• Research article
  • Open access
  • Published: 13 August 2019

Effective health promoting school for better health of children and adolescents: indicators for success

  • Albert Lee 1 ,
  • Amelia Siu Chee Lo 1 ,
  • Mei Wan Keung 1 ,
  • Chi Ming Amy Kwong 1 &
  • Kwok Keung Wong 1  

BMC Public Health volume  19 , Article number:  1088 ( 2019 ) Cite this article

28k Accesses

26 Citations

Metrics details

Improvement of health literacy, health behavioural change, creating a supportive physical and social environment to be more conducive to health should be the focus of child and adolescent public health. The concept of Health Promoting School initiated by World Health Organization aims to move beyond individual behavioural change and to consider organisational structure change such as improvement of the school’s physical and social environment. The aim of this study is identification of the key indicators for successful implementation of Health Promoting School by analysing the findings of the school health profile based on the structured framework of Hong Kong Healthy School Award Scheme and the health status of students investigated by the Hong Kong Student Health Survey.

This is a retrospective correlation study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilised to analyse for significant improvement of school health profile measured at baseline ( n  = 104) and among those schools implemented the Hong Kong Healthy School Award Scheme ( n  = 54). Those indicators showing statistical significance were chosen to be part of the core indicators reflecting effective Health Promoting School. Each of those selected core indicators was then correlated with the related student health outcomes measured by the Hong Kong Student Health Survey Questionnaire to further identify the core indicators.

A total of 20 core indicators among all the six Key Areas of Health Promoting School (6 indicators under action competencies, 2 under community link, 2 under physical environment, 2 under social environment, 4 under healthy school policies, 1 under services of school health protection) have been identified with the method mentioned above.


This study has identified the indicators with most significant impact on a wide range of health related outcomes. Those are key indicators for motivating positive change of the schools and students. They can be considered as school performance indicators to help schools embarking their Health Promoting School journey as another key education objective.

Peer Review reports

In 2011, the United Nation adopted ‘The Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases (NCD)’, and actions to reduce risk factors and creating health promoting environments became the focus of this agenda [ 1 ]. Behavioural, environmental, occupational, and metabolic risks factors such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, smoking and alcohol, can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention especially at early stage of life [ 2 ].

However, we are still observing high prevalence of those youth health risk behaviours in both developed and developing countries with around 30 to 40% of young people who had drunk alcohol and around 30 to 50% taken drug in Australia and US, and around 80% of secondary school students have been found to be physically active in Hong Kong, Macao, Taipei and US [ 3 , 4 , 5 ].

Rationale for Core indicators of health promoting school

The concept of Health Promoting School (HPS) initiated by WHO aims to move beyond individual behavioural change and consider organisational and structural change such as improving the school’s physical and social environment, its curricula, teaching and learning methods [ 6 , 7 ]. The WHO HPS framework is only an outline. Langford et al. (2014) conducted Cochrane Review of WHO HPS framework for improving health and well-being of students and their academic achievement based only on 67 included cluster-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) taken place at the level of school, district or other geographical area [ 8 ]. The RCT design does not necessary lend itself to outcomes involving organizational or structural change as the statistical assumptions underpinning RCT are not valid to reflect organisational or structural change so limited conclusion could be drawn [ 9 ]. Would HPS initiatives lead to immediate change at individual level? One would argue that potential markers of success are associated with the process [ 10 ]. Therefore, indicators of HPS should highlight the ways in which schools would be able to adopt HPS principles successfully and the conditions to be in place to flourish [ 10 ]. A boarder perspective on evidence is needed in dealing with the complexity of school system [ 11 , 12 ]. The English Wessex Healthy School Award Scheme (WHSA) [ 13 ] and the Hong Kong Healthy School Awards Scheme (HKHSA) [ 14 ] have developed detailed system to analyse whether each individual school has reached the standard to be a model HPS, reflecting a more holistic appreciation and understanding of all the effects of school-based health promotion. Both schemes have shown positive award-related changes [ 15 , 16 ].

Patton et al. (2010) called for global agenda of adolescent health to include data beyond mortality to include information about adolescent health in the social, cultural, and economic contexts in which young people grow [ 17 ]. A study on health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets has highlighted the need for boarder public health programmes and policies on behavioural risk factors with multi-sectoral commitments and investments [ 18 ]. An ecological model of health promotion is needed to address the complex interaction of environmental, organisational, and personal factors such as healthy setting approach, recognising the contextual issue as well as investment in social systems in which people spend their daily lives. [ 19 , 20 ]. HPS framework is enabling school to become an appropriate setting for health promotion so it needs a clearer translation for action to create a new era for school health [ 21 ]. The schemes of WHSA and HKHSA have provided the structured framework for development as well as system of monitoring and evaluation, and also recognition of achievements [ 22 , 23 ]. Some core indicators are needed for a wider implementation of HPS especially in developing countries as starting point because not many of their schools are able to implement HPS in its entirety [ 24 , 25 ]. Paper by Joyce et al. (2017) asserts the importance of data monitoring, such as audits adopted in HKHSA to motivate changes [ 25 ]. Hong Kong has scaled up and sustained the HPS movement over the last two decades to enable study to be conducted in identification of the key indicators for successful HPS practice based on the data collected over a period of time.

Data source and study instruments: school level data

The structured framework of HKHSA is used for evaluation of efficacy incorporating the four types of indicators, inputs, process, impact and outcomes suggested by Nutbeam [ 26 ] to measure the success of health promotion (Table  1 ) [ 14 , 23 ]. It reflects a more holistic appreciation and understanding of all the effects of school based health promotion [ 27 ]. The HKHSA covers six key areas (healthy school policies, school’s physical environment, school’s social environment, community links, action competencies for healthy living, and school health care and promotion services) suggested by WHO Guidelines [ 6 , 14 , 28 ]. The indicators of student health profile describe the health status of students including life satisfaction and emotional health, and health behaviours. The school health profile describes the school environment (physical and social), healthy policies, pedagogy on health training, and organisational practices. One would then analyse the indicators reflecting school health profile correlating with better health related outcomes based on student health profile.

A number of components under each key areas and the respective set of indicators with contextualisation specific to Asian Pacific countries (Additional file 1 : Appendix 1) were developed with guidelines based on extensive local and oversea literature and documentary reviews [ 14 , 16 , 28 ]. Points were given for each indicator to calculate an overall score for each component under each respective key area as well as the overall score for each key area. The overall score for each component and each key area was calculated as percentage reflecting the level of achievement under each respective component and key area to build up a school health profile [ 29 ].

There is a strong body of evidence and theoretical framework in identifying the indicators that are relevant, adaptable and achievable reflecting school-based initiatives as well as involvement of parents, school managers and community, and also teacher training according to past and recent international practices [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 ]. The system of accreditation of HKHSA had undergone process of validation by:

Face validation: Pilot testing was done with principals and teachers from 18 primary and 19 secondary schools who had basic understanding of HPS [ 23 ]

Content validation: Local and international HPS experts (6 international experts) provided valuable comments on the contents [ 23 , 35 ]. There were two individual expertise teams: one was combined with veteran members (second and third authors of reference 35) who had been involved in the development of the HPS Performance Indicators, and was responsible for content validation. The other team was combined with the personal experience of the experts in Healthy School Award schemes, who were responsible for observing the process of accreditation and benchmarking.

Criterion validation: HPS experts experienced in Healthy School Award schemes with publications on HPS evaluation [ 12 , 32 ], examined the process of accreditation and benchmarking with international standards taken into account of the local context [ 23 ]

Construct validation was conducted by analysis of the correlation of school performance in and between elements, components and the HPS key areas, and overall performance, measured by the different levels of indicators, among schools that implemented the HKHSA. Positive correlation between the element and the component level performance, the component and the key area performance, and the overall school performance in HPS was observed and published [ 23 ].

The schools were categorised into different levels of achievement (gold, silver and bronze award) based on their school profiles, and analysed the areas of strength and weakness according to the different components of guidelines of HKHSA [ 29 , 36 ].

Student surveys

A system of surveillance of student health status based on the Hong Kong Student Health Survey Questionnaire (HKSHQ) incorporating the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavioural Surveillance [ 3 , 37 , 38 , 39 ] and WHSA [ 13 ] adapted by Centre for Health Education and Health Promotion of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CHEP) [ 35 , 39 ] with continuous refinement as a tool for assessing student health status/health related outcomes [ 40 , 41 ]. K6 scale by Kessler and colleagues [ 42 ] has been used to assess emotional disturbance [ 40 ] as well as Life Satisfaction scale by Huebner and colleagues [ 42 ] as part of HKSHQ building up the student health profile. Primary 4 (aged 9 to 10 years) and Secondary 3 (aged 14 to 15 years) students were recruited for the survey in each primary and secondary school respectively.

Data collection at school level

In 2010, the Quality Education Fund commissioned CHEP to establish the Quality Education Fund Thematic Network of Healthy School (QTN Healthy School) aiming to establish a school network for sustaining the Healthy School movement territory wide. Making use of the school health profile developed by CHEP as described in previous section [ 29 , 33 , 34 ], the performance of schools achieving HPS standard was assessed by their performance among the six key areas at baseline and re-evaluated again for Healthy School Award (Award). Data were collected on performance of different components of six key areas among the 104 schools when they first joined the network as baseline assessment and the performance of those schools with Award (54 schools).

Data collection at student level

Primary four students and secondary three students were selected among those schools to analyse the changes in student health behaviours, self-reported health status and emotional health for consistency and to understand the cumulative impact of HPS at this mid-point of schooling making use of HKSHQ [ 35 , 40 , 41 ]. A previous study had shown improvement of student health, and also the school culture and organisation after 1 year [ 39 ]. Activities taken place in schools during the interim period included student leadership training, teachers training on HPS, and sharing of HPS good practice among teachers provided by CHEP.

Survey and Behaviour Research Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong approved the QTN Healthy School Study on tracing student health on 28 March 2011.

Data analysis at school level

T-test statistics was utilised to analyse for significant improvement of school health profile measured at baseline and among those schools with Award with level of statistical significance at 0.05. The full performance profile consists of over 90 indicators, and among those, there are still many indicators with significant change in mean scores measured at baseline and at time of award. Therefore, those indicators with significant mean score difference more than 0.25 were chosen to be part of the core indicators reflecting effective HPS as they would represent certain unique features of achievement in accomplishing overall healthy school environment.

The creation of school health profile enables categorisation of schools into different levels of achievement using the cut-off for different levels of Award, gold, silver and bronze [ 34 ]. The difference of scores among schools with different levels of Award for each component of respective key area was then analysed by ANOVA with level of statistical significance at 0.05. Those indicators with statistical significance were also chosen to be part of the core indicators.

Data analysis of correlation between indicators of school health profile and health related outcomes of students

In order to streamline the core indicators, each of those selected core indicators was correlated with related student health status measured by HKSHQ, i.e., indicators reflecting school social environment were correlated with emotional health and life satisfaction, indicators reflecting healthy eating policy and healthy eating environment were correlated with eating behaviours. The correlation was analysed by Pearson correlation coefficient, and analysis of primary and secondary schools was conducted separately.

As described in data analysis section, the basic requirements for HPS were identified by t-test are illustrated in Table  2 , i.e., those elements/indicators showing significant mean score difference more than 0.25. Under the key area, School’s Physical Environment, the indicator ‘School has a system in place to ensure that all food sold or served in school promote healthy eating (PE 4.1)’ was also chosen even though the difference of mean between Baseline and Award was found to be less than 0.25. No indicators under school physical environment were found with the difference of at least 0.25 and only PE 4.1 was found to have the largest difference between Baseline and Award.

After identification of the basic requirements for HPS by t-test, ANOVA was conducted to analyse the difference of scores among schools with different levels of Award for each indicator of respective key area with level of statistical significance at 0.05. Table  3 provides the summary results of those indicators under different key areas showing statistical significance at level of 0.05 among schools with different level of awards by different level of analysis by ANOVA (please refer to Additional file 2 : Appendix 2 for results of analysis). Correlation of those indicators with significant improvement as shown in Tables  2 and 3 was analysed for correlation with health-related outcome of students. Additional file 3 : Appendix 3 provides all the results of correlation between those selected indicators under each key area with health-related outcomes. Table  4 shows results of correlation analysis of those selected indicators under each key area with health-related outcomes. Table 5 lists the key indicators for motivating change under each respective key area showing significant impact on health behaviours.

The core indicators under Action Competencies for Healthy Living (Table  4 a) shown to have significant correlation with student health reflect the importance of curriculum design for health education, student engagement, staff professional development and school as resource centre for health information. Literature has highlighted the importance of comprehensive integrated approach via negotiated and systematic planning, leadership and management for effective implementation of HPS [ 12 , 43 , 44 ]. The Austrian study has argued for more systematic and co-ordinated approach with real commitment and understanding among the principals and teachers to integrate health and well-being more deeply into school system rather than many isolated activities notwithstanding enthusiastic support by health promotion service providers [ 24 ]. HPS needs to adopt the Critical Health Education (CHE) approach which requires empowerment of students in capacity building developing to act upon the wider social determinants of health [ 45 , 46 ]. An Ecuadorian study also highlighted the possibility of developing CHE perspective to reaffirm the holistic understanding of health rather than just focusing on biomedical and behavioural modification [ 46 ]. Those core indicators reflecting AC analysed by this study (Table  4 a) are in line with CHE approach.

Major meta-analysis led by Durlak (2011) examined the effect sizes from 213 school based Social Emotional Learning programs involving 270,034 students from kindergartens to secondary schools. The study found 25% improvement in social and emotional skills, 10% decrease in classroom misbehaviour, anxiety and depression, and 11% improvement in achievement tests in comparison to control sites [ 47 ]. More structured health curriculum with boarder coverage and active engagement of students, and enhanced professionalism of teachers in delivering health education including health information for family and community would no doubt enhance better physical and emotional health of the students [ 48 ]. Effective school programme in enhancing emotional and social skills of children and adolescents should focus on teaching skills in particular the cognitive, affective and behavioural skills, and competencies [ 49 ]. A systematic review has also revealed the positive effects of student participation in school health promotion with regards to increased satisfaction and motivation, positive attitudes, personal development, competencies and knowledge, health related effects, improved interactions and social relationships [ 48 , 50 ].

With regard to community link, the core indicators reflecting school in consultation with community bodies and parents, and working with them to promote community health education activities, and/or discussion on healthy school policies, have shown significant correlation with self-reported good health and better health as well as better life satisfaction (Table  4 b). As school consults community members or professional groups, this would substantiate their understanding of HPS and offer advice and/or support for the holistic approach. Inter-sectoral collaboration would enable the education stakeholders to understand more evidence-based school health promotion, and linking to teaching and learning, and the health stakeholders would also be more upfront with school curriculum development and put health on school agenda with better perception of health status [ 51 ]. The same individual, family, school, and community factors predict both positive (e.g., success in schools) and negative (e.g., delinquency) outcomes in school [ 52 ]. Therefore, consultation with community and family on health promotion would lead to better health related outcomes.

For school social environment, school having a system in place to look after students and staff with emotional needs and/or unexpected traumatic life events (SE 3.2) has shown significant correlation with better mental health for both primary and secondary school students (Table  4 c). SE 2.2 (school has a system for the prevention, and management of unacceptable behaviour in school among students by school teachers responsible for guidance counselling and/or school social workers, and encourages staff to set personal examples for cultivating students’ positive actions) has also been found to correlate significantly with self-reported academic performance, physical active and better mental health (Table  4 c). Interventions aiming at reduction of problem behaviours have been shown to enhance emotional and social development of children and adolescents [ 49 ]. Preventive work for early identification of students with difficulties and ensuring all parts of the school organization working coherently has found to be effective in promoting emotional and mental health in school [ 53 ].

Adolescents will need a supportive school physical environment enabling them to make appropriate food choices promoting health and well-being [ 8 , 27 ]. Nutrition knowledge transmitted through classroom teaching alone might not be sufficient to influence adolescents’ eating patterns as they need access to healthy food with social support [ 54 ]. Therefore, element PE 4.1 (school has a system in place to ensure that all food sold or served in school promote healthy eating) has shown to improve healthy eating in both primary and secondary schools and also physical active in primary school (Table  4 d). If school can ensure students’ safety whenever students are under their care (PE 1.1), it has shown to have significant correlation with better mental health and life satisfaction for both primary and secondary schools, and also more physical active in primary schools (Table  4 d). Supportive school physical environment is important for health and well-being.

Provision of basic health care services and management (HS 2.3) has shown significant correlation with better self-reported health in both primary and secondary schools and also better mental health for primary schools (Table  4 e). Schools would follow the relevant guidelines to establish school health services by their respective authorities. The Austrian study has highlighted the importance of whole school approach with commitment by key stakeholders within the school not just gaining support from health promotion service providers [ 24 ]. It is more important to build up a comprehensive, integrative and co-ordinated school health programme [ 21 ].

Healthy school policies have shown significant correlation with different aspects of student health (Table  4 f). Paper by Gostin et al. has provided evidence that individual will smoke less and eat healthier diets in cities with better regulation [ 55 ]. The paper also proposes that law needs not to be coercive but creating environment to make healthy choice easy choice [ 55 ]. Findings of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study have shown that underage drinking behaviour of the college student could be reduced by additional policy efforts [ 56 ]. School policies on health can serve this regulatory role. The School Food Plan in UK with provision of practical steps to improve the quality and take-up of its food in school setting has shown to lead to healthier children as well as improved attainment [ 57 ].

HPS model utilises a socio-ecological approach for school-based intervention [ 33 ] but schools have found difficulty to implement HPS in entirety [ 24 ]. International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) produced a document for monitoring and assessing HPS, and recommended schools to use accreditation to measure and track changes [ 56 ]. The IUHPE report referenced the HKHSA but did not include evidence whether accreditation type of programme could be effective in motivating changes. Similarly, the design of School Health Index (SHI) by US CDC [ 58 ], evaluation framework of National Healthy School Programmes (NHSP) in England [ 59 ] and “What is Healthy Together Victoria” Programme in Australia [ 60 ] share the auditing type of process in developing action teams, identifying areas of action and progress monitoring. However, they resemble continuous quality improvement but might not inspire change process. Sufficient information is needed to tell why programmes work in some schools and not others [ 61 ]. Realistic evaluation using mixed method incorporating both qualitative and quantitative methods involving systematic collection and analysis of data, iterative theory development, strong reflection processes should be adopted [ 62 ]. The data collected should also reflect capacity building for schools to understand and making use of the data to integrate health promotion within school setting [ 63 ]. The data collection process of HKHSA [ 14 , 23 , 34 , 39 ] and further analysis conducted by this study has generated a common set of indicators that would assist evaluation of impact of HPS as discussed in recent paper on HPS [ 23 ].


There are limitations in this study. This study only includes school joining the QTN project and those schools would be more committed to implement HPS. The data were collected from the schools participated in HKHSA and they underwent the assessments on voluntary basis. There is always argument that interventions other than HPS would improve health. However, the aim of this study is to identify indicators for success, and it is useful to investigate those schools with diversity of their performance on HPS when they first joined in. There have already been number of studies locally and overseas showing the effectiveness of HPS [ 9 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 27 , 31 , 37 , 39 , 40 ]. One should focus on which aspects of HPS are critical for health improvement. Student-centred approach in health education teaching and learning has shown correlation with better health. Therefore, one should explore further how student involvement in other key areas of HPS would have impact on student health. Multivariate linear regression can also be conducted using data to identify correlation between students’ health profile and indicators from the school health profiles, and sociodemographic variables.

This analysis is only cross-sectional. It would be interesting to observe how the school health profile correlates with student health profile in longitudinal study. If longitudinal study can be performed, longitudinal correlation between students’ health related outcomes, and a number of independent variables (indicators from the school health profiles that are significant from the linear regression, location, school, and other socio-demographic variables) can be analysed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).

There is wide debate what type of data would assist to evaluate impact of HPS, and whether schools should monitor health behaviour outcomes or relying more on process outcomes such as school policies and school environment. For wider implementation of HPS in its entirety, a common set of indicators is needed to identify issues requiring attention that would motivate changes within the school environment as well as health status and behaviours of students. This study has identified the indicators with most significant impact on wide range of health-related outcomes which would serve as key indicators for motivating change. Those indicators could serve as actions for implementation of change at organisational levels for the health and well-being of students. They could also be used as school performance indicators to help schools in monitoring and evaluation of their HPS efforts.

Availability of data and materials

Written request could be sent to the corresponding author.


Action Competency for Healthy Living

Healthy School Award

US Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Critical Health Education

Centre for Health Education and Health Promotion

Community Links

Hong Kong Healthy School Awards Scheme

Hong Kong Health Survey Questionnaire

Health Promoting School

School Health Care and Promotion Services

International Union for Health Promotion and Education

Non-communicable Diseases

National Healthy School Programmes

School’s Physical Environment

Healthy School Policies

Quality Education Fund Thematic Network of Healthy School

Randomised Controlled Trial

Sustainable Development Goal

School’s Social Environment

Student Health Index

World Health Organisation

The English Wessex Healthy School Award Scheme

United Nations General Assembly. Political declaration of the high-level meeting of the general assembly on the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. New York: United Nations, 2011. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/66/L.1&referer=http://www.un.org/en/ga/ncdmeeting2011/&Lang=E . Assessed 10 Aug 2019.

GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2015;386(10010):2287–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2 .

Article   PubMed Central   Google Scholar  

Kann L, McManus T, Harris WA, Shanklin SL, Flint KH, Queen B, Lowry R, Chyen D, Whittle L, Thornton J, Lim C, Bradford D, Yamakawa Y, Leon M, Brener N, Ethier KA. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018;67(8):1–114. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6708a1 .

Article   PubMed   PubMed Central   Google Scholar  

Rowe L. This summer, start a small social revolution. Aus Family Physician. 2005;34(1–2):11–2. https://www.racgp.org.au/afpbackissues/2005/200501/200501rowe.pdf . Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Lee A, Keung V. Epidemics of childhood obesity amongst Chinese students and effectiveness of school based intervention. Health Education Monograph Series. 2012;29(1):37–46.

WHO. Health Promoting School Framework for Action http://www.wpro.who.int/health_promotion/documents/docs/HPS_framework_for_action.pdf?ua=1 . Manila: WHO/WPRO, 2009. Accessed 10 Aug 2019 updated from previous document [WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Health-Promoting Schools Series 5: Regional guidelines. Development of health-promoting schools-A framework for action. Manila: WHO/WPRO, 1996.

Nutbeam D, Clarkson J, Phillips K, Everett V, Hill A, Catford J. The health-promoting school: organisation and policy development in welsh secondary schools. Health Educ J. 1987;46(3):109–15.

Article   Google Scholar  

Langford R, Campbell R, Magnus D, Bonell CP, Murphy SM, Waters E, Komro KA, Gibbs LF. The WHO health promoting school framework for improving the health and well-being of students and their academic achievement. Cochrane Database Sys Rev. 2014;4(4):CD008958.

Google Scholar  

Lister-Sharp D, Chapman S, Stewart-Brown S, Sowden A. Health promoting schools and health promotion in schools: two systematic reviews. Health Technol Assess. 1999;3:1–201.

Article   CAS   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Inchley J, Muldoon J, Currie C. Becoming a health promoting school: evaluating the process of effective implementation in Scotland. Health Promot Int. 2006;22(1):65–71.

Article   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Rowling L, Jeffreys V. Capturing complexity: integrating health and education research to inform health-promoting schools policy and practice. Health Educ Res. 2006;21(5):705–18.

Lee A, Cheung RMB. School as setting to create a healthy teaching and learning environment: using the health promoting school model to foster school-health partnership. J Professional Capital Community. 2017;2(4):200–14.

Moon AM, Mullee MA, Rogers L, Thompson RL, Speller V, Roderick Moon AM, Mullee MA, Thompson RL, Speller V, Roderick P. Health-related research and evaluation in schools. Health Educ. 1999;99(1):27–34.

Lee A, Cheng F, St Leger L. Evaluating health promoting schools in Hong Kong: the development of a framework. Health Promot Int. 2005;20(2):177–86.

Lee A, Cheng FF, Fung Y, St Leger L. Can health promoting schools contribute to the better health and well-being of young people? Hong Kong experience. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006;60(6):530–6.

Helping schools to become health-promoting environments – an evaluation of the Wessex healthy schools award. Health Promot Int. 1999;14(2):111–22.

Patton GC, Viner RM, Linh LC, Ameratunga S, Fatusi AO, Ferguson BJ, Patel V. Mapping a global agenda for adolescent health. J Adolesc Health. 2010;47(5):427–32.

GBD 2016 SDG Collaborators. Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2017;390:1423–59.

Dooris M. Holistic and sustainable health improvement: the contribution of the settings-based approach to health promotion. Perspectives Public Health. 2009;129(1):29–36.

Dooris M. Expert voices for change: bridging the silos—towards healthy and sustainable settings for the 21 st century. Health Place. 2013;20:39–50.

Lee, Albert. “School Health Programs in the Pacific Region.” In Oxford Bibliographies in Public Health. Ed. David McQueen. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1093/OBO/9780199756797-0173 https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199756797/obo-9780199756797-0173.xml Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Rogers E, Moon AM, Mullee MA, Speller VM, Roderick PJ. Developing the ‘health-promoting school’ – a national survey of healthy school awards. Public Health. 1998;112(1):37–40 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ph.1900418 Accessed 9 July 2019.

CAS   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Lee A, Keung VM, Lo AS, Kwong AC, Armstrong ES. Framework for evaluating efficacy in health promoting schools. Health Educ. 2014;114(3):225–42.

Adamowitch M, Gugglberger L, Dür W. Implementation practices in school health promotion: findings from an Austrian multiple-case study. Health Promot Int. 2017;32(2):218–30.

Joyce A, Dabrowski A, Aston R, Carey G. Evaluating for impact: what type of data can assist a health promoting school approach? Health Promot Int. 2017;32(2):403–10 https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw034 Accessed 9 July 2019.

PubMed   Google Scholar  

Nutbeam D. Evaluating health promotion—progress, problems and solutions. Health Promot Int. 1998;13(1):27–44.

St Leger L, Kobe LJ, Lee A, McCall DS, Young IM. School health promotion: achievements, challenges and priorities. In: McQueen D, Jones C (eds). Global Perspective on Health Promotion Effectiveness. New York: Springer, 2007, 107-124. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-70974-1_8 Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Lee A. Helping Schools to Promote Healthy Educational Environments as New Initiatives for School Based Management: The Hong Kong Healthy Schools Award Scheme. Promot Educ 2002;Suppl 1:29–32.

Lee A, Cheng F, St Leger L. Hong Kong healthy schools team. The status of health promoting schools in Hong Kong and implications for further development. Health Promot Int. 2007;22(4):316–26.

WHO-Regional Office for Europe, European Commission & Council of Europe. First workshop on practice of evaluation of the Health Promoting School: models, experiences and perspectives: executive summary. Copenhagen : WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1999. Held in Switzerland, Bern/Thun: ENHPS 1998. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/108542 Accessed 10 Aug 2019. Piette D, Roberts C, Prévost M, Tudor-Smith C, Bardolet JT Tracking down ENHPS successes for sustainable development and dissemination: the EVA2 project, Final Report 2002; 24 http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Life-stages/child-and-adolescent-health/publications/Pre-2005/tracking-down-enhps-successes-for-sustainable-development-and-dissemination-the-eva2-project-final-report . Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

St Leger L. Developing indicators to enhance school health. Health Educ Res. 2000;15(6):719–28.

St Leger L, Young IM. Creating the document ‘promoting health in schools: from evidence to action’. Glob Health Promot. 2009;16(4):69–71.

Chen FL, Lee A. Health-promoting educational settings in Taiwan: development and evaluation of the Health-Promoting School Accreditation System. Global Health Promotion 2016;Suppl 1:18–25.

Lee A, Cheng FF, Yuen H, Ho M, Lo A, Fung Y, Leung T. Achieving good standard of health promoting schools: preliminary analysis after one year implementation of Hong Kong healthy schools award scheme. Public Health. 2007;121(10):752–60.

CHEP. Student health survey. Centre for Health Education and Health Promotion, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2011.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behaviour Survey. US Department of Health and Human Services, 1999. ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/data/yrbs/1999/YRBS_1999_National_User_Guide.pdf . Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Kann L, Kinchen SA, Williams BI, Ross JG, Lowry R, Grunbaum JA, Kolbe LJ. Youth risk behaviour surveillance - United States, 1999. J Sch Health. 2000;70(7):271–85.

Lee A, Tsang KK. Youth risk behaviour in a Chinese population: a territory wide youth risk Behavioural surveillance in Hong Kong. Public Health. 2004;118(2):88–95.

Lee A, St Leger L, Moon AS. Evaluating health promotion in schools meeting the needs for education and health professionals: a case study of developing appropriate indictors and data collection methods in Hong Kong. Promot Educ. 2005;12:123–30.

Lee A, Keung V, Lo A, Kwong A. Healthy School environment to tackle youth mental health crisis. Hong Kong J Paediatric. 2016;21(2):134–5 http://www.hkjpaed.org/details.asp?id=1064&show=1234 Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Kessler RC, Green JG, Gruber MJ, Sampson NA, Bromet E, Cuitan M, Furukawa TA, Gureje O, Hinkov H, Hu CY, Lara C. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population with the K6 screening scale: results from the WHO world mental health (WMH) survey initiative. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2010;19(S1):4–22.

Huebner ES, Seligson JL, Valois RF, Suldo SM. A review of the brief multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale. Soc Indic Res. 2006;79(3):477–84.

Samdal O, Rowling L. Theoretical and empirical base for implementation for health-promoting schools. Health Educ. 2011;111(5):367–90.

Simovska V, McNamara PM (eds). School for Health and Sustainability: Theory, Research and Practice. Dordrecht: Springer, 2015. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789401791700 Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Fitzpatrick KJ. Critical approaches to health education. In: Fitzpatrick K, Tinning R, editors. Health Education: Critical Perspectives. New York: Routledge; 2015. https://philpapers.org/rec/FITHEC Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Torres I. Policy windows for school-based health education about nutrition in Ecuador. Health Promot Int 2017;32(2):331–339. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daw037 Accessed 9 July 2019.

Durlak JA, Weissberg RP, Dymnicki AB, Taylor RD, Schellinger KB. The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Dev. 2011;82(1):405–32.

Griebler U, Rojatz D, Simovska V, Forster R. Effects of student participation in school health promotion: a systematic review. Health Promot Int. 2014;32(2):195–206.

Clarke AM, Morreale S, Field CA, Hussein Y, Barry MM. What works in enhancing social and emotional skills development during childhood and adolescence? A review of the evidence on the effectiveness of school-based and out-of-school programmes in the UK. Ireland: World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Health Promotion Research, National University of Ireland, Galway; 2015. https://aran.library.nuigalway.ie/handle/10379/4981 Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Catalano RF, Berglund ML, Ryan JA, Lonczak HS, Hawkins JD. Positive youth development in the United States: research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. ANNALS Am Acad Political Soc Sci. 2004;591(1):98–124.

Tooher R, Collins J, Braunack-Mayer A, Burgess T, Skinner SR, O'keefe M, Watson M, Marshall HS. Intersectoral collaboration to implement school-based health programmes: Australian perspectives. Health Promot Int 2017;32(2):312–321. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dav120 Accessed 9 July 2019.

Weare K. What works in promoting social and emotional wellbeing and responding to mental health problems in schools. London: National Children’s Bureau; 2015. https://www.mentalhealth.org.nz/assets/ResourceFinder/What-works-in-promoting-social-and-emotional-wellbeing-in-schools-2015.pdf . Accessed 10 Auf 2019.

Contento IR. Nutrition education: linking research, theory, and practice. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):176–9 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18296331 . Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Gostin LO, Abou-Taleb H, Roache SA, Alwan A. Legal priorities for prevention of non-communicable diseases: innovations from WHO’s eastern Mediterranean region. Public Health. 2017;144:4–12.

Wechsler H, Lee JE, Nelson TF, Kuo M. Underage college students' drinking behavior, access to alcohol, and the influence of deterrence policies: findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College alcohol study. J Am Coll Heal. 2002;50(5):223–36.

Young I, St Leger L, Blanchard C. Monitoring and assessing progress in health promoting schools: issues for policy makers to consider. Saint-Denis, France: International Union for Health Promotion and Education. 2012. https://www.iuhpe.org/index.php/en/iuhpe-thematic-resources/298-on-school-health . Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Dimbleby H and Vincent J. The School Food Plan. Department of Education, UK, July 2013. https://www.schoolfoodplan.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/School_Food_Plan_2013.pdf . Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School Health Index: a self-assessment and planning guide. CDC, 2014. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/shi/pdf/elementary-total-2014.pdf . Assessed 10 Aug 2019.

Arthur S, Barnard M, Day N, Ferguson C, Gilby N, Hussey D, Morrell G, Purdon S. Evaluation of National Healthy Schools Programme: final report for Department of Health. London: Nat Cen Social Research; 2011. http://natcen.ac.uk/our-research/research/evaluation-of-the-national-healthy-schools-programme/ . Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Department of Health. What is Healthy Together Victoria. https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/about/publications/policiesandguidelines/What-is-Healthy-Together-Victoria . Accessed 10 Aug 2019.

Gleddie D. A journey into school health promotion: district implementation of the health promoting schools approach. Health Promot Int. 2012;27(1):82–9.

Wong G, Greenhalgh T, Westhorp G, Pawson R. Realistic methods in medical education research: what are they and what can they contribute? Med Educ. 2012;46(1):89–96.

Flaspohler PD, Meehan C, Maras MA, Keller KE. Ready, willing, and able: developing a support system to promote implementation of school-based prevention programs. Am J Community Psychol. 2012;50(3–4):428–44.

Download references


The authors would like to acknowledge the Hong Kong Healthy School Team of the Centre for Health Education and Health Promotion, The Chinese University of Hong Kong for their contributions to the projects.

This work was supported by the funding from Quality Education Fund of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (Grant number: EDB/QEF22/17/7). Quality Education Fund dose not control the design of study and collection, analysis and interpretation of data and writing of manuscript.

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Centre for Health Education and Health Promotion, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4th Floor, Lek Yuen Health Centre, 9 Lek Yuen Street, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong

Albert Lee, Amelia Siu Chee Lo, Mei Wan Keung, Chi Ming Amy Kwong & Kwok Keung Wong

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar


AL designed the study and drafted the manuscript; ASCL designed the study and drafted the manuscript; MWK and CMAK provided advice on the study design; KKW was responsible for the data analysis and preparation of the tables. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Albert Lee .

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate.

Ethical approval was granted by the Survey and Behavioural Research Committee of The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Information about HKSHQ and HKHSA was provided to the participating school, teachers, parents and students. Prior written consent was obtained from the involved schools and parents of the involved students before collecting the data for HKSHQ and HKHSA. All identifiable information was recorded confidentially and will not be disclosed to any party other than the research team.

Consent for publication

Not applicable as consent has been obtained for data collection and no identities will be disclosed.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Albert Lee is an associate editor for BMC Public Health and he had no role in the editorial process of this manuscript.

Additional information

Publisher’s note.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Additional files

Additional file 1:.

Appendix 1 . Health Promoting School Performance Indicator. (PDF 178 kb)

Additional file 2:

Appendix 2 . Additional Basic Requirements for HPS identified by ANOVA. (PDF 213 kb)

Additional file 3:

Appendix 3 .Pearson correlation coefficients between HKSHQ measures and core indicators. (PDF 233 kb)

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article.

Lee, A., Lo, A.S.C., Keung, M.W. et al. Effective health promoting school for better health of children and adolescents: indicators for success. BMC Public Health 19 , 1088 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7425-6

Download citation

Received : 16 March 2018

Accepted : 31 July 2019

Published : 13 August 2019

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7425-6

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Health promoting school
  • Adolescent and children

BMC Public Health

ISSN: 1471-2458

public health promotion essay

Just added to your cart


Public Health in Midwifery: Reflective Essay Sample

In this reflection essay sample, we explore not just the art of midwifery, but the heart and soul of public health promotion within it.



Public health promotion is critical in midwifery practice (Soucy et al., 2023). It ensures that mothers and newborns receive best clinical outcomes (Smith et al., 2017). As such, midwives must understand the principles and practices of public health promotion. This knowledge enables midwives to work with mothers, families, and communities to improve their health and well-being (De Leo et al., 2019; McLellan et al., 2019). This reflection focuses on my experience of developing a health promotion poster for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) using the Gibbs reflective model. It will explore the importance of effective communication and collaboration. It also outlines the significance of using health promotion models in promoting midwifery practice. Additionally, it evaluates the influence of psychological, social, cultural, political, and economic factors on women and their families.

Reflection is an essential component of professional development in midwifery practice (Koshy et al., 2017). It enables midwives to examine their practice, identify areas for improvement, and take action to enhance their skills and knowledge (Sweet et al., 2019). Reflective practice also provides midwives with an opportunity to learn from their experiences (Sweet et al., 2019). It integrates new knowledge and skills into their practice and improves the quality of care they provide (Sweet et al., 2019). I have selected Gibbs’ reflective model for this evaluation.  It consists of six stages, which are description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion, and action plan (Gibbs, 1988). This model provides a structured approach to reflection. As such, it facilitates the evaluation of experiences and development of actionable insights for application in future practices (Gibbs, 1988).

 Hire A Writer - Plagiarism-Free Essay Writing Service


The task of developing a health promotion poster was an opportunity to raise awareness about a critical public health issue affecting infants. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden and unexpected death of a baby under one year of age (Jullien, 2021). It is the leading cause of infant mortality in developed countries (Osei-Poku et al., 2021). As such, healthcare organizations prioritize promoting the use of safe sleep practices to reduce the risk of SIDS. As part of the development process, I worked with a team of health promotion specialists who were responsible for developing and implementing health campaigns. The team was made up of individuals with skill sets. These skills include graphic design, content development, and project management. We had regular team meetings to discuss the progress of the project (Persson et al., 2021). During the meetings, we shared ideas on how to improve the poster’s content and design.

However, we encountered challenges that tested our teamwork and communication skills. For instance, we had to balance the workload of the different team members. We ensured that team members had equal shares of the responsibilities (Rosen et al., 2018). Also, we communicated effectively to ensure that team members understood the project’s objectives and goals (Schilling et al., 2022). There were significant technical difficulties that arose during the project’s execution. For example, we initially faced difficulties with incorporating the relevant information into the poster design in a visually appealing and easy to read manner. However, we overcome these challenges by working collaboratively (Schmutz et al., 2018). This teamwork enabled us to develop a poster that effectively communicated the key messages about SIDS prevention.

The experience of working with the team had a positive impact on my professional development. It taught me the importance of teamwork and communication in achieving a common goal (Rosen et al., 2018). I realized that working collaboratively leads to a more effective and efficient outcome than working alone (Rosen et al., 2018). Additionally, working in a team environment enabled me to learn new skills from my colleagues such as graphic design and project management. These skills are essential since I can use them in my future projects. This experience had a positive impact on my professional development. It taught me the importance of teamwork and communication in achieving a collective objective (Rosen et al., 2018).

Throughout the process, I experienced a range of emotions. At first, I felt overwhelmed and unsure about where to start. I was unsure if I had the necessary skills to create an effective poster. This was due to my limited experience in health promotion and graphic design. However, I began to feel more confident in my abilities after delving deeper into the topic. I found the research process to be enjoyable and engaging. During this process, I learned more about the risk factors and prevention strategies for SIDS. I was motivated by the idea that the poster we were creating could raise awareness SIDS and potentially save lives.

As the project progressed, I experienced a range of emotions related to teamwork and communication. At times, I felt frustrated by the workload and the pressure of meeting deadlines. I also felt uncertain about how to communicate effectively with my team members. The team members had different skill sets and perspectives (Gander et al., 2022). However, I recognized that these challenges were an opportunity to develop my communication and teamwork skills. In addition, I experienced a sense of satisfaction by seeing the project take shape. Seeing the information and graphics come together and communicate the key messages about SIDS prevention effectively was rewarding.

However, I felt a sense of pressure to ensure that the final product was quality and would be well-received by the target audience. In reflection, I believe that my initial feelings of inadequacy and uncertainty were due to inexperience in health promotion and graphic design. However, I engaged with the research process and collaborated with my team members (Anderson et al., 2021). This enabled me to overcome the feelings and develop the necessary skills to contribute effectively to the project. Regardless, I developed positive emotions such as enjoyment and satisfaction. These emotions emerged from my sense of purpose and motivation to contribute to a critical public health issue. I believe that having a sense of purpose and meaning in an individual’s work is essential for achieving job satisfaction and personal fulfillment.

The negative emotions I experienced such as frustration and pressure were due to the challenges inherent in the project’s development process. Challenges such as workload and communication difficulties are common in team-based projects (Zajac et al., 2021). However, they are an opportunity to develop communication and teamwork skills. These skills are valuable in future projects. On that note, the process of developing a health promotion poster for SIDS was an emotional journey. It taught me valuable lessons about communication, teamwork, and personal growth. These lessons and experiences enable me to develop a greater appreciation for the importance of preparedness and teamwork in achieving a common goal... Read more

   Hire A Writer - Plagiarism-Free Essay Writing Service

Reference List

Abebe, H., Beyene, G.A. and Mulat, B.S., 2021. Harmful cultural practices during perinatal period and associated factors among women of childbearing age in Southern Ethiopia: community based cross-sectional study. PloS One, 16 (7), pp.1-14. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0254095

Ackley, B.J., Ladwig, G.B., Makic, M.B.F., Martinez-Kratz, M.R. and Zanotti, M., 2021. Nursing diagnosis handbook (12th ed.) . London: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Ahn, Y.M., Yang, K.M., Ha, H.I. and Cho, J.A., 2021. Cultural variation in factors associated with sudden infant death during sleep. BMC Pediatrics, 21 (1), pp.443-456. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02894-8

Anderson, J.E., Lavelle, M. and Reedy, G., 2021. Understanding adaptive teamwork in health care: progress and future directions. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 26 (3), pp.208–214. https://doi.org/10.1177/1355819620978436  

  • Share Share on Facebook
  • Tweet Tweet on Twitter
  • Pin it Pin on Pinterest

Leave a comment

Please note, comments must be approved before they are published

  • Choosing a selection results in a full page refresh.
  • Press the space key then arrow keys to make a selection.

Home — Essay Samples — Nursing & Health — Health Care Policy — Promoting public health and wellbeing


Promoting Public Health and Wellbeing

  • Categories: Health Care Policy

About this sample


Words: 1165 |

Published: Jul 17, 2018

Words: 1165 | Pages: 3 | 6 min read

Image of Alex Wood

Cite this Essay

Let us write you an essay from scratch

  • 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help
  • Custom essay delivered in as few as 3 hours

Get high-quality help


Prof Ernest (PhD)

Verified writer

  • Expert in: Nursing & Health


+ 120 experts online

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy . We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

No need to pay just yet!

Related Essays

2 pages / 921 words

3 pages / 1515 words

3 pages / 1428 words

1 pages / 498 words

Remember! This is just a sample.

You can get your custom paper by one of our expert writers.

121 writers online

Promoting Public Health and Wellbeing Essay

Still can’t find what you need?

Browse our vast selection of original essay samples, each expertly formatted and styled

Related Essays on Health Care Policy

Care coordination is a critical aspect of healthcare delivery, encompassing the organization of patient care activities to facilitate the appropriate delivery of health services. This essay will explore the ethical and policy [...]

The pain gap is a deeply troubling phenomenon that sheds light on the stark disparities in how pain is perceived, treated, and experienced among different individuals and communities. In this essay, we will delve into the [...]

Health disparities are a persistent and troubling issue in healthcare systems worldwide. These disparities are marked by differences in health outcomes, access to healthcare, and quality of care, and they often stem from a [...]

Statistics play a crucial role in health care research, data collection and analysis, decision making, and policy development. This essay aims to examine the application of statistics in various areas of health care and [...]

The use of mobile devices through health care professionals (HCPs) has changed many aspects of medical practice. Mobile devices have emerge as common in health care settings, leading to speedy increase in the improvement of [...]

This essay challenges conventional wisdom, also it is broadly held that confidentiality may be breached when doing so it can deter harm to a possible third party. When analyzing Kipnis’ altercation in “A Defense of Unqualified [...]

Related Topics

By clicking “Send”, you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement . We will occasionally send you account related emails.

Where do you want us to send this sample?

By clicking “Continue”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.

Be careful. This essay is not unique

This essay was donated by a student and is likely to have been used and submitted before

Download this Sample

Free samples may contain mistakes and not unique parts

Sorry, we could not paraphrase this essay. Our professional writers can rewrite it and get you a unique paper.

Please check your inbox.

We can write you a custom essay that will follow your exact instructions and meet the deadlines. Let's fix your grades together!

Get Your Personalized Essay in 3 Hours or Less!

We use cookies to personalyze your web-site experience. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy .

  • Instructions Followed To The Letter
  • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
  • Unique And Plagiarism Free

public health promotion essay

Home Essay Examples Health Public Health

Public Health: Promoting Health And Wellbeing

  • Category Health
  • Subcategory Health Care
  • Topic Public Health

Download PDF

Health promotion plays an influential part in the public health of the nation. In this assignment, it will demonstrate what public health involves and its importance in relation to the health of the population. Health promotion in conjunction with a nurse’s role in public health will be highlighted through this essay. This essay will focus on the Public Health Outcome 2.11 Diet, promoting a healthy lifestyle to a group of individuals, including a specific planned health promotion intervention targeted in Guilford and surrounding areas. Throughout this essay, statistical data from sources will be referenced and links to theories will be used to demonstrate the importance of public health.

Helping people to stay healthy and protecting them from threats to their health is the cornerstone of what public health aims to achieve. Public health England (2017) discloses that they intend to secure and progress public health and wellbeing, alongside endeavouring to decrease imbalances within health. The government would like everybody to make healthier choices regardless of their circumstances. Imbalances in public health arise from concerns with the population’s well-being, including factors that contribute to maintaining or improving an individual’s life expectancy (Albert.2014). Health is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as an individual feeling a holistic sense of well-being, preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organised effectors of society (Acheson report,1998).

Our writers can write you a new plagiarism-free essay on any topic

Developed theories have argued that public health can be understood from different origins, socially determined: diverse cultures and backgrounds hold different views and values on what constitutes to good health and how disease should be treated. According to Naidoo and Wills (2010 p.61), public health and health promotion have grown from separate sources: however, the constant burden and awareness of modern health have thus produced the two determinants to be deemed as complementary parts, interrelating within current practice.

The World Health Organization (2017) clarifies that health promotion involves supporting individuals to take control of their own health; the definition highlights the importance of individual physical and mental well-being whilst also concentrating on other impacts of health such as social and environmental. While defining public health as aiding people to lead healthy lifestyles, while reducing their risk of threats by making beneficial lifestyle choices; to do so individuals have access to public health services free of charges such as GP consultations and vaccinations (WHO,2017). Financial strains and quality of care are factors which affect how the health service (NHS) runs health promotion and public health. With an ageing population, an increasing number of individuals are living unhealthy lifestyles because of factors such as poor Diet, smoking and increased alcohol consumption.

Varley and Murfin (2014) argue that the increased need for health and wellbeing promotion should be essential in a ‘Organisations Design’. Evans, Coutsaftiki & Fathers highlight that health promotion in education must reflect on societal and environmental factors in the hope to change ‘behaviours for the future’ (2011 p.10-12). Both points emphasise that change is health promotion is prevalent in future improvements.

Nurses play a vital role in health promotion by providing support and direction with the aim to educate and change behaviours, (Kemppainen, 2012). The Royal College of Nursing (2018) states that nurses have a responsibility to provide effective holistic care through understanding the wider determents affecting a patients’ health and impacting on their lifestyle choices. Within Nursing, values are expected to be upheld to promote health and well-being of patients. Professionals must adopt a holistic caring approach to provide patients with a greater depth of understanding and education on their health. Nurses should be able to Identify public health priorities to be able to encourage wellbeing and reducing poor health, through supporting individuals throughout all life stages (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2015).

Poor Diet is a factor in one in five deaths globally, with millions of people eating the wrong food for good health (Boseley, 2017). An article from the Guardian (2015) estimated that poor Diet is the biggest contributor to early death around the world, according to leading authorities on global disease. Red meat and sugar-sweetened beverages amongst the foods linked with 21% deaths globally. Eating a Diet low in whole grains, fruit, nuts and seeds and fish oils and high in salt raises the risk of an early death, according to an ongoing study by Global Burden of Disease (2018).

In the UK, Diet continues to be the leading cause for concern in public health and remains an obvious cause of avoidable deaths. Even though the statistics for poor Diet in younger adults have decreased, Diet in the over 65 remains a growing concern. With Diet now the number one factor driving poor health (ahead of smoking) a study by Public Health England (PHE)(2017) found Diet to have caused 10.8% of illness in the UK compared with 10.7 %caused by smoking. A study by PHE (2018) confirms the UK population consumes too much-saturated fat and not enough fruit and vegetables. The average saturated fat intake for older adults (65+) is 12.5% of daily calorie intake, above the 11% recommended maximum.

The burden of Diet-related illness in the UK is estimated to lead to 70,000 premature deaths annually, which represents around 12% of the total number of deaths. An unhealthy Diet is strongly associated and linked with many chronic, complex conditions such as Obesity, Cardiovascular disease, Cancer and type II Diabetes. Unhealthy Diet in the over 65s is attributable to 5% of all hospital admissions. Diet has the highest impact on the NHS budget, costing around £6 billion per year, which is greater than alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity (BMA, 2018). The social cost in the UK is £13 billion, including treatment of poor Diet related conditions and healthy eating campaigns (Department of Health, 2011).

Imbalances amongst social groups and geographical location are obvious; adults who live in deprived areas of the country with the lowest income are more likely to eat unhealthily. The highest percentage of these were amongst people who claim benefits, over 65s and people who live alone (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2016). Over 65s are the chosen target audience to focus the health promotion intervention on in Guildford, due to the ageing population in Surrey and the rest of the UK. According to the office of National Statistics (2018), 18% of the UK’s population is over the age of 65. Likewise, in Guildford, 18% of individuals are over the age of 65 with the percentage rising to 21% in ten years. Both the UK and Guildford’s statistics prove that the population is getting older and prevalent that this age group be targeted.

Another intention for considering the over 65s and unhealthy Diets is due to the number of people who suffer from Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. It is the third-leading cause of death globally, and both obesity and Diet appear to play roles in its pathophysiology (Nihgov, 2018). Public Health England (PHE, 2015) found that 25,000 people die from chronic obstruction each year, and about 86% of the deaths are caused by the effects of unhealthy Diets on immune response. This is a significant amount of people whose death could be prevented if more health promotion could have been done.

There are several factors which affect a person’s Diet, which may include socio-economic factors, societal and social influences, living circumstances and employment status. Naidoo and Wills (2010 p.68) emphasise imbalances in health as a factor that could impact the choices made by over 65s about their Diet. Both explain how ‘health inequalities’ refer to, how those of a lower economic status, lower education or low-income level tend to die earlier or have reduced access to healthcare. For example, people who are financially stable would have more options to go for private health care if there is a long NHS waiting list for a procedure. DSM (2018) found that there appears to be an increase of elderly malnutrition in socially deprived areas. The study found that those elderly people from affluent backgrounds are more likely to have family that will intervene when they feel their Diet is becoming an issue. Socioeconomic factors could also affect Diet if an individual is not able to access healthy food and relying on microwavable meals rather than eating fresh produce. A report by Han and Powell (2018) states that individuals living in low social-economic households are more likely to eat additional calories from sweetened drinks and fast food because of lower prices. Whitehead and Dahlgren’s Wider Determinates of Health Diagram Maps the relationship between the individual, their environment and health.

Drop-in sessions are the selected health intervention activities led by a student nurse in a local Guildford hospital. The drop-in session will be between 10am-6pm, located in one of hospital rooms on the main campus to make it easily accessible. The aim of the session is to empower and educate individuals with unhealthy Diets on the risks they are exposing themselves too. The student nurse would promote to the participants that improving Diet can have positive impacts on health; examples are healthier appearance, improved mental and physical health (Eat Aware, 2016), which will be shown through a presentation led by the student nurse. Information also on how to be smart with money when buying healthy food will provide knowledge and information about the choices they make and how it can contribute towards their finances and health, supported by the educational approach to promoting health (Whitehead and Irvine, 2010).

The drop-in session is based on the empowerment approach to promoting healthy Diet in the over 65s. The student nurse will act as an advocate for change, equipping service users with the motivation, information and skills to change their Diet. The empowerment approach will allow the student nurse to promote the need for the service user to take control of their own health, by identifying and meeting their own individual Diet needs. Working together with the student nurse to develop a 6-week food plan which relates to the service user’s preferences and abilities will empower change. According to Thomson, S. (2014 pp. 37-38) the food plan will allow them to gain the knowledge and skills to make positive lifestyle changes.

The empowerment approach is ideal to use on the over 65s as the student nurse can provide them with useful advice and the encouragement to take control of their Diet. Tones and Tilford’s empowerment model (2018) of health promotion explain how health education is the track to all health promotion activity’s. Even if the empowerment approach is strong, the student nurse may struggle with low self-esteem and find it difficult to interact with a large group of people. To help promote empowerment the student nurse can invite a volunteer speaker to talk about their experiences with an unhealthy Diet. However, it can be challenging for a student to have the connections to find someone willing to share their experiences.

An additional way to empower clients is by delivering education to enable them to make informed choices. Educating patients on the links between poor Diet and diseases could allow patients to make better-informed decisions about their health. The student nurse can provide educational leaflets in the drop-in sessions provided by the NHS ‘Eating Well Guide’ (Public Health England, 2017; NICE, 2013). The leaflets are free and feature loads of information involving the positives of maintaining a healthy Diet as well as services and support which can be accessed (Public Health England, 2017). The student nurse can ensure that the drop-in sessions feature diagrams and methods to change Dietary habits.

Student nurses have responsibilities which should be upheld to demonstrate safe practice, following codes of conduct by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) and the Department of Health guidelines. The NMC states that nurses need to promote health and wellbeing holistically. NICE published a guideline encouraging individuals with poor Diet to seek help and support change by educating them that Diet changes can decrease the possibilities of developing conditions and related illness (NICE, 2018). Both responsibilities should be followed throughout public health promotion as a healthcare professional, it is important to follow these guidelines to effectively practice and promote public health and wellbeing.

The effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed by setting the participants a quiz to complete before and after the drop-in session. The quiz offers participants the opportunity to answer questions, strengthening their knowledge and highlighting any areas which lacked information. The student nurse can compare the knowledge of participants from before and after the session to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach taken. Evaluation allows the participant to evaluate what they have learnt about their health and lifestyle choices, allowing them to strive to improve their Diet. Unfortunately, there is no way of monitoring the long-term effect of the drop-in session but the importance was not just to reduce unhealthy Diets connection to early deaths, but also for the student nurse to take a successful leading role in health promotion, with no additional funding.

Overall, the Diet intervention carried out by a student nurse has proven a necessity to public health within the aging population of Guildford, ensuring individuals with poor Diet are considered holistically and social factors are considered to promote a healthy lifestyle.

Reference list

  • Acheson report 1998. 2018. Healthorguk. [Online]. [10 April 2018]. Available from: http://navigator.health.org.uk/content/independent-inquiry-inequalities-health-report-‘acheson-report’-was-published-november-1998
  • Albert, Steven. M (2004). Public health and aging. (1st ed.) New York: Springer publishing company 
  • Bma, . 2018. BMAorg. [Online]. [12 April 2018]. Available from: file:///C:/Users/Maria/Downloads/Obesity and dietary related illness in the UK.pdf
  • Boseley, Sarah 2017. The guardian. [Online]. [11 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/sep/14/poor-diet-is-a-factor-in-one-in-five-deaths-global-disease-study-reveals
  • Dahlgren G, Whitehead M. (1991) Policies and strategies to promote social equity in health. Stockholm: Institute for future studies. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/6472456.pdf (18 April 2018)
  • Dsm. 2018. Talking Nutrition. [Online]. [16 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.dsm.com/campaigns/talkingnutrition/en_US/talkingnutrition-dsm-com/2014/06/socioeconomic_status_nutrient_intakes.htm
  • Evans Daryl, Coutsaftiki Dina & Fathers Cpatricia (2011). Health Promotion and Public Health for Nursing Students. (1st edition ed.). England: Learning Matters. (Page, 10-12)
  • Evans, D., Coutsaftiki, D., and Patricia Fathers, C. (2011) Health Promotion and Public Health. Place of publication not identified: Learning Matters Ltd.
  • Hayter, cassie. 2018. Onsgovuk. [Online]. [12 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/articles/overviewoftheukpopulation/july2017
  • Kemppainen, Virpi 2012. Nurses’ roles in health promotion practice: an integrative review. Health Promotion International. 28(4), pp. 490-501.
  • Linsley, P., Kane, R., and Owen, S. (2011) Nursing for Public Health – Promotion, Principles, and Practice. United States: Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
  • Naidoo, Jennie & Wills, Jane (2016). Foundation of health promotion. (4th ed.) England: Elsevier publishing company p.61
  • Naidoo, Jennie & Wills, Jane (2016). Foundation of health promotion. (4th ed.) England: Elsevier publishing company p.68
  • Nihgov. 2018. PubMed Central (PMC). [Online]. [14 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4130708/
  • NMC, . 2018. NMC guidance. [Online]. [10 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.nmc.org.uk/standards/guidance/
  • Nursing and midwifery council. 2015. Nmcorguk. [Online]. [11 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/nmc-publications/nmc-code.pdf
  • Office for National Statistics. (2017) Overview of the UK population: July 2017. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/articles/overviewoftheukpopulation/july2017 (16 April 2018)
  • Oupcom. 2018. Tones and Tilford’s empowerment model. [Online]. [18 April 2018]. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/her/article/17/3/376/658585
  • Public interest . 2018. Cspinetorg. [Online]. [12 April 2018]. Available from: https://cspinet.org/eating-healthy/why-good-nutrition-important
  • Rcnorguk. 2018. The Royal College of Nursing. [Online]. [11 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.rcn.org.uk/professional-development/publications/pub-005587
  • Surrey County Council. (2015) Guildford and Waverley CCG Health profile 2015. Pg 8-10. https://www.surreyi.gov.uk/get/ShowResourceFile.aspx?ResourceID=1612 (16 April 2018)
  • Varley and murfin . 2014. Englandnhsuk. [Online]. [10 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/mecc-guid-booklet.pdf
  • Who. 2007. Whoint. [Online]. [8 April 2018]. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/public-health-services
  • Who. 2018. Whoint. [Online]. [8 April 2018]. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/public-health-services
  • Wwwgovuk. 2016. Health and social care information center. [Online]. [14 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/health-and-social-care-information-centre
  • Wwwgovuk. 2018. Public health England. [Online]. [12 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/phe-publishes-latest-data-on-nations-diet
  • Wwwgovuk. 2018. Wwwgovuk. [Online]. [24 April 2018]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/office-for-national-statistics

We have 98 writers available online to start working on your essay just NOW!

Related Topics

Related essays.

By clicking "Send essay" you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement . We will occasionally send you account related emails.

By clicking "Receive essay" you agree to our Terms of service and Privacy statement . We will occasionally send you account related emails.

We can edit this one and make it plagiarism-free in no time

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy .

Public Health, Health Promotion, and Health Education Presentation


The relationship between public health, health promotion and health education is an interesting one yet has humble origins that begin within with your average school. The relationship between the three factors is progressive, in that it seemingly looks like a pyramid with public health situated at the very top while health education is at the base of the pyramid.

  • Public Health;
  • Health Promotion;
  • Health Education.


Health Education

What must be understood is that it is necessary to know what it means to live a healthy lifestyle, the factors that contribute towards an unhealthy way of living what steps must be taken to become healthy and how to do so that enables a person to actually become healthy (Rowlands, Khazaezadeh, Oteng-Ntim, Seed, Barr & Weiss, 2013). Without this knowledge, people are more likely to stumble forward in relation to living a healthy lifestyle.

First and foremost, what must be understood is that health education acts as the base of the pyramid since it is the primary means by which people learn how to eat and be healthy. What must be understood is that it is necessary to know what it means to live a healthy lifestyle, the factors that contribute towards an unhealthy way of living what steps must be taken to become healthy and how to do so that enables a person to actually become healthy (Rowlands, Khazaezadeh, Oteng-Ntim, Seed, Barr & Weiss, 2013). Without this knowledge, people are more likely to stumble forward in relation to living a healthy lifestyle and would tend to assume the general misleading hype that is currently being promoted by the mass market in relation to what you are eating (ex: a calorie is a calorie – a completely false method of advertising proper eating habits) (Rowlands et al., 2013).

Health Education

Health Promotion

Health promotion seeks to alter such attitudes and help people realize the necessity of living a healthier lifestyle where they use the health education given to them early on to make better decisions in relation to what they eat and their level of physical activity (Wood et al., 2014).

Health promotion consists of the various campaigns conducted by governmental and nongovernmental organizations in relation to developing healthy lifestyles and eating habits. This practice builds upon the knowledge gained from health education, yet focuses on changing attitudes in relation to being healthy. What must be understood is that one of the primary detrimental factors towards leading a healthy lifestyle is your general attitude towards it. While a person may know what is healthy and what is not, a large percentage of the population still continues to practice unhealthy habits (ex: smoking and binge drinking soft drinks despite the fact that you know its bad for you) (Hilton, Wood, Patterson & Katikireddi, 2014). Health promotion seeks to alter such attitudes and help people realize the necessity of living a healthier lifestyle where they use the health education given to them early on to make better decisions in relation to what they eat and their level of physical activity (Wood et al., 2014).

Health Promotion

Public Health

Once populations are well educated regarding proper health practices and have been sufficiently influenced by practices involving health promotion, this manifests itself into general better rates of public health. Through practices involving public health, factors in relation to “at risk” populations are identified, strategies to resolve the issue are developed and afterwards are implemented via health education and health promotion practices (Riley & Buttriss, 2011).

The two aforementioned factors of health education and health promotion manifest themselves in general public health. Once populations are well educated regarding proper health practices and have been sufficiently influenced by practices involving health promotion, this manifests itself into general better rates of public health. Through practices involving public health, factors in relation to “at risk” populations are identified, strategies to resolve the issue are developed and afterwards are implemented via health education and health promotion practices (Riley & Buttriss, 2011). There are several examples of this that can be seen in the UK, for instance, there is the current issue of the growing rate of obesity within the country which was identified some time ago. In order to address this problem, health education campaigns aimed at children and young adults were created after which new health promotion campaigns were subsequently implemented via advertisements, leaflets etc. The end result was a generally far more educated younger population that understood what methods needed to be implemented in order to lead healthier lifestyles and were generally encouraged to do so via the various promotional campaigns that highlighted the dangers that obesity presented which could kill them in the long run (Riley & Buttriss, 2011).

Public Health

Reference List

Hilton, S., Wood, K., Patterson, C., & Katikireddi, S. (2014). Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: What can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?. Social Science & Medicine , 102 157-164.

Riley, H. H., & Buttriss, J. L. (2011). A UK public health perspective: what is a healthy sustainable diet?. Nutrition Bulletin , 36 (4), 426-431.

Rowlands, G., Khazaezadeh, N., Oteng-Ntim, E., Seed, P., Barr, S., & Weiss, B. D. (2013). Development and validation of a measure of health literacy in the UK: the newest vital sign. BMC Public Health , 13 (1), 1-9.

  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2022, August 17). Public Health, Health Promotion, and Health Education. https://ivypanda.com/essays/public-health-health-promotion-and-health-education/

"Public Health, Health Promotion, and Health Education." IvyPanda , 17 Aug. 2022, ivypanda.com/essays/public-health-health-promotion-and-health-education/.

IvyPanda . (2022) 'Public Health, Health Promotion, and Health Education'. 17 August.

IvyPanda . 2022. "Public Health, Health Promotion, and Health Education." August 17, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/public-health-health-promotion-and-health-education/.

1. IvyPanda . "Public Health, Health Promotion, and Health Education." August 17, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/public-health-health-promotion-and-health-education/.


IvyPanda . "Public Health, Health Promotion, and Health Education." August 17, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/public-health-health-promotion-and-health-education/.

  • The Pyramids of Giza
  • Examining an Archeological Site: The Pyramids of Egypt
  • Stepped Pyramids in Egypt
  • Egyptian Pyramids in Sociocultural Depiction
  • Egyptian Pyramid’s Importance in Egypt’s Society
  • Art and Design: Wonders of the Egyptian Pyramids
  • Architecture: Pyramid of Djoser
  • Fall Risks and Prevention Strategies
  • Sensory Integration Disorders: Impact on Learning
  • Influence of Propaganda Politics
  • How Humanizing Healthcare Environments Impact Patient Well-Being
  • Title II: Role of Public Programs
  • Women’s Healthcare: Perspectives in a Primary Care
  • Seven Waste Operations in Healthcare Management
  • Mental Health of Community


  1. Public Health: Promoting Health and Wellbeing

    The main aims of public health and health promotion are shown in the Public Health Outcomes Framework 2016-2019, this essay will be focused on one indicator in particular under the framework's second objective; '2.09 Smoking prevalence - 15-year olds' (Department of Health, 2016).

  2. Health Promotion Essay

    Health Promotion Essay Info: 3291 words (13 pages) Nursing Essay Published: 11th Feb 2020 Reference this Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp This written rationale will identify and explain the necessity for the promotion of public health and physical activity.

  3. (PDF) An Introduction to the Health Promotion ...

    Chapter: 1 Publisher: Springer Nature Authors: Gørill Haugan Nord University Monica Eriksson University West Abstract and Figures Currently, the world faces a shift to an older population. For the...

  4. Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health

    Introduction. Health promotion is more relevant today than ever in addressing public health problems. The health scenario is positioned at unique crossroads as the world is facing a 'triple burden of diseases' constituted by the unfinished agenda of communicable diseases, newly emerging and re-emerging diseases as well as the unprecedented rise of noncommunicable chronic diseases.

  5. 187 Health Promotion Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    1 hour! 187 Health Promotion Essay Topic Ideas & Examples Updated: Nov 9th, 2023 20 min Table of Contents 🏆 Best Health Promotion Topic Ideas & Essay Examples Important Initiatives in the Promotion of Public Health In addition, the task force recognised the importance of enhancing access to healthy foods in the country.

  6. Health Promotion Essays: Examples, Topics, & Outlines

    PAGES 1 WORDS 308 Health Promotion While some health problems and diseases are congenital, health is largely a matter of common sense and lifestyle habits. Therefore, any community health program must include means by which citizens can make healthy lifestyle choices. Choices must be affordable, accessible, and convenient.

  7. (PDF) Ethical issues in public health promotion

    Health promotion is a key element of public health practice. Among strategies aiming to deal with public health problems, health promotion purports to help people achieve better...

  8. Health promotion in context: A reflective-analytical model

    Reflections on individual and social factors of importance for health are increasingly important in health-promotion education, as inequities and inequalities in health are growing despite a yearlong political focus to reduce them [1,2,3].A variety of often conflicting goals, power structures, needs and interests prevail in the field of health promotion.

  9. Health Promotion Reflective Essay Sample

    Health promotion is a means of empowering and enabling a particular target group to use the available resources to promote action-oriented and competent-based health that is sustainable to reduced inequalities (Grabowski et al., 2017).

  10. Effective health promoting school for better health ...

    Dooris M. Holistic and sustainable health improvement: the contribution of the settings-based approach to health promotion. Perspectives Public Health. 2009;129(1):29-36. Article Google Scholar Dooris M. Expert voices for change: bridging the silos—towards healthy and sustainable settings for the 21 st century. Health Place. 2013;20:39-50.

  11. Health Promotion & Public Health: Essay Example, 2470 words

    Health Promotion & Public Health Introduction The aim of this essay is to discuss the public health issue of adverse childhood experiences and mental health in adults which affects individuals/communities in the author's field of practice.

  12. Public Health And Health Promotion

    There are five strategic SMART objectives that as a PR need to be focused and improved on:- Strategic Objective: Establish & Strengthen Health in All Policies (HiAP) Strategic Objective: Develop Effective, Quality And Innovative Health Promotion Programmes to reduce Obesity, Unhealthy Diet, Physical Inactivity And Tobacco Use

  13. Public Health in Midwifery: Reflective Essay Sample

    Introduction Public health promotion is critical in midwifery practice (Soucy et al., 2023). It ensures that mothers and newborns receive best clinical outcomes (Smith et al., 2017). As such, midwives must understand the principles and practices of public health promotion.

  14. Health Promotion Plan: Immunization

    Immunization is the process of acquiring immunity against disease by getting vaccinated. In that regard, immunization is similar to global public health interventions such as strict sanitation practices and facilitating access to clean drinking water (Rodrigues & Plotkin, 2020). Immunization is undeniably related to an improvement in global ...

  15. Public Health and Health Promotion

    Web. This assessment, "The Relationships Between Public Health and Health Promotion" is published exclusively on IvyPanda's free essay examples database. You can use it for research and reference purposes to write your own paper. However, you must cite it accordingly . Donate a paper.

  16. Public Health, Health, and Well-being Essay

    Individuals who work in public health and disease prevention attempt to prevent others from getting sick or injured, promote wellness by promoting healthy behaviors, track disease outbreaks, prevent injury and shed light on why some individuals are more likely to suffer from poorer health than others (American Public Health Association, 2021).

  17. Student reflections in a first year public health and health promotion unit

    This paper provides an overview of the use of reflective practice as an assessment task in a first year, first trimester, undergraduate health promotion and public health unit. Reflective practice ...

  18. Promoting Public Health and Wellbeing

    Get original essay. As indicated previously, the promotion and upkeep of public health are important to the health of the population and to society as a whole. It's about helping members of the public stay healthy by protecting and educating them about the potential threats and risks that could affect their health and wellbeing.

  19. Developing Leadership for Health Promotion Essay

    The main ones include guidance, influence, inspiration, support, responsiveness to others' needs, development of a shared direction and vision (Moodie 2016). As for Leadership in public health, Moodie (2016) defines it as maximizing personal potential, as well as the sense of personal worth and meaning, along with maximizing "the potential ...

  20. Health Promotion Essay

    Curtin University (2012) states that 'with a significant proportion of ill-health related to choices about nutrition, exercise, the use of legal and illegal substances, interpersonal relationships and other social behaviours, health promotion can help us make choices that support well-being.' Get Help With Your Essay

  21. Public Health: Promoting Health And Wellbeing

    Health promotion in conjunction with a nurse's role in public health will be highlighted through this essay. This essay will focus on the Public Health Outcome 2.11 Diet, promoting a healthy lifestyle to a group of individuals, including a specific planned health promotion intervention targeted in Guilford and surrounding areas.

  22. Public Health Promotion Program Evaluation Essay

    This essay, "Public Health Promotion Program Evaluation" is published exclusively on IvyPanda's free essay examples database. You can use it for research and reference purposes to write your own paper. However, you must cite it accordingly. Donate a paper. Removal Request.

  23. Public Health, Health Promotion, and Health Education

    Health promotion seeks to alter such attitudes and help people realize the necessity of living a healthier lifestyle where they use the health education given to them early on to make better decisions in relation to what they eat and their level of physical activity (Wood et al., 2014). 1 hour!