australian government style manual , stylemanual.gov.au, accessed 3 october 2021., webpages and webpage content.

  • Hyperlink the title of the webpage . Don’t link to PDFs or other downloadable documents. Instead link to the page that hosts the document.
  • Include the word ‘website’ after the name of the website, unless the name of the website is a URL, for example WA.gov.au.

Webpage with authors listed

  • Italicise title of webpage

Author A (Year) Title of webpage , Name of Website website, accessed Day Month Year.

(clement 2020), clement j (2020) device usage of facebook users worldwide as of july 2020 , statista website, accessed 16 september 2020., webpage written by an organisation, organisation name or abbreviation (year) title of webpage , name of website website, accessed day month year., (department of the prime minister and cabinet n.d.), department of the prime minister and cabinet (n.d.) australian national anthem , pm&c website, accessed 20 january 2020., webpage as part of a larger publication or series.

  • Italicise the name of publication or series

Author A (Year) ‘Title of webpage’, Name of larger publication or series , Name of Website website, accessed Day Month Year.

Australian public service commission (apsc 2021), world wide web consortium (w3c 2019), apsc (australian public service commission) (2021) ‘author–date’ , australian government style manual , stylemanual.gov.au, accessed 3 october 2021., w3c (world wide web consortium) (2019) ‘audio content and video content’ , making audio and video content accessible , w3c website, accessed 25 august 2020., image found on the web.

  • Hyperlink the title of the image .

Author A (Year)  Title of image (or a description)  [description of image type] ( i.e. photograph, cartoon, digital image of painting, etc), Name of Website website, accessed Day Month Year.

(arttower n.d.), arttower (n.d.)  humpback whale   [photograph], pixabay website, accessed 8 march 2022., blog or blog post.

  • Hyperlink and italicise  the title of the blog.

Author A (Year)  Title of blog  [format], accessed Day Month Year.

(strong 2016) or strong (2016) .., strong f (2016)  sword and the script   [blog], accessed 23 july 2016..

For blog posts,  hyperlink the title .

Italicise the name of the blog.

Include the date you accessed the post at the end of the reference.

If a post doesn’t list an author, use the name of the blog.

Author A (Day Month Year) ‘Title of post: subtitle’,  Name of Blog,  accessed Day Month Year.

Name of blog (day month year) ‘title of post: subtitle’,  name of blog ,   accessed day month year., peascod (2019) .., (mashable me 2022) .., peascod s (19 december 2019) ‘ the future of work is learning ’,  digital transformation agency blog , accessed 4 january 2020., mashable me (10 march 2022) 'new mac mini will include apple's m2 and m2 pro processors' , mashable me blog , accessed 11 march 2022., comment on a blog post, author a (day month year) ‘re: title of post: subtitle’ [blog comment],  name of blog , accessed day month year., mullins p (1 january 2020) ‘re:  capturing attention in feed: the science behind effective video creative ’ [blog comment],  facebook for business , accessed 4 february 2020..

Hyperlink the title of the post .

Italicise the title of the Wiki

Author A (Year) 'Title of post',  Title of Wiki , accessed Day Month Year. 'Title of post' (Year)  Title of Wiki , accessed Day Month Year.

In-text citation , (roussel 2008), (cultural issues 2007), (cultural issues 2007, para. 2), roussel s (2008) 'sustainability indicators' ,  coastal wiki , accessed 25 may 2013.  'cultural issues affecting international trade'  (2007)  wikiversity , accessed 27 october 2009..

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In MLA style, you use parenthetical citations within the text of your paper to credit your sources and to refer your reader to a more detailed citation of the source in the "Works Cited" list at the end of your paper. You should use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase, quote, or make any reference to another author's work. A parenthetical citation in MLA style should include the author's last name and the page number to which you refer in that author's work.

If you mention the author’s name in the sentence or sentences preceding the citation, then you do not need to repeat the name in the parenthetical citation. If the work you are citing does not have page numbers (many articles published online will not have page numbers), or if you are referring to the entire work, then you do not need to include a page number in the citation. If you are having trouble keeping track of the MLA guidelines, it might help to think of it this way: You are including citation information so that your reader will be able to find your sources easily if they want to take a closer look. That means you only need to include information that will help readers; you don’t need to repeat information that you have already provided in your sentence.

You should not use a comma to separate author and page number in an MLA in-text citation. When the citation appears at the end of a sentence, the period goes outside the parentheses at the end of the sentence. If you need to put the citation before the end of the sentence (in cases where you have more than one citation in a sentence), place any necessary punctuation after the citation as well.

If you find an article through an online database and you have the option of choosing a PDF version or an HTML version, you should choose the PDF. The PDF version will have stable page numbers, which will make it easier for a reader to find the material you cite. You should not count the pages of a document yourself and add numbers to them. A reader could print or view that document differently, and your numbering will not make sense in that context.

E-book page numbers vary depending on how someone is reading the e-book. If you are referring to an e-book that has page numbers, you should not include those page numbers. You should include stable numbers like section numbers, line numbers, or chapter numbers.

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Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

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There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database .

For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library’s page on referencing and plagiarism . If you need guidance referencing OU module material you can check out which sections of Cite Them Right are recommended when referencing physical and online module material .

This guide does not apply to OU Law undergraduate students . If you are studying a module beginning with W1xx, W2xx or W3xx, you should refer to the Quick guide to Cite Them Right referencing for Law modules .

Table of contents

In-text citations and full references.

  • Secondary referencing
  • Page numbers
  • Citing multiple sources published in the same year by the same author

Full reference examples

Referencing consists of two elements:

  • in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author(s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date. If using direct quotations or you refer to a specific section in the source you also need the page number/s if available, or paragraph number for web pages.
  • full references, which are given in alphabetical order in reference list at the end of your work and are not included in the word count. Full references give full bibliographical information for all the sources you have referred to in the body of your text.

To see a reference list and intext citations check out this example assignment on Cite Them Right .

Difference between reference list and bibliography

a reference list only includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text

a bibliography includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text AND sources that were part of your background reading that you did not use in your assignment

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Examples of in-text citations

You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below. Alternatively you can see examples of setting out in-text citations in Cite Them Right .

Note: When referencing a chapter of an edited book, your in-text citation should give the author(s) of the chapter.

Online module materials

(Includes written online module activities, audio-visual material such as online tutorials, recordings or videos).

When referencing material from module websites, the date of publication is the year you started studying the module.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

OR, if there is no named author:

The Open University (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Rietdorf, K. and Bootman, M. (2022) 'Topic 3: Rare diseases'. S290: Investigating human health and disease . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1967195 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

The Open University (2022) ‘3.1 The purposes of childhood and youth research’. EK313: Issues in research with children and young people . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1949633&section=1.3 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

You can also use this template to reference videos and audio that are hosted on your module website:

The Open University (2022) ‘Video 2.7 An example of a Frith-Happé animation’. SK298: Brain, mind and mental health . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=2013014&section=4.9.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

The Open University (2022) ‘Audio 2 Interview with Richard Sorabji (Part 2)’. A113: Revolutions . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1960941&section=5.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

Note: if a complete journal article has been uploaded to a module website, or if you have seen an article referred to on the website and then accessed the original version, reference the original journal article, and do not mention the module materials. If only an extract from an article is included in your module materials that you want to reference, you should use secondary referencing, with the module materials as the 'cited in' source, as described above.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of message', Title of discussion board , in Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Fitzpatrick, M. (2022) ‘A215 - presentation of TMAs', Tutor group discussion & Workbook activities , in A215: Creative writing . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=4209566 (Accessed: 24 January 2022).

Note: When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, reference as a printed book.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title . Edition if later than first. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

For ebooks that do not contain print publication details

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title of book . Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date).

Example with one author:

Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project . Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy . Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Accessed: 23 June 2021).

Example with two or three authors:

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care . Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.

Example with four or more authors:

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics . San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Note: You can choose one or other method to reference four or more authors (unless your School requires you to name all authors in your reference list) and your approach should be consistent.

Note: Books that have an editor, or editors, where each chapter is written by a different author or authors.

Surname of chapter author, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname of book editor (ed.) Title of book . Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.

Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in S.M. Smith (ed.) The maltreatment of children . Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference.

If accessed online:

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference. Available at: DOI or URL (if required) (Accessed: date).

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326.

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326. Available at: https://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/log... (Accessed: 27 January 2023).

Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) 'Málaga – a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History , 2(3), pp. 187–212. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2010.523145

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2012) ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts’, The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolut... (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Organisation (Year that the page was last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Robinson, J. (2007) Social variation across the UK . Available at: https://www.bl.uk/british-accents-and-dialects/articles/social-variation... (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of Ethics and Conduct . Available at: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct (Accessed: 22 March 2019).

Note: Cite Them Right Online offers guidance for referencing webpages that do not include authors' names and dates. However, be extra vigilant about the suitability of such webpages.

Surname, Initial. (Year) Title of photograph . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Kitton, J. (2013) Golden sunset . Available at: https://www.jameskittophotography.co.uk/photo_8692150.html (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

stanitsa_dance (2021) Cossack dance ensemble . Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/COI_slphWJ_/ (Accessed: 13 June 2023).

Note: If no title can be found then replace it with a short description.

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Harvard: citing in- text

A version of the Harvard (author-date) System of referencing has been adopted as the standard for the presentation of academic text at the University of Birmingham.  The examples on this page refer to this version, as found on the Cite Them Right Online website.  For detailed guides on how to reference and cite different sources see the right-hand side panel.

What to put in your text 

The author's surname and year of publication are inserted in the text wherever a source is cited. The way this is done will depend on whether the author's name occurs naturally in the sentence or not.

Using this method of referencing, the in-text citations in your work must be included in the final word count. In-text citations give brief details of the source that you are quoting from or referring to. These citations will then link to the full reference that will be found in your reference list at the end of your work. The reference list is always arranged in alphabetical order by author. If you have cited a work in an appendix, but not in the main body of your text, this should still be included in the reference list.  The list of references is not included in the word count.

Footnotes and endnotes are NOT used in this style.

There are many ways in which citations can be used in your work, but your tutor or supervisor should advise you on which format they prefer.

Your citations should always include the following elements;

(i)            Author(s) or editor (s) surname/family name

(ii)           Year of publication

(iii)          Page number(s) if required

If you have used a direct quote or an idea from a specific page, or set of pages, you should include the page numbers in your citations. The abbreviation for page is p. or pp. for multiple pages. See the examples below to see how they are used correctly.

  • According to Guy (2001, p. 37), the Zulus faced many grave dangers when confronting the British…
  • It is maintained that medicine has improved (Jones, 1985, p. 74)

Citing one author/editor

  • In his novel (Stevens, 2013)…

Citing a corporate author

  • … as shown by the decrease in ratings (ITV, 2014).

 Citing two authors/editors

  • Banerjee and Watson (2011, p. 87) suggested…
  • It is clear (Banerjee and Watson, 2011, p. 87) that…

Citing three authors/editors

  • It was evident (Smith, Jones and Thomas, 2015)…

 Citing four or more authors/editors

Cite the first name listed in the source followed by  et al .

  • This was proved by Dym  et al.  (2009)…

Citing a source with no author/editor

Use the title in italics; do NOT use ‘anonymous’ or anything similar.

  • It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved ( Medicine in old age,  1985, p. 74)…

Citing multiple sources

These can be listed separated by semicolons. The publications should be cited in chronological order. If more than one work is published in the same year, then they should be listed alphabetically by author/editor.

  • A number of different studies (Jamieson, 2011; Hollingworth, 2012; Hatfield, 2013; Rogers, 2015) suggested that…

Citing sources - same year/same author

In his study of the work of Dawkins, Harris (2007a) emphasised the use of rationality in the former’s argument. However, it is clear that this was not the only strength of the original author (2007b).

The reference list would look like this;

       Harris, S. (2007a)  Dawkins: a history . London: Evolutionary Press.

       Harris, S. (2007b)  Evolutionary thought . London: Evolutionary Press.

Citing the same work, different editions

Separate the dates of publication with a semicolon with the earliest date first.

  • In both editions (Hitchens, 2010; 2012)…

Citing a source with no date

Use the phrase ‘no date’.

  • The evidence (Stevens and Jubb, no date) was clear.

Citing a source with no author or date

Use the title and ‘no date’.

  • Thunderstorms have become increasingly common ( Trends in atmospheric pressure , no date)…

Citing a web page

When citing a web page, it should follow these guidelines;

  • By Author and date (where possible)
  • By title and date if there is no identifiable author
  • Or by URL if neither author nor title can be identified

The latest survey by health professionals ( http://www.onlinehealthsurvey.org , 2012) reveals that… 

Source quoted in another work 

You may wish to refer to an author’s idea, model or dataset but have not been able to read the actual chapter containing the information, but only another author’s discussion or report of it. Similarly, you may refer to a primary source, e.g. an author’s letters or diary, or a government report, that you have only ‘read’ as cited or reproduced within another author’s text. In both cases you should acknowledge the use of a secondary source.

"The model of Mitchell (1996) (cited in Parry and Carter, 2003, p.160) simulates the suppressing effects of sulphate aerosols on the magnitude of global warming."

In this example ideally you should list both the Parry and Carter (2003) and Mitchell (1996) sources in your reference list but many schools will accept the listing of the secondary source (i.e. Parry and Carter) only.

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  • Harvard Referencing Generator

Free Harvard Referencing Generator

Generate accurate Harvard reference lists quickly and for FREE, with MyBib!

🤔 What is a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style.

It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing style.

The generated references can be copied into a reference list or bibliography, and then collectively appended to the end of an academic assignment. This is the standard way to give credit to sources used in the main body of an assignment.

👩‍🎓 Who uses a Harvard Referencing Generator?

Harvard is the main referencing style at colleges and universities in the United Kingdom and Australia. It is also very popular in other English-speaking countries such as South Africa, Hong Kong, and New Zealand. University-level students in these countries are most likely to use a Harvard generator to aid them with their undergraduate assignments (and often post-graduate too).

🙌 Why should I use a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator solves two problems:

  • It provides a way to organise and keep track of the sources referenced in the content of an academic paper.
  • It ensures that references are formatted correctly -- inline with the Harvard referencing style -- and it does so considerably faster than writing them out manually.

A well-formatted and broad bibliography can account for up to 20% of the total grade for an undergraduate-level project, and using a generator tool can contribute significantly towards earning them.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Harvard Referencing Generator?

Here's how to use our reference generator:

  • If citing a book, website, journal, or video: enter the URL or title into the search bar at the top of the page and press the search button.
  • Choose the most relevant results from the list of search results.
  • Our generator will automatically locate the source details and format them in the correct Harvard format. You can make further changes if required.
  • Then either copy the formatted reference directly into your reference list by clicking the 'copy' button, or save it to your MyBib account for later.

MyBib supports the following for Harvard style:

🍏 What other versions of Harvard referencing exist?

There isn't "one true way" to do Harvard referencing, and many universities have their own slightly different guidelines for the style. Our generator can adapt to handle the following list of different Harvard styles:

  • Cite Them Right
  • Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU)
  • University of the West of England (UWE)

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

In-Text Citations

A citation is the marker you place in the text of your work. The marker you use links to the full reference in your reference list. Often this is done by including the citation in brackets at the appropriate point – usually the end of the sentence. It can also be done by using your citation to introduce a summary or quotation. Be careful with the verb that you use as it indicates the function of the original text. Examples of verbs you might use are in the advice from the Centre for Academic Success on  Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism .

Citing an author's name directly in the text

Citing an author's name indirectly in the text, citing several sources at the same time, citing a source with several authors, citing sources by the same author(s) in different years, citing sources by the same author(s) in the same year, citing chapter authors in edited sources, citing institutional authors, citing missing or anonymous authors, citing with no date / an approximate date, should i include page numbers in my citations, citing secondary sources, citing tables and figures, citing hansard, citing religious texts.

Give the author’s surname followed by the date of publication in brackets. If the author has written a chapter in an edited work, cite the chapter author, not the editor(s).

The direct citation style is more personal than the indirect style as it often requires the use of a reporting verb to introduce the work by the author, providing an opportunity for critical analysis.

↑ Return to the top of the page

Include the author’s surname and year of publication in brackets at the appropriate point – usually the end of the sentence.

1. Citing directly

Put the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets, followed by the next author, and so on.

2. Citing indirectly

If you wish to refer to more than one source which has the same viewpoint, list them together at the relevant point in the sentence, putting them in brackets with the author's name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a semi-colon. The sources should be cited in alphabetical order in each list.

1. Two authors

Separate two authors with “and”.

2. Three or more authors

Use “et al.” after the first author.

For sources with multiple authors, all the names should be included in the reference list in the order they appear in the document. Use 'and' without a comma to link the last two multiple authors. In your reference list you must include all the authors. However, some articles contain large numbers of authors. In your reference list, give the first ten authors and then use et al. after the tenth. Check the style guide for further information.

If more than one source from the same author(s) illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years, then the citations should be made in chronological order (i.e. earliest first) separated by a semi-colon.

Direct example:

Indirect examples:

If you are citing several sources published by the same author(s) in the same year , they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly after the year, with no space.

If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion , or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be referred to by using lower case letters separated by a semi-colon.

Junco, R. (2012a) The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and student engagement. Computers & Education , 58(1), pp. 162-171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.004 .

Junco, R. (2012b) Too much face and not enough books: the relationship between multiple indices of Facebook use and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior , 28(1), pp. 187-198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.08.026 .

If you wish to cite several authors with the same surname in the same year add their initials to the citations. So for example, if you wish to cite two sources such as:

Mitchell, J. P. (2002) Ambivalent Europeans: Ritual, memory and the public sphere in Malta . London: Routledge.

Mitchell, W. J. T. (2002) Landscape and Power . 2 nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

In the text you would cite Mitchell, J. P. (2002) in the text to distinguish the reference from Mitchell, W. J. T. (2002) .

Sources that appear as a chapter (or some other part of a larger work) that is edited should be cited within your text using the name of the contributing author(s), not the editor of the whole work.

In the reference list at the end of your document, you should have one entry which should include details of both the chapter author(s) and the editor(s) of the entire work.

Wittich, W. and Simcock, P. (2019) Aging and combined vision and hearing loss. In: J. Ravenscroft, ed. The Routledge Handbook of Visual Impairment. London: Routledge, pp. 438-456.

If the author is an institution rather than a named person, you can cite the institution name. This is common for publications by health, education, or government institutions.

You can use standard abbreviations for these in the text, provided you write the name fully the first time you cite it, followed by the abbreviation in brackets. The exception to this rule is when an abbreviation forms the full name e.g. BBC.

First citation

Second citation

Both the full name and the abbreviation should then be provided in your reference list:

NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement (NHSi) (2009) The Productive Ward: Releasing time to care. Learning and impact review . London: King's College London.

For reference works where there is no named author or obvious editor, current practice is to refer to it in your text by the title of the work, placed in italics and date of publication (page number is optional). This applies to dictionaries, encyclopaedias, religious texts and many current and historical directories.

For  articles published in professional or trade magazines or published in newspapers, either in print or online, for which there is no obvious author, use the name of the publication rather than the repeated use of Anon in your text and in your reference list.

Films, videos and broadcasts are the co-operative product of teams of people. No author or creator is therefore included in the reference.  Include the name of the film, video or broadcast in italics in your text citation.

If the author's name for a source cannot be found and it is clearly not an institutional publication, use "Anonymous" or "Anon." in the text citation. Every effort should be made to establish the authorship if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission. If the author cannot be identified for reasons of confidentiality, use 'Name withheld'.

For items with no date, use “n.d.” For items with an approximate date, use a question mark in place of the unknown date “185?” or an approximate date followed by “ca.” Every effort should be made to establish a date before using it in your academic work.

For works that took multiple years to complete (e.g. artistic works), use the date range.

Langley (n.d.) advises...

According to Shahn (ca. 1933-1934) the main...

Hodgkin's (1983-1985) sculpture of...

It is compulsory to include the page number(s) with a quote from a source which has numbered pages, such as a book or a journal article. Include the location of the quote from the source even if it is in Roman numerals, is an article with e in front of it or a line number. If the original source does not have page numbers (e.g. a website) then you do not have to include them. If you include a quotation from an ebook, without page numbers, use the number used by the e-reader as a guide to locating your quotation.

The page number(s) should be given after the year, separated by a colon and a space.

Quoting is a form of citing where you provide text from an external source word for word. If the sources have page numbers then it is compulsory that you provide the relevant page(s) with your quote. This is given after the year, separated by a colon.

1. Short Quotes

Short quotes are up to about 50 words or two sentences. They must be included within double quotation marks, and may be introduced by other text outside the quotation.

2. Long quotes

Longer quotations are over about 50 words or two sentences and are indented both left and right but without the quotation marks. Unless the guidelines require the use of a long quotation this method is not recommended for academic writing. Your lecturer/tutor is more interested in what you have to write rather than reading long quotations.

Srivastava (2007: 54-55) defines Green Supply Chain Management as:

Integrating environmental thinking into supply-chain management, including product design, material sourcing and selection, manufacturing processes, delivery of the final product to the consumers as well as end-of-life management of the product after its useful life.

3. Quoting plays

Use italics for the titles of plays, poems and literature when you cite them. Do not enclose them in inverted commas, for example Kiss Me Kate, Enigma Variations, Hamlet , and Twelfth Night . Character names, such as Pete, Olivia and Hamlet, do not normally go in italics.

Published plays may contain line numbers, particularly in classic texts such as Shakespeare. If they exist these should include the line number(s), but act and scene numbers should always be included. They should be provided after the name of the play, separated by commas.

Short quotes of no more than about 50 words (or about 4 printed lines) should be enclosed in quotation marks and set within the main body of the text.

There is no need to provide a year of publication in the citation. However, this should be provided in the reference list.

4. Quoting poetry

For poetry, verse and lyrics, line breaks should be marked with an oblique (forward slash).

A quotation of more than about four lines is considered a long quote and should be indented left and right. There is no need to use inverted commas. If you quote more than four lines set out the poem exactly as it appears in the original. For example, in E. E. Cummings [In Just-] :

    goat-footed

 balloonMan   whistles

When quoting dialogue from a dramatic work you need to consider whether the speaking character name is part of the quote. If it is or if you are quoting dialogue from more than one character, use the long quote form and incorporate the usual blank lines between characters' speeches.

You may sometimes come across information about another author's work (a primary source) in the work you are reading (a secondary source) which you would like cite in your own work. This is called second hand citing .

If the passage in the secondary source is not a direct quote, it is recommended that, where possible, you read the primary source for yourself rather than relying on someone else's interpretation of it. For this reason it is best to avoid using second hand citing .

Example of direct citation:

Example of indirect citation:

Ennis is the primary source being cited but which has not been read. Robinson is the secondary source which contains a summary of Ennis' work. It is important to realise that Robinson may have taken Ennis' ideas forward or altered their original meaning in some way .

If the secondary source contains a direct quote from the primary source then there is no need to mention the secondary source at all. You may quote the primary source using the same information: this is not plagiarism. However, as soon as you use any additional information from the secondary source, such as the same reporting verb, you would need to cite it to avoid plagiarism .

The reference list at the end of your document should only contain works that you have read. For our example, only Robinson's work would appear in the reference list :

Robinson, S. R. (2011) Teaching logic and teaching critical thinking: revisiting McPeck. Higher Education Research and Development , 30(3), pp. 275–287.

Note on classical creative works

Sometimes it will be necessary to quote from sources dating from the time of the music, literature or play you are writing about, for example, from treatises, tutor books or dictionaries. It is unlikely that you will always have access to a facsimile of the original source. Instead you may either quote from a modern translation of the whole source or from an author who quotes them in their own book or article. In both cases it will be necessary for you to give your reader details in the text of both the original publication and of the modern source that you have actually used.

1. Citing tables

When reproducing selected data, or copying an entire table or figure, you must make reference to the source. A reference within the text to a table or figure taken from someone else's work should include the author and page to enable the reader to identify the data.

All tables should be numbered with an explanatory caption above the table using a centred format.

You should also refer to the table in your text before the table itself.

Table 1 shows the size of these districts measured in household numbers relative to one another and to Scotland as a whole.

Table1. Local government districts in Strathclyde, 1973-1996.

Library referencing in text - example table 1

The source in the above example is given at the bottom of the table. If it is not then it should be included after the caption at the top, using the direct style, introduced by the word "Source:" and including the page number.

Table 2. Search duration in Strathclyde for new house purchases 1989-1990. Source: Scottish Office (2005: 192).

Library referencing in text - example table 2

You need to include the source in your reference list. In the above example, this would appear as:

Scottish Office (1995) Local Government in Scotland . Edinburgh: Scottish Office.

2. Citing figures

Figures should be labelled and numbered with an explanatory caption and the caption positioned below the figure, using a centred format.

In the text you should also refer to the figure before you reproduce the figure.

Figure 1 shows that the number of pupils with an EHC plan and the number of pupils with SEN support have both increased since the 2015-16 school year.

Library referencing in text - example figure 1

Figure 1. Percentage of pupils with an ENC plan or SEN support, 2015/16 to 2021/22. Source: Department of Education (2022).

In the reference list the reference to this figure would appear as:

Department for Education (2022) Special Educational Needs in England: January 2022 . Available at:  https://explore-education-statistics.service.gov.uk/find-statistics/special-educational-needs-in-england/2021-22 [Accessed 8 September 2022].

If the source of the data is not from the creator of the figure, but was obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary citation.

Hansard provides a record of proceedings of the UK Parliament in the Chamber of the House of Commons, the sub-chamber in Westminster Hall and House of Commons General Committees.

The BCU Harvard style for citing Hansard conforms to the House of Commons Information Office Factsheet G17 .

Hansard citations should not be included in your reference list as their citation contains the entire reference.

The word "Hansard" should be provided in italics, then a comma, then the correct Hansard citation format. For more information, see the Referencing Hansard  pages.

Convention dictates that you do not use page numbers with religious  texts, just chapter and verse (with no space after the chapter number):

The best known Rabbinic statement of the doctrine of the resurrection is a warning dating from the Mishnaic period (AD 70-200):

these are the ones who have no share in the world to come: he that says that there is no resurrection of the dead [prescribed in the Law], and he that says the Law is not from Heaven, and an Epicurean. Rabbi Akiba says: Also he that reads the heretical books, or that utters charm over a wound… Abba Saul says: Also he that pronounces the Name with its proper letters (mSanh 10.1).
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  • Writing Tips

How to Format In-Text Citations in Harvard Referencing

3-minute read

  • 5th April 2020

Harvard referencing, also known as parenthetical author–date referencing, is one of the most common citation styles used by universities. In this post, we will look at the basic format for in-text citations in Harvard referencing .

In-Text Citations in Harvard Referencing

With Harvard referencing, you will need to provide bracketed citations in the text and a full reference list at the end of your document.

The basic format for an in-text citation in Harvard referencing is to give the author’s name and year of publication for the source that you are citing in brackets, separated by a comma. For example, you could cite a source written by Ferguson and published in 2007 like this:

Having flowers in the workplace can reduce stress (Ferguson, 2007).

When you name the author in the text, though, you only need to give the year of publication in brackets. This helps prevent repetition:

Ferguson (2007) says that havig flowers in the workplace can reduce stress.

Quoting Sources in Harvard Referencing

When you quote a source in Harvard referencing, you need to include the page number of the quoted material in your in-text citation. Typically, this goes at the end of the citation, after a comma and the abbreviation “p.”:

Ali considers potted plants “a mood enhancer” (1999, p. 32).

This shows the reader that the quote came from page 32 of the source. If a quote extends over more than one page, though, give a page range using the abbreviation “pp.” Take this extended quote, for instance:

This is further evidenced by anecdotal evidence. In the study, one office worker said, “I used to hate coming into the office. But a little greenery has made a big difference. It feels fresher, more homely. I don’t find myself feeling as tense as I used to” (Ali, 1999, pp. 35–36).

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Citing Sources with More Than One Author

If a source has two authors, separate their names in citations with “and”:

Potted plants are more effective than cut flowers (Kim and Moore, 2007).

And if a publication has three or more authors, give the first author’s name followed by “et al.” (a Latin phrase meaning “and others”). For example, we would cite a source by Tony, Uberti, and Wilson as follows:

The color green has a calming effect (Tony et al., 2013).

You would then provide the names of all authors in the reference list:

Tony, M., Uberti, A., Wilson, T. (2013) “The color green: Stress reduction via introduction of plant life to an office environment,” Journal of Environmental Health , vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 15–23.

Variations on Harvard Referencing

Harvard referencing is a generic style, so the exact requirements can vary. In the post above, we explain the Open University version , which is the default style guide that we currently use for this system.

However, make sure to check your style guide if you have one , as your university may use a slightly different format.

For more information on Harvard referencing, see our other blog posts . And if you’d like to have one of our Harvard referencing experts check that the citations in a document are error free, simply submit it for proofreading today and let us know which version of Harvard you are using.

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Harvard Style Guide: Websites

  • Introduction
  • Harvard Tutorial
  • In-text citations
  • Book with one author
  • Book with two or three authors
  • Book with four or more authors
  • Book with a corporate author
  • Book with editor
  • Chapter in an edited book
  • Translated book
  • Translated ancient texts
  • Print journal article, one author
  • Print journal article, two or three authors
  • Print journal article, four or more authors
  • eJournal article
  • Journal article ePublication (ahead of print)
  • Secondary sources
  • Generative AI
  • Images or photographs
  • Lectures/ presentations
  • Film/ television
  • YouTube Film or Talk
  • Music/ audio
  • Encyclopaedia and dictionaries
  • Email communication
  • Conferences
  • Official publications
  • Book reviews
  • Case studies
  • Group or individual assignments
  • Legal Cases (Law Reports)
  • No date of publication
  • Personal communications
  • Repository item
  • Citing same author, multiple works, same year

Back to Academic Integrity guide

Reference : Website author (Year published/Last updated) Title of internet site . Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).

Example : International tourism partnership (2004)  International tourism partnership . Available at: http://www.internationaltourismpartnership.org/ (Accessed 8 February 2009).

In-Text-Citation : (Website author, Year)

Example : Information available from their website (International Tourism Partnership, 2004) ….

Note : No Author? If the website author is not available, simply use the website name, e.g. (Website name, Year).

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here .

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here .

Page on a website

Reference : Webpage Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) Page title .  Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).

Example : Kelly, M. (2004) Environmental attitudes and behaviours: Ireland in comparative European perspective . Available at: http://www.ucd.ie/environ/home.htm (Accessed 8 February 2009).

In-Text-Citation :

  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Author(s) Last name, Year)
  • Kelly (2004) responded….
  • In the response (Kelly, 2004)….

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  • Last Updated: Feb 20, 2024 10:12 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.ucd.ie/harvardstyle

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Cite A Website in Harvard style

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  • Select style:
  • Archive material
  • Chapter of an edited book
  • Conference proceedings
  • Dictionary entry
  • Dissertation
  • DVD, video, or film
  • E-book or PDF
  • Edited book
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  • Government publication
  • Music or recording
  • Online image or video
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Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator to cite a website. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator .

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

Popular Harvard Citation Guides

  • How to cite a Book in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Website in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Journal in Harvard style
  • How to cite a DVD, video, or film in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Online image or video in Harvard style

Other Harvard Citation Guides

  • How to cite a Archive material in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Artwork in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Blog in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Broadcast in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Chapter of an edited book in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Conference proceedings in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Court case in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Dictionary entry in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Dissertation in Harvard style
  • How to cite a E-book or PDF in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Edited book in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Email in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Encyclopedia article in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Government publication in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Interview in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Legislation in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Magazine in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Music or recording in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Newspaper in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Patent in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Podcast in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Presentation or lecture in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Press release in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Religious text in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Report in Harvard style
  • How to cite a Software in Harvard style

Scribbr Citation Generator

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Are you using a LaTex editor like Overleaf? If so, you can easily export your references in Bib(La)TeX format with a single click.

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  • Introduction
  • Finding sources

Evaluating sources

  • Integrating sources

Citing sources

Tools and resources, a quick guide to working with sources.

Working with sources is an important skill that you’ll need throughout your academic career.

It includes knowing how to find relevant sources, assessing their authority and credibility, and understanding how to integrate sources into your work with proper referencing.

This quick guide will help you get started!

Finding relevant sources

Sources commonly used in academic writing include academic journals, scholarly books, websites, newspapers, and encyclopedias. There are three main places to look for such sources:

  • Research databases: Databases can be general or subject-specific. To get started, check out this list of databases by academic discipline . Another good starting point is Google Scholar .
  • Your institution’s library: Use your library’s database to narrow down your search using keywords to find relevant articles, books, and newspapers matching your topic.
  • Other online resources: Consult popular online sources like websites, blogs, or Wikipedia to find background information. Be sure to carefully evaluate the credibility of those online sources.

When using academic databases or search engines, you can use Boolean operators to refine your results.

Generate APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard citations in seconds

Get started

In academic writing, your sources should be credible, up to date, and relevant to your research topic. Useful approaches to evaluating sources include the CRAAP test and lateral reading.

CRAAP is an abbreviation that reminds you of a set of questions to ask yourself when evaluating information.

  • Currency: Does the source reflect recent research?
  • Relevance: Is the source related to your research topic?
  • Authority: Is it a respected publication? Is the author an expert in their field?
  • Accuracy: Does the source support its arguments and conclusions with evidence?
  • Purpose: What is the author’s intention?

Lateral reading

Lateral reading means comparing your source to other sources. This allows you to:

  • Verify evidence
  • Contextualize information
  • Find potential weaknesses

If a source is using methods or drawing conclusions that are incompatible with other research in its field, it may not be reliable.

Integrating sources into your work

Once you have found information that you want to include in your paper, signal phrases can help you to introduce it. Here are a few examples:

Following the signal phrase, you can choose to quote, paraphrase or summarize the source.

  • Quoting : This means including the exact words of another source in your paper. The quoted text must be enclosed in quotation marks or (for longer quotes) presented as a block quote . Quote a source when the meaning is difficult to convey in different words or when you want to analyze the language itself.
  • Paraphrasing : This means putting another person’s ideas into your own words. It allows you to integrate sources more smoothly into your text, maintaining a consistent voice. It also shows that you have understood the meaning of the source.
  • Summarizing : This means giving an overview of the essential points of a source. Summaries should be much shorter than the original text. You should describe the key points in your own words and not quote from the original text.

Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source, you must include a citation crediting the original author.

Citing your sources is important because it:

  • Allows you to avoid plagiarism
  • Establishes the credentials of your sources
  • Backs up your arguments with evidence
  • Allows your reader to verify the legitimacy of your conclusions

The most common citation styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago style. Each citation style has specific rules for formatting citations.

Generate APA, MLA, Chicago,  and Harvard citations in seconds

Scribbr offers tons of tools and resources to make working with sources easier and faster. Take a look at our top picks:

  • Citation Generator: Automatically generate accurate references and in-text citations using Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator, MLA Citation Generator , Harvard Referencing Generator , and Chicago Citation Generator .
  • Plagiarism Checker : Detect plagiarism in your paper using the most accurate Turnitin-powered plagiarism software available to students.
  • AI Proofreader: Upload and improve unlimited documents and earn higher grades on your assignments. Try it for free!
  • Paraphrasing tool: Avoid accidental plagiarism and make your text sound better.
  • Grammar checker : Eliminate pesky spelling and grammar mistakes.
  • Summarizer: Read more in less time. Distill lengthy and complex texts down to their key points.
  • AI detector: Find out if your text was written with ChatGPT or any other AI writing tool. ChatGPT 2 & ChatGPT 3 supported.
  • Proofreading services : Have a human editor improve your writing.
  • Citation checker: Check your work for citation errors and missing citations.
  • Knowledge Base : Explore hundreds of articles, bite-sized videos, time-saving templates, and handy checklists that guide you through the process of research, writing, and citation.
  • Harvard Library
  • Research Guides
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Social Sciences E-100A (Martin)

  • Citing Your Sources
  • SSCI E-100A: Welcome and About
  • HOLLIS: Searching Harvard's Discovery Space
  • Finding Articles (and Books) Beyond HOLLIS
  • Establishing Contexts and Backgrounds
  • Methods Sources
  • Getting Around Paywalls on the Web

Zotero and Zotero Bib

  • Library Subject Experts to Follow Up With

In your time at Harvard, you'll hear more than one librarian  suggest that you use Zotero, a "citation management tool."  Zotero will be great for big projects that require you to keep track of many sources -- like junior tutorials and senior theses (if you end up writing one).  

In the meantime,   we recommend you generate citations with  ZoteroBib . 

It's more reliable than the internal HOLLIS citation generator and you don't need an account or special software to use it.  Some of its handy features are  described on this page .

Next semester, or next year, you might want to graduate into using  Zotero  itself.  It will take the process of collecting and organizing sources and  incorporating footnotes or in-text citations to the next level. 

A good guide, if you're interested, is available here:  https://guides.library.harvard.edu/zotero

  • << Previous: Getting Around Paywalls on the Web
  • Next: Library Subject Experts to Follow Up With >>

Except where otherwise noted, this work is subject to a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which allows anyone to share and adapt our material as long as proper attribution is given. For details and exceptions, see the Harvard Library Copyright Policy ©2021 Presidents and Fellows of Harvard College.

In-text citation

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  • Medicine and health sources
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  • Web and social media
  • Other sources
  • Print this page
  • Other styles AGLC4 APA 7th Chicago 17th (A) Notes Chicago 17th (B) Author-Date Harvard MLA 9th Vancouver
  • Referencing home

The APA 7th style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people’s work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year.

Two types of in-text citations

1. author prominent format.

Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

Jones (2018) concluded that the treatment was effective in 74% of cases.

Author prominent citations are also referred to as parenthetical citations.

2. Information prominent format

Use this format if you want to emphasise the information. It cites the author’s name, typically at the end of a sentence.

...as evidenced by a recent Australian study of the treatment's effectiveness (Jones, 2018).

Information prominent citations are also referred to as narrative citations.

The following examples show how to form in-text citations according to number of authors and other considerations.

Surname, Year

Hawkins (2020) reported that the results of the study were inconclusive.

. . . the results of the study were inconclusive (Hawkins, 2020).

Two authors

Both surnames in the order listed on the publication and the year.

For author prominent citations, use “and” between the author names.

For information prominent citations, & between the author names.

Bovey and Hede (2013) argue that . . .

. . . is a significant factor (Bovey & Hede, 2013).

Three or more authors

Cite the first author followed by et al. and year

Robbins et al. (2017) note that leadership empathy and good communication are key to negotiating successful organisational change.

They may be required to work harder now there are … perform the same tasks (Robbins et al., 2017).

Different authors, same surname

When two or more authors have the same surname, add their initials to distinguish between them

P. R. Smith (1945) adopted a unique approach . . . . . . later in the text . . . This idea was first advanced by S. Smith (1935).

Research conducted by W.O. Brown and Jones (1985) was influenced by the work of S.A. Brown and Smith (1961).

The corresponding information prominent citations would be:

(P.R. Smith, 1945)

(S. Smith, 1935)

(W.O. Brown & Jones, 1985)

(S.A. Brown & Smith, 1961)

Multiple authors, ambiguous citations

Distinguish identical multiple-author citations with the same year by adding an additional surname, followed by a comma and et al.

Instead of just Brown et al. (1998), add additional author surnames to distinguish between separate works that Brown co-authored that year:

Brown, Shimamura, et al. (1998)

Brown, Taylor, et al. (1998).

The corresponding information prominent citations would be (Brown, Shimamura, et al., 1998), and (Brown, Taylor, et al., 1998).

  • For further guidance see the APA Style website - Citing multiple works…

Same author, two or more works

Author surname, then years separated by a commas, in chronological order.

Reimer (2017, 2018, 2019) considered this phenomenon across various studies . . .

. . . this phenomenon was considered across various studies (Reimer, 2017, 2018, 2019).

Same author, multiple works and same year

Assign a suffix of a, b, c, d, etc. after the year, according to alphabetical listing by title in the reference list.

Stairs (1992b) examined . . . . . . later in the text . . . According to Stairs (1992a) . . .

. . . was recently considered (Stairs, 1992b) . . . . . . later in the text . . . . . . the results were inconclusive (Stairs, 1992a).

  • For multiple references by the same author with no date, after n.d. add a hyphen and then the suffix e.g. (Dreshcke n.d.-b)

Multiple works from various authors

You may want to cite works from various authors to more strongly support a particular point you are making.

List each work alphabetically by surname in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons.

. . . as proposed by various researchers (Adams et al., 2020; Green, 2019; Hall & Clark, 2021).

Green (2019), Adams et al. (2020), and Hall and Clark (2021) analysed . . .

  • In the author prominent citation there is no requirement to order the citations alphabetically

If the author is identified as 'Anonymous'

Use 'Anonymous' as the surname.

Anonymous (2019)

(Anonymous, 2019)

Unknown author

Give the first few words of the title. If the title is from an article or a chapter, use double quotation marks. If the title is from a periodical, book brochure, or report, then use italics.

. . . the worst election loss in the party's history ("This is the end," 1968).

Corporate or group author

If the organisation has a recognisable abbreviation

First listing: Organisation name [Abbreviation], Year Subsequent: Abbreviation, Year

Where the organisation abbreviation is not widely known

Use the name in full every time

Census data gives valuable insights into... (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2021).

Australia's next census will be held on 10th August 2021 (ABS, 2021).

Author quoted directly

Occasionally it may be necessary to include in your work a quotation from an author.

Always include a page number when you have to cite directly from a source.

If no page numbers are available (e.g. in a website), include a paragraph number.

Use accepted abbreviations like p. for page and para. for paragraph

Gittins (2006) suggests that "the key to understanding microeconomics is to realise that its overwhelming focus is on the role of price" (p. 18).

Weston (1988) stated "the darkest days were still ahead" (p. 45).

A patient is in pain when they tell you and "it is important to believe the patient so as to build a trusting relationship" (Phipps et al., 1983, p.45).

Personal communications

Private letters, e-mail and conversations require only an in-text citation, which includes the date of the communication (Month DD, YYYY).

Personal communications are not included in reference lists, as they are not accessible to others.

R. Smith (personal communication, January 28, 2020) . . .

. . . (R. Smith, personal communication, January 28, 2020)

Author referred to in a secondary source

The original author is cited together with the secondary author.

Only do this when the original is unavailable and only include what you have actually read.

Farrow (1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988) . . .

Ward and Decan (1988) cited Farrow (1968) as finding . . .

. . . (Farrow, 1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988).

  • << Previous: Getting started
  • Next: Reference list >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 23, 2024 9:04 AM
  • URL: https://guides.lib.monash.edu/apa-7

IMAGES

  1. [59] In Text Citation Example Harvard

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  2. Harvard Style Citation Guide

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  3. Course: Harvard

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  4. In-Text Citation and Works Cited List: Quick Tips to Stay Safe

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  5. Free Harvard Citation Generator for Referencing

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  6. How to Cite Using Harvard Bluebook: In-Text Citations & Footnotes

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VIDEO

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  2. Citation: Why and How?

  3. Harvard Citation and referencing tutorial using Notion Part 2

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  5. Which in-text citation is formatted correctly in MLA style?

  6. In-Text Citation for a Literary Text: Poetry

COMMENTS

  1. Harvard In-Text Citation

    Revised on 5 May 2022. An in-text citation should appear wherever you quote or paraphrase a source in your writing, pointing your reader to the full reference. In Harvard style, citations appear in brackets in the text. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author, the year of publication, and a page number if relevant.

  2. In-Text Citation Examples

    In-Text Citation Examples. When neither the author nor the page number is mentioned in the body of the sentence, you should include both the author's last name and the page number in the parenthetical citation. Colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students (Jack 24).

  3. How to reference a website using the Harvard referencing style

    Note that if you're trying to cite a vlog that was posted on YouTube, you'll need to know how to cite a YouTube video in Harvard style. Example. In-text citation. Engelbert D'Souza (2015) has expounded on the "Mandela Effect" at great length…. Reference list. D'Souza, E. (2015) 'The Mandela Effect', Engelbert's monthly blog ...

  4. In-text Citations in Harvard Referencing Style

    For in-text citations, Harvard referencing style uses author-date format. In other words, Harvard style uses parenthetical and narrative citations that show the name of the author and the publication year of the source. Harvard style does not use footnotes or endnotes. For details about the in-text citation format for different types of sources ...

  5. In-Text Citations

    In-Text Citations. In APA style, you use parenthetical citations within the text of your paper to credit your sources, to show how recently your sources were published, and to refer your reader to a more detailed citation of the source in the reference list at the end of your paper. You should use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase ...

  6. Harvard Citation Style: Internet / Websites

    When citing web sites or pages which may change it's important to make a note of the date you accessed the page or retrieved information from the page, and also note the URL of the page. You will need this information for your references. Websites can sometimes be difficult to cite as you might have to draw information from different areas of ...

  7. In-text citations

    In-text citations can be presented in two formats: Information focused format - the citation is usually placed at the end of a sentence. Author focused format - the name of the author appears as part of the text, it need not be repeated in parenthetical citation. The date should immediately follow the author's name.

  8. Library guides: Harvard Referencing Guide: Websites

    Include the word 'website' after the name of the website, unless the name of the website is a URL, for example WA.gov.au. Webpage with authors listed. Italicise title of webpage; Elements of the reference Author A (Year) Title of webpage, Name of Website website, accessed Day Month Year. In-text citation (Clement 2020) Reference list

  9. In-text citation

    In-text citation. Harvard style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people's work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year. There are two styles of citation, known as author-prominent and information-prominent. Both styles are equally acceptable and you can use both styles within one text.

  10. In-Text Citations

    In-Text Citations. In MLA style, you use parenthetical citations within the text of your paper to credit your sources and to refer your reader to a more detailed citation of the source in the "Works Cited" list at the end of your paper. You should use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase, quote, or make any reference to another author's ...

  11. FREE Harvard Referencing Generator

    Using the Cite This For Me fast, accessible and free generator makes creating accurate citations easier than ever, leaving more time for you to focus on achieving your academic goals. Create a free account to add and edit each Harvard citation on the spot, import and export full projects or individual entries.

  12. Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

    Examples of in-text citations. You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided ...

  13. Harvard: citing in-text

    A version of the Harvard (author-date) System of referencing has been adopted as the standard for the presentation of academic text at the University of Birmingham. The examples on this page refer to this version, as found on the Cite Them Right Online website. For detailed guides on how to reference and cite different sources see the right ...

  14. Free Harvard Referencing Generator [Updated for 2024]

    A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style. It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing style.

  15. How to Cite a Website in Harvard Referencing

    To cite a website in Harvard referencing, you will need to give the author's surname and a year of publication. For instance: Rousseau converted to Catholicism in 1728 (Bertram, 2010). If you have already named the author in the main text, though, you don't need to duplicate this information in the citation. Instead, you can just give a ...

  16. In-Text Citations

    How to Harvard reference within the text. In the text you would cite Mitchell, J. P. (2002) in the text to distinguish the reference from Mitchell, W. J. T. (2002).. ↑ Return to the top of the page. Citing chapter authors in edited sources. Sources that appear as a chapter (or some other part of a larger work) that is edited should be cited within your text using the name of the contributing ...

  17. How to Format In-Text Citations in Harvard Referencing

    When you quote a source in Harvard referencing, you need to include the page number of the quoted material in your in-text citation. Typically, this goes at the end of the citation, after a comma and the abbreviation "p.": Ali considers potted plants "a mood enhancer" (1999, p. 32). This shows the reader that the quote came from page 32 ...

  18. Websites

    In-Text-Citation: (Website author, Year) Example: Information available from their website (International Tourism Partnership, 2004) …. Note: No Author? If the website author is not available, simply use the website name, e.g. (Website name, Year). Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here.

  19. Cite A Website in Harvard style

    Cite A Website in Harvard style. Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator to cite a website. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.

  20. Free Citation Generator

    Citation Generator: Automatically generate accurate references and in-text citations using Scribbr's APA Citation Generator, MLA Citation Generator, Harvard Referencing Generator, and Chicago Citation Generator. Plagiarism Checker: Detect plagiarism in your paper using the most accurate Turnitin-powered plagiarism software available to ...

  21. Social Sciences E-100A (Martin)

    In your time at Harvard, you'll hear more than one librarian suggest that you use Zotero, a "citation management tool." Zotero will be great for big projects that require you to keep track of many sources -- like junior tutorials and senior theses (if you end up writing one). In the meantime, we recommend you generate citations with ZoteroBib.

  22. In-text citation

    Two types of in-text citations. 1. Author prominent format. Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence. Example. Jones (2018) concluded that the treatment was effective in 74% of cases. Author prominent citations are also referred to as parenthetical citations. 2.