Terrorism Essay for Students and Teacher

500+ words essay on terrorism essay.

Terrorism is an act, which aims to create fear among ordinary people by illegal means. It is a threat to humanity. It includes person or group spreading violence, riots, burglaries, rapes, kidnappings, fighting, bombings, etc. Terrorism is an act of cowardice. Also, terrorism has nothing to do with religion. A terrorist is only a terrorist, not a Hindu or a Muslim.

terrorism essay

Types of Terrorism

Terrorism is of two kinds, one is political terrorism which creates panic on a large scale and another one is criminal terrorism which deals in kidnapping to take ransom money. Political terrorism is much more crucial than criminal terrorism because it is done by well-trained persons. It thus becomes difficult for law enforcing agencies to arrest them in time.

Terrorism spread at the national level as well as at international level.  Regional terrorism is the most violent among all. Because the terrorists think that dying as a terrorist is sacred and holy, and thus they are willing to do anything. All these terrorist groups are made with different purposes.

Causes of Terrorism

There are some main causes of terrorism development  or production of large quantities of machine guns, atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, nuclear weapons, missiles, etc. rapid population growth,  Politics, Social, Economic  problems, dissatisfaction of people with the country’s system, lack of education, corruption, racism, economic inequality, linguistic differences, all these are the major  elements of terrorism, and terrorism flourishes after them. People use terrorism as a weapon to prove and justify their point of view.  The riots among Hindus and Muslims are the most famous but there is a difference between caste and terrorism.

The Effects Of Terrorism

Terrorism spreads fear in people, people living in the country feel insecure because of terrorism. Due to terrorist attacks, millions of goods are destroyed, the lives of thousands of innocent people are lost, animals are also killed. Disbelief in humanity raises after seeing a terrorist activity, this gives birth to another terrorist. There exist different types of terrorism in different parts of the country and abroad.

Today, terrorism is not only the problem of India, but in our neighboring country also, and governments across the world are making a lot of effort to deal with it. Attack on world trade center on September 11, 2001, is considered the largest terrorist attack in the world. Osama bin Laden attacked the tallest building in the world’s most powerful country, causing millions of casualties and death of thousands of people.

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Terrorist Attacks in India

India has suffered several terrorist attacks which created fear among the public and caused huge destruction. Here are some of the major terrorist attacks that hit India in the last few years: 1991 – Punjab Killings, 1993 – Bombay Bomb Blasts, RSS Bombing in Chennai, 2000 – Church Bombing, Red Fort Terrorist Attack,2001- Indian Parliament Attack, 2002 – Mumbai Bus Bombing, Attack on Akshardham Temple, 2003 – Mumbai Bombing, 2004 – Dhemaji School Bombing in Assam,2005 – Delhi Bombings, Indian Institute of Science Shooting, 2006 – Varanasi Bombings, Mumbai Train Bombings, Malegaon Bombings, 2007 – Samjhauta Express Bombings, Mecca Masjid Bombing, Hyderabad Bombing, Ajmer Dargah Bombing, 2008 – Jaipur Bombings, Bangalore Serial Blasts, Ahmedabad Bombings, Delhi Bombings, Mumbai Attacks, 2010 – Pune Bombing, Varanasi Bombing.

The recent ones include 2011 – Mumbai Bombing, Delhi Bombing, 2012 – Pune Bombing, 2013 – Hyderabad Blasts, Srinagar Attack, Bodh Gaya Bombings, Patna Bombings, 2014 – Chhattisgarh Attack, Jharkhand Blast, Chennai Train Bombing, Assam Violence, Church Street Bomb Blast, Bangalore, 2015 –  Jammu Attack, Gurdaspur Attack, Pathankot Attack, 2016 – Uri Attack, Baramulla Attack, 2017 – Bhopal Ujjain Passenger Train Bombing, Amarnath Yatra Attack, 2018 Sukma Attack, 2019- Pulwama attack.

Agencies fighting Terrorism in India

Many police, intelligence and military organizations in India have formed special agencies to fight terrorism in the country. Major agencies which fight against terrorism in India are Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS), Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), National Investigation Agency (NIA).

Terrorism has become a global threat which needs to be controlled from the initial level. Terrorism cannot be controlled by the law enforcing agencies alone. The people in the world will also have to unite in order to face this growing threat of terrorism.

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Essay on Terrorism

Essay on Terrorism: The horrific events of 9/11 at the World Trade Centre and the terrorist strikes on the Taj Hotel in Mumbai on June 26, 2011, come to mind when we discuss terrorism. Terrorism is an act of violence to achieve political or ideological gains. Terrorism is a threat to life. Killing innocent people in the name of religion or politics shows that it’s an act of a coward. The motive for terror activities is to create fear inside people. Terrorist activities include different types of violent activities, communal fighting, riots, kidnappings, rapes, robbery, assault, and the list is endless. Barrack Obama once said ‘No religion is responsible for terrorism. People are responsible for Terrorism and Violence.’

Table of Contents

  • 1.1 Types of Terrorism
  • 2 Consequences of Terrorism
  • 3 How to Fight Terrorism?
  • 4 Top 10 Quotes On Terrorism

Quick Read: Essay on Indian Army in 500+ Words

Factors That Contribute to Terrorism

Terrorism is not born overnight. Several factors are responsible for giving birth to terrorism. Political grievances and religious extremism are the two main factors causing terrorism. 

It happens quite often when a certain group or individuals feel marginalized, oppressed, or disenfranchised by their government or ruling authority. In situations like these, they try to resort to terrorism as a means of expressing their grievances and seeking change. Corrupt government, authoritarianism, lack of political representation, human rights abuses, and discrimination, are the major factors causing political grievances.

Religious extremists are also responsible for terrorism. These people brainwash younger people against other communities and wage religious war against them. Extremist ideologies distort religious teachings to promote hatred, intolerance, and the justification of violence against perceived enemies.

Apart from these two factors, socioeconomic situations and geopolitical rivalries can also provoke people against others; resulting in terrorist activities. Poors and the unemployed are the most vulnerable as terrorist or extremist organisations try to offer them financial incentives or a sense of purpose. 

Types of Terrorism

Terrorism is not just about holding an assault rifle and shooting at innocent people. Terrorism is of two types: Political Terrorism and Criminal Terrorism . Both these harm the credible image of a country or a region and affect in a nation’s daily political and economic activities.

Consequences of Terrorism

The consequences of terrorism are worse than a 7.7 magnitude earthquake or any other natural disaster. This man-made disaster not only kills innocent but creates fear, which is everlasting. 

Terrorist activities hamper the economic and political development of a country. In a state where terrorism exists, people are always in fear of death or any mishap. Thanks to terrorism countries like Pakistan, Syria, Afghanistan, etc. are not able to develop.

The consequences of terrorism are loss of life, physical injuries, psychological trauma, economic damage and social disruption. It can also lead to increased security measures, erosion of civil liberties, and heightened ethnic or religious tensions.

How to Fight Terrorism?

Anti-terrorism is a fight between justice and evil, civilisation and savagery. To fight terrorism, we need international cooperation and a multi-faceted approach. Addressing the root cause of terrorism can be the first step in fighting terrorism. When we understand the cause of a problem, we can come up with better and more comprehensive solutions.

Strengthening law enforcement capabilities can help in the prevention and investigation of terrorist activities. It can also improve intelligence gathering and analysis to disrupt terrorist networks. 

India, for a long, has been accusing some countries of state-sponsored terrorism. But, it was only after 9/11 that India received global cooperation. Today, global powers are determined to eradicate terrorism from its root. 

Building trust and cooperation between communities is very important. It can help law enforcement agencies to prevent radicalization and promote early intervention.

Quick Read: Essay on National Language

Top 10 Quotes On Terrorism

Here are 10 quotes on terrorism. 

‘Terrorism has no nationality or religion.’ – Vladimir Putin

‘Terrorism is the tactic of demanding the impossible, and demanding it at gunpoint.’ – Christopher Hitchens

‘The only way to deal with terrorism is to understand why it happens.’ – Arundhati Roy

‘Terrorism is the war of the poor, and war is the terrorism of the rich.’ – Peter Ustinov

‘Terrorism is the price of empire. If you do not wish to pay the price, you must give up the empire.’ – Pat Buchanan

‘One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.’ – Gerald Seymour

‘Terrorism is a psychological warfare. Terrorists try to manipulate us and change our behaviour by creating fear, uncertainty, and division in society.’ – Patrick J. Kennedy

‘The greatest threat to our way of life isn’t terrorism, it’s the response to terrorism.’ – Simon Jenkins

‘The object of terrorism is terrorism. The object of oppression is oppression. The object of torture is torture. The object of murder is murder. The object of power is power.’ – George Orwell

‘Terrorism is the war of today, and war is the terrorism of yesterday.’ – Howard Zinn

Quick Read: Essay on the Importance of English Language

Ans: Terrorism is an act of violence to achieve political or ideological gains. Terrorism is a threat to life. Killing innocent people in the name of religion or politics shows that it’s an act of a coward, a monster. The motive for terror activities is to create fear inside people. Terrorist activities include different types of violent activities, communal fighting, riots, kidnappings, rapes, robbery, assault, and the list is endless.

Ans: Political Grievances, religious extremism, ethnic or nationalist conflicts, socioeconomic factors and geopolitical relations are the primary causes of terrorism.

Ans: ‘No religion is responsible for terrorism. People are responsible for Terrorism and Violence.’ – Barrack Obama (Former US President)

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Essay on Terrorism

India has a lengthy history of terrorism. It is a cowardly act by terrorist organisations that want to sabotage the nation's tranquillity. It seeks to instil fear among the population. They seek to maintain a permanent climate of dread among the populace to prevent the nation from prospering. Here are a few sample essays on Terrorism .

Essay on Terrorism

100 Words Essay on Terrorism

Terrorism is the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political and personal aims. It is a global phenomenon that has affected countries worldwide, causing harm to innocent civilians, damaging economies, and destabilizing governments. The causes of terrorism are complex and can include religious extremism, political oppression, and economic inequality.

Terrorist groups use a variety of tactics, including bombings, kidnappings, and hijackings, to achieve their goals. They often target symbols of government and military power, as well as civilians in crowded public spaces. The impact of terrorism on society is devastating, leading to loss of life, injury, and psychological trauma.

Combating terrorism requires a multifaceted approach, including intelligence gathering, law enforcement, and military action. Additionally, addressing underlying issues such as poverty and political marginalization is crucial in preventing the radicalization of individuals and the emergence of terrorist groups.

200 Words Essay on Terrorism

Terrorism is a complex and ever-evolving threat that affects countries and communities around the world. It involves the use of violence and intimidation to achieve political or ideological goals. The causes of terrorism can vary, but often include religious extremism, political oppression, and economic inequality.

To truly understand the impact of terrorism, it's important to consider not only the physical harm caused by terrorist attacks but also the emotional and psychological toll it takes on individuals and communities. The loss of life and injury caused to innocent civilians is devastating and can leave families and communities reeling for years to come. In addition, terrorism can cause physical damage to infrastructure and buildings, as well as economic disruption, leading to decreased tourism and investment.

To effectively combat terrorism, it's important to take a holistic approach that addresses not only the immediate threat of terrorist attacks but also the underlying issues that can lead to radicalization and the emergence of terrorist groups. This can include addressing poverty and economic inequality, promoting political and religious tolerance, and providing support and resources to individuals and communities at risk of radicalization.

It's also important to remember that the fight against terrorism is not just the responsibility of governments and law enforcement agencies, but also of individuals and communities. By promoting understanding and compassion, and by standing up against hate and extremism, we can all play a role in preventing terrorism and creating a more peaceful world.

500 Words Essay on Terrorism

According to a United Nations Security Council report from November 2004, terrorism is any act that is "intended to result in the death or serious bodily harm of civilians or non-combatants to intimidate the population or to compel the government or an international organisation to do or abstain from doing any act."

The Origins of Terrorism

The development or production of massive numbers of machine guns, atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, nuclear weapons, missiles, and other weapons fuels terrorism. Rapid population growth, political, social, and economic problems, widespread discontent with the political system, a lack of education, racism, economic inequality, and linguistic discrepancies are all important contributors to the emergence of terrorism. Sometimes one uses terrorism to take a position and stick with it.

The Effects Of Terrorism

People become afraid of terrorism and feel unsafe in their nation. Terrorist attacks result in the destruction of millions of items, the death of thousands of innocent people, and the slaughter of animals. After seeing a terrorist incident, people become less inclined to believe in humanity, which breeds more terrorists.

Different forms of terrorism can be found both domestically and overseas. Today, governments worldwide are working hard to combat terrorism, which is an issue in India and our neighbouring nations. The 9/11 World Trade Centre attack is considered the worst terrorist act ever. Osama bin Laden attacked the tallest building in the world’s most powerful country, causing millions of casualties and the death of thousands of people.

The major incidents of the terrorist attack in India are—

12 March 1993 - A series of 13 bombs go off, killing 257

14 March 2003 - A bomb goes off in a train in Mulund, killing 10

29 October 2005 Delhi bombings

2005 Ram Janmabhoomi attack in Ayodhya

2006 Varanasi bombings

11 July 2006 - A series of seven bombs go off in trains, killing

26 November 2008 to 29 November 2008 - A series of coordinated attacks killed at least 170.

According to this data, India has experienced an upsurge in terrorist activity since 1980. India has fought four wars against terrorism , losing more than 6000 persons in total. Already, we have lost around 70000 citizens. Furthermore, we lost over 9000 security staff. In this country, about 6 lakh individuals have undergone.

Agencies In India Fighting Terrorism

There are numerous organisations working to rid our nation of terrorism. These organizations operate continuously, from the municipal to the national levels. To stop local terrorist activity, police forces have various divisions.

The police departments have a specialized intelligence and anti-terrorism division that is in charge of eliminating Naxalites and other terrorist organizations. The military is in charge of bombing terrorist targets outside of our country. These departments engage in counterinsurgency and other similar operations to dismantle various terrorist organisations.

There are numerous organisations that work to prevent terrorism. Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) , National Investigation Agency (NIA) , and Research and Analysis Wing are a few of the top organizations (RAW) . These are some of the main organizations working to rid India of terrorism.

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The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Underwriter

An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Finance Executive

Product manager.

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Stock Analyst

Individuals who opt for a career as a stock analyst examine the company's investments makes decisions and keep track of financial securities. The nature of such investments will differ from one business to the next. Individuals in the stock analyst career use data mining to forecast a company's profits and revenues, advise clients on whether to buy or sell, participate in seminars, and discussing financial matters with executives and evaluate annual reports.

A Researcher is a professional who is responsible for collecting data and information by reviewing the literature and conducting experiments and surveys. He or she uses various methodological processes to provide accurate data and information that is utilised by academicians and other industry professionals. Here, we will discuss what is a researcher, the researcher's salary, types of researchers.

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Safety Manager

A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Structural Engineer

A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software. 

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Pathologist

A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Veterinary Doctor

Speech therapist, gynaecologist.

Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

Audiologist

The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

Are you searching for an ‘Anatomist job description’? An Anatomist is a research professional who applies the laws of biological science to determine the ability of bodies of various living organisms including animals and humans to regenerate the damaged or destroyed organs. If you want to know what does an anatomist do, then read the entire article, where we will answer all your questions.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

Choreographer

The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

Photographer

Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication) , B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media) , or  MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.  

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager

A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

Process Development Engineer

The Process Development Engineers design, implement, manufacture, mine, and other production systems using technical knowledge and expertise in the industry. They use computer modeling software to test technologies and machinery. An individual who is opting career as Process Development Engineer is responsible for developing cost-effective and efficient processes. They also monitor the production process and ensure it functions smoothly and efficiently.

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

ITSM Manager

Automation test engineer.

An Automation Test Engineer job involves executing automated test scripts. He or she identifies the project’s problems and troubleshoots them. The role involves documenting the defect using management tools. He or she works with the application team in order to resolve any issues arising during the testing process. 

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How to Write an Essay on Terrorism: Complete Guide

Terrorism became a global problem as soon as we decided to make it a global problem. Terrorist acts have always been a part of the history of conflicts between countries, nations, religions, and ideologies. It became global when we started sharing these horror stories and broadcasting them around the globe. This topic is current and complex: there is a good chance that you’ll have to write a terrorism essay at least once in your life.

We want you to be ready. We’ve prepared this guide to simplify the writing process as much as possible. Tips, terrorism research paper topics, reliable sources – everything is here.

How to Make Your Terrorism Essay Better: 10 Tips

We’re sure that you know how to write an essay on terrorism – the same way as any other essay. But we want to remind you of a few things that can simplify the writing process and entail a better result and a higher grade. So, be attentive:

1. Pick a narrow topic.

You won’t be able to develop a broad topic in your terrorism essay properly. You’ll only have two or three pages, so don’t try to bite more than you can chew. You can pick one of the topics that we’ve gathered for you in this guide below.

2. Conduct thorough research.

You don’t have to spend days at the library digging through ancient dusty scrolls to find necessary information. A few hours of surfing the internet is usually enough to find many sources and pick important quotes that might enforce your arguments.

3. Choose reliable sources.

And speaking of sources, you should be very picky at this point. The internet is full of garbage: fake news, unverified facts, and “expert” opinions of bloggers. Don’t fall in this trap! Use only trustworthy sources: online encyclopedias (not Wikipedia), scientific journals, non-fiction books, reputable newspapers, etc.

4. Make an outline.

This is an obvious tip, but a really helpful one. An outline will establish the structure of your essay about terrorism and help you organize your thoughts. We also recommend you to include keywords if you don’t want to forget about the essential details.

5. Compose your thesis statement.

The thesis statement is the starting point of your essay. It won’t let you get off your writing track. Imagine that you have to explain the main points of your essay in one sentence – this would be the perfect thesis statement.

6. Find an original point of view.

Don’t be afraid of expressing your personal opinion. Of course, the topic of terrorism is debatable and painful, but you have to be honest with yourself and your readers. Writing a terrorism essay can be quite challenging, but you have this guide and your logical thinking, so it’s not that bad.

7. Use strong arguments.

Let’s define a strong argument first. A strong argument is a piece of evidence that proves your point in such a way that your readers are persuaded to believe you. We suggest you to use real-life examples, quotations from reliable sources, statistical data, and verified facts as your arguments. Avoid logical fallacies, as attentive readers will notice them, and you’ll lose their trust.

8. Stick to an academic writing style.

No matter what type of essay you’ll choose, you have to use an academic writing style. No jargon, no contractions, and no exclamation marks! If you’re new to academic standards, you should read about the requirements in your college code.

9. Format your terrorism essay properly.

Using the proper formatting style is another peculiarity when it comes to writing essays. MLA, APA, Chicago, and Harvard are the most common formats. Your instructor will specify the required style in his or her task. Sticking to the proper formatting style influences your general grade.

10. Use online tools.

Online services make students’ lives much easier. These tools can check your writing and make it free of mistakes. If you don’t have much time to write your essay, you can always rely on one of these writing services – for example, EssayBulls.

Tips – DONE! You know how to write an essay on terrorism, and we’ve shown you how to make it better. Now, let’s focus on what topics you can analyze in your essay. We’ll start with the types of terrorism.

7 Types of Terrorism to Write About in Your Terrorism Essay

The types of terrorism differ in their causes, purposes, and methods. We hope that you’ll learn more about this global problem from the section below:

  • Religious terrorism

Also known to be non-political, religious terrorism is aimed at religious purposes and is motivated by the reasons of a predominantly religious character.

  • Dissent terrorism

Dissent terrorists want to overthrow the existing government or to change the state policy drastically using terrorist attacks as a political tool.

  • Political terrorism

This type of terrorism is used by political parties and organizations against other political factions. Civilians are the most frequent victims of such attacks.

  • State-sponsored terrorism

Such terrorist acts are initiated by the government, often secretly, to achieve a specific goal. This method is frequently used in conflicts with other countries.

  • Quasi-terrorism

A quasi-terrorist is a person who acts like a real terrorist and uses the same methods but doesn’t have the same motivation. They’re often criminals who take hostages and threaten their lives to achieve a particular goal.

  • Civil disorder

Civil disorders are a form of violent protests that frequently cause the destruction of private property and injury to civilians. As a rule, the participants want to demonstrate their resentment against the government.

As you see, terrorism is a complex and multifaceted concept. You can describe and analyze any type in your terrorism essays. If you don’t feel inspired enough, we also offer a list of terrorism research paper topics below.

30 Unique Terrorism Research Paper Topics for Your Writing

  • Compare and contrast a few acts of terrorism during the Civil War and in the 21st century.
  • How does terrorism influence US immigration laws?
  • Is there any connection between terrorist acts and immigration laws in Europe?
  • Is terrorism the most important problem in our society?
  • Why do people become suicide bombers?
  • Is terrorism a more significant problem for the USA or for the Middle East?
  • How do terrorists use technologies for their attacks?
  • Is religion the main cause of terrorism in the 21st century?
  • Is cyberterrorism the most dangerous form of terrorist attack?
  • How have the September 11 attacks changed the image of terrorism?
  • Are immoral methods justified when it comes to fighting terrorism?
  • Will the GWOT (Global War on Terrorism) ever end?
  • Can the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki be considered terrorist acts?
  • How can be the internet be used to further terrorists’ goals?
  • What is Al Qaeda? What are the main purposes of this organization?
  • Define the term “Jihad.” Why is its literal meaning not well known?
  • What factors shape public opinion toward terrorism?
  • Can terrorism be considered a political tool?
  • Is the death penalty an effective method to fight terrorism?
  • Compare and contrast dynamic and economic models of terrorism.
  • Why has the level of domestic terrorism increased recently?
  • Define the term “selective terrorism.”
  • Terrorists: criminals or combatants?
  • How does terrorism affect the global economy?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of a soft-line approach to terrorism?
  • How does terrorism affect the perception of Arabs in society?
  • How has the stereotypical image of a terrorist changed over the last 50 years?
  • How can individuals fight terrorism?
  • Does Islam approve of terrorist acts?
  • What makes terrorism so frightening in comparison to other global problems?

Well, have you found something special? We hope so. You have the instruction, and you have the topic. Now, you need to pick a range of sources to use for your writing. We have some suggestions for you right here.

Helpful Resources for Your Terrorism Essay: Articles and Books

You don’t have to use these sources if they aren’t appropriate for your essay. Your instructor may have recommended you particular sources. But if you have any difficulties in gathering information, don’t hesitate to check these lists.

12 Articles to Quote in Your Essay on Terrorism

  • Annette Schaefer. Inside the Terrorist Mind. Scientific American Mind.
  • Katarina Jonev. Terrorist Influence on Children in Cyberspace. The Market for Ideas.
  • Jasper Jackson. Police Urge Public to Help Counter UK’s Complex Terror Threat. The Guardian.
  • Douglas Pratt. Terrorism and Religious Fundamentalism: Prospects for a Predictive Paradigm. Research Gate.
  • Max Abrahms. Why Terrorism Does Not Work. Quarterly Journal: International Security.
  • Scott Atran. Genesis of Suicide Terrorism. Science.
  • CNN Library. US Terrorist Attacks Fast Facts.
  • Steven E. Miller. After the 9/11 Disaster: Washington’s Struggle to Improve Homeland Security. Axess.
  • Peter Bergen. Why Do Terrorists Commit Terrorism? The New York Times.
  • Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada. The Economic Impact of Terrorism: A New Model and Its Application to Pakistan. Journal of Policy Modeling.
  • Zulaika, Joseba, and Imanol Murua. How Terrorism Ends – and Does Not End: The Basque Case. Critical Studies on Terrorism.
  • Parag Khanna. Terrorism As War. Hoover Institution.

20 Books to Quote in Your Essay on Terrorism

  • Jonathan R. White. “Terrorism and Homeland Security.”
  • Clifford E. Simonsen and Jeremy R. Spindlove. “Terrorism Today: The Past, the Players, the Future.”
  • Yael Danieli. “The Trauma of Terrorism: Sharing Knowledge and Shared Care, an International Handbook.”
  • Jonathan Matusitz. “Terrorism and Communication: A Critical Introduction.”
  • Laura Scaife. “Social Networks As the New Frontier of Terrorism: #Terror.”
  • Louise Richardson. “What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Enemy, Containing the Threat.”
  • Bruce Hoffman. “Inside Terrorism.”
  • Stephen Vertigans. “ The Sociology of Terrorism: People, Places and Processes.”
  • Anna Geifman. “Thou Shalt Kill: Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia, 1894-1917.”
  • Dilip Hiro. “War Without End: The Rise of Islamist Terrorism and Global Response.”
  • Dawson, M., & Omar, M. “New Threats and Countermeasures in Digital Crime and Cyber Terrorism.”
  • Gabriel Weimann. “Terrorism in Cyberspace: The Next Generation.”
  • Igor Primoratz. “Terrorism: A Philosophical Investigation.”
  • Richard Jackson. “Writing the War on Terrorism.”
  • Walter Laqueur. “A History of Terrorism.”
  • John R. Liederbach et al. “Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism.”
  • Cynthia C. Combs. “Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century.”
  • Vincenzo Ruggiero. “Understanding Political Violence.”
  • Patrick Sookhdeo. “Understanding Islamist Terrorism: The Islamic Doctrine of War.”
  • Brigitte L. Nacos. “Mass-Mediated Terrorism: The Central Role of the Media in Terrorism and Counterterrorism.”

That’s enough for today. You’re tired, and we’re tired. Still, we believe that you have enough energy to write your terrorism essay. No? Maybe you have enough energy to fill in an ordering form? We promise that it won’t take more than five minutes. And you’ll get an excellent essay on terrorism provided by a professional writer at an affordable price. Imagine how good some rest can be… Pay for college essay and see for yourself!

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The Oxford Handbook of the History of Terrorism

Introduction: Writing the History of Terrorism

Carola Dietze is a professor of modern history (Chair) at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany. Her research focuses on the history of violence, security, and the media as well as on migration and the history of ideas, universities, and historiography in Europe, Russia, and the United States during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Her publications include The Invention of Terrorism in Europe, Russia, and the United States (2021, published in German in 2016 and in Russian in 2021), and “Legitimacy and Security in Historical Perspective: A Case Study in the History of Terrorism,” in Conceptualizing Power in Dynamics of Securitization: Beyond State and International System edited by Regina Kreide and Andreas Langenohl (Baden-Baden, 2019). She is a member of the editorial board of Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. In 2006 Dietze was awarded the German Historical Association’s prize for the best doctoral thesis in the field of history, i.e., from prehistory to contemporary history. The thesis was published in German as Nachgeholtes Leben: Helmuth Plessner, 1892–1985, as well as in Dutch and French translations.

  • Published: 14 April 2021
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This chapter analyzes the most important trends in the writing of the history of terrorism since the beginning of terrorism research in the late nineteenth century up to today. It presents the origins of terrorism studies in Western social sciences and international relations, and it contextualizes the standard narrative of the history of terrorism put forward by the political scientists David C. Rapoport and Walter Laqueur. The chapter traces major developments in the history of terrorism in professional historiography in the Soviet Union or Russia as well as Europe and the United States during and after the Cold War, and especially since the attacks on September 11, 2001, and it outlines the results and effects of that historiography. On the basis of the evaluation of the scholarship available to date, the article maps out the rationale and the contours of the new global history of terrorism pursued in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Terrorism .

Terrorism and its history have been the topic of considerable public, political, literary, artistic, and academic attention, since this specific tactic of violence was invented concurrently with the advent of modernity. 1 It therefore can come as no surprise that the first academic treatises on terrorism as a subject of inquiry began to appear in the nineteenth century. 2 They were a reaction to the series of assassination attempts in Russia and to the “‘golden age’ of anarchist terrorism, 1880–1914,” 3 when an astounding number of monarchs, prime ministers, presidents, governors, and other members of governments and the wider population were attacked especially in Europe, Russia, and the United States, but also in other countries, such as Argentina and China. 4

It was not until the 1970s, however, that in the Western world systematic research on the phenomenon of terrorist violence and its origins began. In the post–World War II era, terrorism had mainly been employed in the struggles over decolonization in Africa and Asia and drew the attention of few researchers in Western academia. 5 In the 1970s terrorist tactics began to be adopted in Western Europe, the United States, and Japan by groups such as the Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion; RAF), the Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse; BR), the Provisional Irish Republican Army, the Weather Underground, and the Japanese Red Army (Nippon Sekigun [JRA]). 6 Reactions to these manifestations of terrorist violence in highly industrialized nations were manifold: intense police work was accompanied by prominent and often severely contested legal and executive measures. 7 Moreover, there were also academic endeavors to analyze and thereby help contain terrorist violence.

Researchers from different disciplines in Western academia turned to the systematic inquiry of the phenomenon and different types of political violence in general and to the study of terrorist attacks specifically. Most of these researchers were social scientists, mainly political scientists and scholars in the field of international relations. They strove to better understand and explain the causes, types, effects, and functioning of terrorism and in this way find possibilities to prevent terrorist violence. 8 As for the history of terrorism, many of these social scientists perceived it as an indispensable part of their work to give an overview of important examples of terrorist violence in the past. The historical perspective, with its developmental narrative and its comparative approach to terrorism in different cultural, historical, and religious settings, enabled them to situate, characterize, analyze, and even theorize the then current phenomena of terrorist violence. 9 For reasons such as these, the history of terrorism often occupies a crucial place in publications and entire oeuvres of the social scientist pioneers in the field of terrorism studies.

The expertise acquired by the pioneer researchers of terrorism in the social sciences was in high demand right away. A considerable number of these researchers would therefore receive positions in think tanks and serve as consultants to governments on counterterrorist policy strategies. They would also often comment on the recurring attacks in the national news media. Moreover, they developed university courses and study programs, or founded journals and research institutions, focused on terrorism and counterterrorism. For example, in 1969 David C. Rapoport taught what was probably the first course on terrorism in the United States, at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). 10 The two most important journals in the field, Terrorism —now Studies in Conflict and Terrorism —and Terrorism and Political Violence were launched in 1977 and 1989, respectively. 11 In 1985 Paul Wilkinson set up the Terrorism Research Unit in the Department of Politics and International Relations at the University of Aberdeen, and in 1994 he and Bruce Hoffman went on to establish the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) at the University of St. Andrews School of International Relations—the first research center for the study of terrorism in Europe. 12 Last but not least, the social-science pioneers and their students published books and anthologies that have become standard reference works for anybody interested in studying terrorism, regardless of disciplinary affiliation. 13 In this way, these pioneers and their students successfully established terrorism studies as a specific academic field, and they gained the privilege and power of interpreting terrorist violence for influential policy makers as well as for broad national and international audiences.

Historians and the History of Terrorism Up to the Year 2000

In the newly defined field of terrorism studies, professional historians were few and far between. This observation is in need of explanation, especially since the writing of history from its very beginnings in Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War —as far as the Western tradition is concerned—typically focuses intently on individual and collective political violence. Recounting, analyzing, and explaining manifestations of political violence—assassinations, coups d’état, rebellions, revolutions, terror, civil wars, and wars between empires and states—have belonged and still belong to the noblest (and often also best-selling) task of the historian. Many historians are therefore indeed experts on political violence of the past, and if political violence follows certain patterns they can, moreover, contribute important insights to the analysis of violent phenomena in the present.

Yet, professional historians have typically shunned the topic of terrorism. 14 The reasons for their reticence are not evident and, with few exceptions, can only be conjectured. One of the few historians to have indicated why he is hesitant to tackle the topic is the highly distinguished military historian and strategic studies expert Sir Michael Eliot Howard. He once wrote in a book review: “[Terrorism is a] huge and ill-defined subject [that] has probably been responsible for more incompetent and unnecessary books than any other outside the field of sociology. It attracts phonies and amateurs as a candle attracts moths.” 15 Howard perceives terrorism as an unpleasant, even obnoxious research topic that is messy in more than one way. To take this observation one step further, historians’ reluctance to deal with the topic of terrorism perhaps was (and to some extent still is) attributable to the fact that they fear researching the history of terrorism might entangle them in contemporary politics and leave them without the distance they require to examine the subject objectively.

Other, more structural reasons for historians’ reservations about terrorism research may be found in the history of historiography. Since its beginnings in the nineteenth century, academic historiography has tended to focus primarily on large structures and processes of national interest, such as the state, domestic or foreign policy, nation building, the church, industrialization, and social movements. When historians did choose to do biographical research on individuals, they usually focused on prominent and important individuals in government and politics, in the economy and society, or in literature and the arts. Terrorists usually do not belong to these categories or fields of investigation and may therefore have seemed tangential or irrelevant to the research questions generated by an emphasis on structures, processes, and personalities. 16 As a result, even though political violence in general is a rich field of study in academic historiography, there has been very little research on terrorism. 17

The observation that professional historical research has been scarce until recently holds true even though professional historians had already begun to study terrorist perpetrators, incidents, and movements in the nineteenth century. 18 And it holds true even though there is one important exception to this rule: the historiography on prerevolutionary Russia, where terrorism obviously influenced the course of history. In 1866 a student named Dmitrii Vladimirovich Karakozov tried to shoot Tsar Alexander II. The tsar was not hurt, but in the wake of the attempt he abandoned the liberal reform policies he had promoted since the beginning of his reign. In response, a group calling itself Narodnaia Volia (People’s Will) was founded in 1879. Its members carried out a number of spectacular assassination attempts on the tsar, finally killing him on March 13 [March 1], 1881 using terrorist tactics. In the face of events such as these, experts in nineteenth-century Russian history have found it necessary to treat the history of terrorism.

In Russia, methodical inquiry into terrorism and its history began soon after the Revolution of 1905. 19 The revolution liberated Narodnaia Volia’s members from prison, and many of them used their unexpected freedom to describe their experiences in their memoirs. 20 Moreover, the Revolution of 1905 achieved some liberalization of the tsarist autocracy and its censorship. Historians could now begin to describe and analyze in independent, source-based studies the assassination attempts on Tsar Alexander II and other representatives of the state. 21 In 1917 the February Revolution and the October Revolution led to the opening of the state archives. As a result, research into the history of terrorism intensified, reaching its first peak in 1929 in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of Narodnaia Volia. 22

Soviet scholarship was not allowed to continue uninterrupted, however: it came to a halt in the mid-1930s, because by that time the prevailing opinion in Soviet academia was that Narodnaia Volia and the Socialist Revolutionary Party (Partiia sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov; PSR) were bourgeois associations striving for a liberal society. Therefore, these terrorist movements were regarded not as predecessors of the revolutionary transformation of Russia, but as enemies of Marxism. For about three decades research on terrorism and its history was nearly impossible. 23 It was not until the 1960s that professional historians in the Soviet Union returned to researching the history of terrorism. After Stalin’s death, the First Secretary of the Communist Party, Nikita Khrushchev, pursued a policy of de-Stalinization and in this context announced a new cultural policy in 1956. It paved the way for a number of new studies on non-Bolshevik revolutionary movements in tsarist Russia that had used terrorist tactics. 24 In sum, by the end of the 1960s a considerable body of Russian-language source editions and studies on nineteenth-century terrorism in tsarist Russia had been published.

By the end of the 1960s, a number of prominent historians in Western countries had also taken up the topic. Initially, most were specialists in the study of Eastern Europe and Russia. They built on the Russian-language research, contributed to it, and wrote their own interpretations of events for their Western reading public. 25 Moreover, in the 1970s, following the lead of social scientists, a few historians open to social-scientific methods in the study of history also turned to the history of terrorism. These Western historians presented broad, comparative studies on a number of cases of political violence, protest, and resistance in the past, 26 as well as in-depth research on significant movements, parties, and groups in prerevolutionary Russia that had used terrorism, placing them in their respective historical contexts and analyzing the causes and effects of their violence. 27 The role of women in the revolutionary movement became a topic of special inquiry. 28 The insights and implications of some of these historians’ work reach far beyond the cases investigated. For instance, in his study The Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party before the First World War , the Eastern European historian Manfred Hildermeier ultimately reflects on the emergence and role of political violence in agrarian societies that undergo processes of modernization, a topic of current and continuing relevance in societies around the world.

In 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Russian and Ukrainian interest in reassessing the non-Bolshevik revolutionary movements without the necessity of taking Soviet ideology into account led to another surge in history writing on this topic. 29 Concurrently, a new generation of Eastern European historians in the West also turned to the history of Russian terrorist movements. 30 Toward the end of the millennium, few professional historians had decided to devote themselves to the study of terrorism, and those historians in both the East and the West who did, focused primarily on the terrorist movements in prerevolutionary Russia. Thus it was that a corpus of systematic research on questions related to the history of terrorism existed mainly for prerevolutionary Russia, and not for other states.

By contrast, in the twentieth century the history of terrorism in the United States did not play much of a role in the country’s national historiography. This was due not least to the fact that terrorism was not seen as homegrown in the United States, but as foreign. 31 There are several reasons for this perception. For one, the terrorist attacks that occurred in the United States were rarely labeled as such. Instead, they were called “acts of resistance” against the politics of Reconstruction following the Civil War, or “labor unrest,” or “mass shootings” perpetrated by “lone gunmen.” 32 In the historiography on left-wing radicalism, scholars often carefully avoided using the term “terrorism” in order to prevent stereotyping. Moreover, if the term was applied to people and groups, from the actions of outlaw Jesse James and of Confederate guerrillas during the Civil War to the bombings of Chicago’s Haymarket Square and the buildings of the Los Angeles Times and Wall Street, in the majority of these studies the terrorist aspect remained peripheral. Thus, although numerous studies on class conflict in the United States, on American anarchism, and on the Ku Klux Klan have been produced by historians since the beginning of the twentieth century and particularly since the 1970s, 33 the primary focus in these studies has not been on the violence involved. The American historian Beverly Gage concluded that although, at the end of the twentieth century, Americans had “ histories of terrorism,” what “did not exist was a coherent historiography of terrorism, a definable way to think about the role such violence has (or has not) played in the American past.” 34 And similarly, for Western Europe there were a number of studies dedicated to certain people, groups, or prominent attacks, 35 but no systematic, in-depth research on the phenomenon of political violence comparable to that found in the historiography of Russia.

Reviewing the entire body of literature taken into account here, we see that the time frame covered by historians in both the East and the West was fairly broad. Collectively and in some cases individually as well, these scholars scrutinized the early-modern and modern eras. Owing to the specific methods and requirements of their discipline, however, they rarely addressed developments and events that took place after the end of World War II. The explanation for this hesitancy to choose more recent topics is straightforward: professional historians rely on archival sources and other written documents or documented oral material. Not surprisingly, in the 1970s such material was rarely available for the then active clandestine terrorist groups, as well as for the then ongoing counterterrorist policies and security measures. 36 Historians therefore had (and in many cases still have) to wait for such documents to become accessible. Their opportunity to research the topic would come with their access to the material.

For these reasons, in the 1970s contributions to the study of terrorism by professional historians could not be useful and readily applicable in the same way as the contributions of the social-scientist pioneers of terrorism studies. This explains why historians working on the topic of terrorist violence had to settle for a relatively marginal position in the attention of policy makers and broad audiences as well as in the emerging field of terrorism studies. None of the professional historians active in terrorism research gained the privilege and power of interpretation comparable to that of the early social scienctists. 37 This became even more obvious after 9/11.

Writing the History of Terrorism in the New Millennium

Since the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, on September 11, 2001, terrorism, terrorism studies, and the history of terrorism have attracted more and more attention. This is why, in the wake of 9/11 and subsequent terrorist attacks across the world, innumerable new works on these topics have appeared in academia. 38 Some of the authors of this literature are the pioneers of terrorism studies; 39 others represent a new generation of experts; 40 some authors were political scientists who were now turning to the topic; 41 and some were journalists or literary writers dealing with the subject for the first time. 42 Whatever their background, all these authors usually intended to introduce students and the wider public to the phenomenon of terrorism, giving interpretations of terrorist violence and its place in the twenty-first century and striving to explain its global surge. Certainly, books belonging to this genre of literature vary considerably in substance, focus, and perspective, but whatever their exact content, and just like the classic introductions to the field written by the pioneers of terrorism studies since the 1970s, in their writings the authors of most of these new interpretations of terrorism addressed historical questions—either explicitly by including a chapter dedicated to the history of terrorism or by pointing to what they regarded as incidences of terrorism in world history, or implicitly by interpreting the past through the present.

As was the social-scientific terrorism literature of the 1970s, the interpretations of the history of terrorism written right at the beginning of the twenty-first century were overwhelmingly rereadings of familiar historical events based on the available literature, rather than investigations into new archival and other primary sources. They also tended to place past events of terrorism and their periodization into the framework of the standard narrative of terrorism studies and influential metanarratives in the social sciences (such as the sequence of the premodern, modern, and postmodern eras), rather than into the frame of specific national and international historical contexts and developments. This is hardly surprising: with few exceptions, most of the authors were, again, academics who had been trained as social scientists. Philosophers, journalists, and pundits also presented prominent and thought-provoking interpretations of 9/11 and subsequent terrorist attacks that were in many respects different and even contradictory, but all of them interesting and influential. 43 And again, taken together, these introductory chapters, narratives, and interpretations explicitly or implicitly suggested ways of reading the history of terrorism.

Certainly, there were also historians who reacted to the attacks on September 11, 2001. But because historical research typically is laborious and time-consuming, their contributions began to appear only toward the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century. Their initial contributions roughly fall into four categories: first, there are monographs and anthologies giving large overviews of terrorism and its history since antiquity; 44 secondly, there are books and special issues of journals covering terrorism since the beginning of the modern era up until today; 45 thirdly, there are publications on the history of specific types of terrorism, such as car bombings or hijackings; 46 and fourthly, there are contributions dealing with prominent cases, such as the book on Karakozov’s attempt to assassinate Tsar Alexander II in 1866 by the historian of modern Russia Claudia Verhoeven, the study on Vera Zasulich’s murder of General Fedor Trepov in St. Petersburg in 1878 by the Russian and Eastern European historian Ana Siljak, the monograph on Émile Henry’s attacks in fin de siecle Paris by the French and European historian John Merriman, and the analysis of the Wall Street bombing in 1920 by the American historian Beverly Gage. 47 The authors of these books, anthologies, and special issues mostly based their studies on published and in some cases also on archival sources including works of art and fiction, as well as on scholarly historical research and writing.

At the same time, toward the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, historical research appeared on the terrorism and counterterrorism carried out during the 1970s. Around the year 2000—thirty years after their formation as prescribed by the respective public records acts in many Western countries—state archives began to declassify certain files associated with national efforts to fight terrorist groups, making these files available for research. Moreover, some victims’ family members as well as a few former members of terrorist organizations began to speak and write about their experiences and memories. Contemporary historians were now able to start researching terrorist groups, such as the Red Army Faction in West Germany and the Weathermen in the United States. 48 Among the most frequently treated research topics were the terrorists’ political ideas, communication policies, media reception, and public debates on attacks, as well as the states’ reactions more generally. 49 Ulrich Herbert used a generational approach to analyze the perspectives of the “generation of 68” toward state, society, and violence; 50 and Jeremy Veron and Petra Terhoeven, as well as the authors of the volume An International History of Terrorism , applied comparative and transnational approaches to investigate the connections and interrelations of terrorist groups and their audiences in Western Europe, the United States, and beyond. 51 Still, historical research on terrorism and counterterrorism in the 1970s has only just begun, and many important questions remain to be investigated.

The social-scientist perspective on the history of terrorism can also be seen in these texts. Either most of the contributions by historians published toward the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century use the framework of the history of terrorism established by the social-scientific pioneers of terrorism studies, or they still fit into this frame even if they do not refer to it explicitly. Usually, the authors of these historical publications did not aim at questioning or challenging these narratives. The approach to the frame of reference changed with a number of publications that started appearing at the beginning of the second decade of the twenty-first century. They still have to be considered academic reactions to 9/11 and to the universal increase of terrorist violence thereafter.

What characterizes the publications by professional historians released since 2010 is that quite a number of these studies present fresh interpretations of the overall history of terrorism. Their authors arrive at these reinterpretations by using different sets of source material and methods of history writing, and they present different narratives. For example, the cultural historian Mikkel Thorup—one of the first to offer such a reevaluation of the standard narrative—uses more or less well-known political tracts and the classic approach of history of ideas as it is applied to the intellectual history of political theory. With the help of this approach, he intends to show that “the state form determines its challengers,” and that it does so not in a conscious or intentional way, but because the state “is the privileged descriptor and all-important center of attention. Changes in how the state organizes, describes and legitimates itself will have profound consequences for how it conceptualizes challenges and how it can be fought, both legitimatorily [ sic ] and violently.” 52 Somewhat similarly, the historian of modern Russia Martin A. Miller integrated into his narrative of the history of terrorism “the violence of governments and insurgencies into a single narrative format as a way of understanding terrorism in its broadest historical representation.” 53 In an article published earlier, Richard Bach Jensen also argued for an essential interconnection between government action and terrorist violence (as well as other factors) in explaining the origins of anarchist violence. 54 Other studies began to reconstruct and analyze little-known cases in addition to the prominent ones and investigated larger time frames in the history of terrorism and counterterrorism based on published and archival sources, as well as on the scholarly social scientific and historical literature. 55 Whatever the precise narrative and its basis, however, a common denominator of all these publications is that—in different ways and with varying emphases—they pay increased attention to the dynamics and interactions between terrorism, on the one hand, and the state, public, and media actions and reactions, on the other, in order to analyze and explain the emergence and development of terrorism during larger time frames. These dynamics and interactions thus become an integral part of the narrative, “bringing the state back in” (Theda Skocpol) to the history of terrorism.

In all these and other studies mentioned previously, research by professional historians has begun to yield results. And as more material becomes available over time, it can be expected that more historical studies will be produced. But how did these results and historical research more generally change the ways in which the history of terrorism is conceived? The answer to this question first requires a review of those interpretations and narratives, which are still dominant in the field of terrorism studies.

Major Narratives of the History of Terrorism

The standard narrative of the global history of terrorism since the 1970s was presented by the polymath Walter Laqueur and the American political scientist David C. Rapoport. Laqueur published his book Terrorism in 1977. 56 This pioneering empirical study covers all aspects of terrorism as a phenomenon of political violence, including its history. Laqueur takes into account a remarkably broad range of terrorist phenomena. As early forms of terrorism, Laqueur mentions the Jewish Sicarii in their fight against the Roman Empire, the Assassins in medieval Persia, and the Indian Thugs. According to Laqueur, the turning point toward modern terrorism is the French Revolution, when the word “terror” ( terreur ) became laden with political and secular meaning. In Laqueur’s opinion, the origins of modern terrorism lie in the Enlightenment and the rise of the revolutionary principles of democracy and nationalism, and especially in the idea of nationhood. As the first high point of terrorist violence he describes the nihilist and anarchist “propaganda of the deed” of the 1880s and 1890s. 57 Furthermore, Laqueur examines nationalist terrorism as exemplified by the Irish, Armenian, and Macedonian separatist movements, and he also addresses right-wing groups such as the Romanian Iron Guard, the German Free Corps, and the Zionist Irgun and Lehi (whose name derives from the acronym LEHI, for Lohamel Herut Israel [“Fighters for the Freedom of Israel”]), as well as the Muslim Brotherhood. 58

Rapoport, who also began to publish on terrorism and its history in the 1970s, developed an influential theoretical approach to the history of terrorism. The theory explains the evolution of terrorism on the basis of historical patterns, making it possible, at least to a certain extent, to predict future developments of the phenomenon. In essays such as “Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions” and in his “four wave theory,” 59 Rapoport argues the existence of a religiously inspired premodern terrorism, like Laqueur citing the Sicarii, Assassins, and Thugs as examples. For Rapoport, modern terrorism began in 1879 in Russia and comprises four ideological waves: anarchist (1878–1919), anticolonial (1920s–early 1960s), New Left (mid-1960s–1990s), and religious (1979–?). He defines a wave as a “cycle of activity in a given time period” and exhibiting an international character, in which “similar activities occur in many countries driven by a common predominant energy shaping participating groups and their mutual relationships.” As the names of these waves suggest, each is driven by a different energy. Rapoport maintains that a wave lasts for approximately a generation. This prognostic capability of theory of waves is one reason his theory is much valued by researchers studying terrorism. 60 Rapoport explains the emergence of the first wave as having been made possible by advances in transportation and communication technology (the invention of the telegraph, the expansion of railways, and the founding of daily newspapers) and having been fueled by the dissemination of democratic ideas and the discovery of a strategy of terror by Russian revolutionaries. Each new wave is then characterized by a new ideology as well as new technologies of communication and weaponry. 61

This narrative of the forerunners of terrorism found in ancient times in religious violence and tyrannicide, the origins of revolutionary terrorism in the terror of the French Revolution, and its evolution by way of Narodnaia Volia in tsarist Russia and anarchist individuals in Western Europe and the United States is today considered valid by the overwhelming majority of the current literature on terrorism and its history. This literature also includes a basic consensus on classifying terrorism according to the categories of social-revolutionary, ethnic-nationalistic, and radically right-wing, even though these three types are not equally integrated into the history of terrorism. In the 1990s, religious terrorism was added as a fourth category. 62

Since the late 1990s and even more prominently since 2001, two contrary counternarratives have begun to challenge the standard narration of the history of terrorism. According to the first counternarrative, modern terrorism begins with the 1972 attack against the Israeli Olympic team in Munich. 63 This interpretation results from an emphasis on the role of technology in this violent attack. The taking of hostages in Munich was the first act of terrorism to be broadcast on television in real time to a worldwide audience. This fact is indeed noteworthy. But while technical innovations may indeed justify the marking of a turning point within the history of terrorism, they do not indicate the beginning of (modern) terrorism, because the tactic of exploiting the media technology then available had already been developed and tested frequently.

The second counternarrative posits that terrorism is a universal phenomenon spanning all of human history. Terrorist violence, argue the authors advocating this approach, has always existed and has been experienced all over the world. 64 The distinction between this interpretation and the standard narrative can be explained by the differences in their understanding of terrorism. Those who view terrorism as an anthropological phenomenon have a broad conception of this form of political violence. For Caleb Carr, terrorism is “warfare deliberately waged against civilians with the purpose of destroying their will to support either leaders or policies that the agents of such violence find objectionable”; 65 and for Martin A. Miller, it is a form of violence encompassing both insurgent terrorism and state terror. 66 Such definitions broaden the history of terrorism into a history of murder, terror, and psychological warfare, which covers a multitude of different violent phenomena ranging from Greek tactics for intimidating opponents, to the Spanish Inquisition, to National Socialist and Stalinist state terror, to the bombing of cities by German and Allied Forces in World War II and the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These are important subjects in a history of violence, but they should not be lumped in with the history of terrorism, lest it lose analytical incisiveness regarding its actual topic and invite revanchist interpretations. 67 Neither of these counternarratives represents a persuasive alternative for a history of terrorism.

The Significance of Place and Time in the History of Terrorism

Within the standard narrative of the history of terrorism, the main focus lies on Russia. Even if Laqueur and Rapoport both mention different beginnings and forms of terrorism, they concurrently argue that the decisive and potent manifestation of modern terrorism originated in Russia, and that the most important organization in the history of terrorism was the Russian group Narodnaia Volia, founded in 1879. After all, it was the members of Narodnaia Volia who self-confidently professed to be terrorists, and it was they who assassinated Tsar Alexander II in 1881. So—at least at first glance—there are indeed good and historically precise arguments to be made for highlighting the part that Russia played in the history of terrorism, not least because terrorism played such a decisive role in Russian history.

Furthermore, the times and circumstances under which the standard narrative of the history of terrorism was developed may have encouraged a focus on Russia. Laqueur and Rapoport developed the standard narrative of the history of terrorism in the 1970s—during the middle of the Cold War. In the eyes of many historians who were researching and writing during the Cold War, the importance to world history of the series of assassination attempts that Russian terrorists staged in 1866 and again after 1879 can scarcely be overstated. The “hunt” that the members of Narodnaia Volia carried out against their “crowned game” destabilized the tsarist empire and halted the political, economic, and social reforms that Tsar Alexander II had launched and promoted since early in his reign. The destabilization and the end of the reform processes, in turn, were important preconditions and causes for the revolutions in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century: the Revolution of 1905, and the February Revolution and October Revolution of 1917. 68 The Bolshevik October Revolution, from which emerged the Soviet Union and ultimately the armed confrontation with the West, was one of the pivotal events for the Cold War world. This was also true of events that had paved the way for the revolution, such as the terrorist attacks carried out by Narodnaia Volia and the Socialist Revolutionary Party, even if both groups were opposed to and rivals of the Bolsheviks. These groups had contributed to the destabilization of the tsarist state by means of repeated terrorist attacks and thus were important in leading to the Russian Revolution.

Another factor has to be taken into account as well. Based on the then-current experience with terrorist attacks in highly industrialized countries in the 1970s, social-science experts in terrorism studies and historians of terrorism alike tended to pay attention mainly to social-revolutionary terrorism (as compared to its ethnic-nationalist, far-right, or religious manifestations). The Russian terrorist movements fit the bill precisely.

Moreover, the history of historiography and its authors played a role in developing this strong focus on Russia. Facilitating it was the fact that a number of reliable source editions and a fairly extensive corpus of scholarly historical research and writing on the history of terrorism in Russia were readily available in the 1970s, just when the standard narrative of the history of terrorism was being developed. The reasons are easy to understand. The existing literature in Russian and other European languages that had been published on the topic since the late nineteenth century assured historians of terrorism that they were on solid ground here, and the source editions and detailed accounts by Soviet researchers based on archival sources published before the 1930s and since the 1960s lent themselves to synthetic, comprehensive narratives for Western audiences, who, because of language barriers, had very limited access to the original studies. 69 The availability of such editions and research publications was especially valuable during the Cold War, when Soviet archives were not easily accessible by researchers from abroad. In short, the history of historiography of terrorism shaped its very content.

Last, but not least, the writing of history is always pursued by historians who have their own personal histories. Thus, any historiography has to take into account the biographies and backgrounds of the authors who wrote the histories in question. Emigrants from Russia as well as Eastern and Central Europe seem to have become especially prolific and prominent in the study of terrorism. They had fled the violence of the Russian Revolutions and the ensuing civil war, or the persecution before and after the Nazi takeover in Germany and Austria, Reichspogromnacht (also known as Kristallnacht ), World War II, and the Holocaust. They had emigrated to Palestine/Israel or to Western European countries, and to the United States, and in their new home countries they had taken up the study and writing of history, often speaking all the relevant European languages fluently. 70 Perhaps not least because of such personal experiences, some of them—Adam B. Ulam and Walter Laqueur, for instance—turned an attentive eye to the role that violence had played generally in history and politics and especially in Russian as well as Eastern and Central European history, in order to better understand the origins of the events that had uprooted them and their families. 71 An additional reason might be that they, as recent immigrants, recognized the opportunity that lay in turning to the history of terrorism, a field that was perhaps regarded as messy and lacking in prestige, but that was understudied in the West.

On the basis of their personal experiences and in the context of the Cold War, some of these emigrants from Russia and from Eastern and Central Europe tended to stress the importance of Narodnaia Volia, the Socialist Revolutionary Party, and the Russian Revolution or drew even more long-range connections between earlier Russian history and the global history of terrorism. One such example is Albert Parry. Born and raised in Russia, he escaped a White Army firing squad, and then fled the country and its civil war for the United States, where he wrote a book on the history of terror and terrorism (Parry does not differentiate between these terms) that is insightful in many respects. 72 In it he points to the many different phenomena of violence that he considers to lie at the root of terror and terrorism in East and West. Time and again, however, he returns to the special role that Russia played in the history of political violence in general and in the history of terror and terrorism specifically: “From the heritage of the Mongol-Tatar enslavers and torturers,” Parry writes, “carried on and improved upon by such native insurgents as Razin and Pugachev, derives much of the terror of that giant bloody upheaval, the Russian Revolution. And from that Revolution stems much of the political terror in the world today.” 73 Thus, according to Parry, important roots of the history of terror and terrorism lay in the thirteenth-century struggles of European Russians with the peoples of Central Asia. Through the Russian Revolution and the political measures effected by the Soviet Union, these forms of terrorism and terror became important phenomena of world history. Parry’s sweeping historical narrative, influenced by his personal history, is incorrect; the claims and connections it suggests cannot stand up to the scrutiny of historical research. But at the time of the Cold War it was well received, perhaps not least because it accorded so well with the prevailing mindset of the era.

With the end of the Cold War, the global significance of the Russian Revolution waned. Moreover, a number of terrorist groups that had been active in Europe for many years and connected to social-revolutionary ideologies one by one began to enter peace negotiations and renounce violence. The era of political-secular terrorism—according to the standard narrative of the history of terrorism—seemed to be ending.

Yet, despite the supposed end of this era, the tactic of terrorism lived on, as signified at the latest by the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001. In the political arena, these attacks were immediately interpreted in historical terms, but the interpretations were contradictory. On the one hand, commentators and politicians alike emphasized the new and unprecedented aspects of this violence. The American secretary of defense, Donald H. Rumsfeld, spoke of “a new kind of war,” and President George W. Bush of “a new kind of evil.” 74 Such views went hand in hand with the instant conviction of the transformative power of these attacks and their historical significance worldwide: “America, in the spasms of a few hours, became a changed country,” Lance Morrow remarked in Time magazine. 75 Other commentators spoke of a “turning point” in history, a fundamental “break in the development of humanity,” and the beginning of a new “age of terrorism.” 76 Interpretations such as these were decidedly future oriented, because they seemed to suggest that 9/11 was an event without precedent, without history. 77

On the other hand, different interpretations of the 9/11 terrorist attacks turned the attention of politicians, academics, and the general public to what—according to the standard narrative of the history of terrorism—could be called “holy terror,” or pre- and postmodern, religious terrorism. 78 As a consequence of this new focus of attention, another line of tradition, already present in the standard narrative, now came to the fore: that linking the current terrorist attacks perpetrated by Muslims to the medieval Islamic sect of the so-called Assassins, the Ismaili. 79 This narrative seemed to gain more plausibility as the tactic of suicide terrorism became more prominent. 80 Important examples in addition to the 9/11 attacks include the repeated suicide attacks by Lebanese and Palestinian groups, such as Hezbollah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade against American, French, and Israeli targets since the early 1980s, and the attacks on London’s public transport system on July 7, 2005, to name but a few. 81 The fact these suicide attacks were perpetrated by Muslims strengthened this narrative, even though, starting in 1987, it was members of the non-religiously based Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka who had been responsible for the majority of suicide attacks.

As they had during the Cold War, when terrorism experts looked to Russian history for the origins of terrorism, after 9/11 many authors and commentators maintained that the Assassins and the Islamic history of martyrdom had exerted an influence on, and found a receptive audience in, modern suicide terrorists. Some authors tried to locate the origins of terrorism and specifically of an Islamic history of violence in medieval Persia, Iraq, and Syria. 82

These attempts to trace the origins of terrorism to medieval Persian or Russian history or to declare the phenomenon entirely unprecedented are unconvincing in the face of historical analysis. Clearly there have been too many examples of terrorist attacks since the nineteenth century for the 9/11 attack to be thought of as new. The use of passenger planes as weapons in a suicide attack was of course unprecedented, and the attacks created a great deal of havoc. Moreover, they were especially deadly in that an exceptionally high number of people from all over the world, who worked in the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, were killed. The terrorist tactic itself was not new, however. Furthermore, attempts to trace the origins of terrorism to medieval Persian or to Russian history take current phenomena as a starting point and suggest (more or less) sweeping genealogies that are based largely on prima facie analogies. In the construction of some of these genealogies, striking forms of war and violence along with vague political or religious connections serve as reference points in drawing lines of tradition across seven or eight centuries, ignoring all differences in detail and all the changes in almost every sphere of life that have since occurred and that distinguish these societies. It would not be difficult to point to a large number of cruel wars and horrifying forms of violence in Western societies, however, including religiously based tyrannicide and the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in Europe, or the wars between conquerors or settlers and indigenous Americans in the New World, or the lynching of African Americans and others in America, to give just a few examples. Why should phenomena of violence such as these figure any less prominently in tracing the origins of terrorism? Furthermore, one cannot escape noticing that attempts to trace the beginnings of terrorism to medieval Persian or Russian history ascribe the emergence of this phenomenon of political violence to the culture and history of the West’s then-current geopolitical opponent. Together with the idea that the 9/11 attacks were unprecedented, all three narratives suggest that it is unnecessary to look for the origins and causes of terrorism in the history of those who present these narratives: the history of the West.

In conclusion, from a historical perspective none of the major narratives of the history of terrorism that have been and still are dominant in the field of terrorism studies is entirely convincing. Moreover, studies by professional historians since 2010 and the fresh interpretations of the history of terrorism they offer challenge these major narratives by stressing the dynamics and interactions between terrorism, the state, the public, and the media in order to understand and explain the history of terrorism since its emergence. Both these results call for a new historical approach to the global history of terrorism.

A New Global History of Terrorism

This Handbook presents a reevaluation of the major narratives in the history of terrorism, by exploring the emergence and the use of terrorism in world history from antiquity up to the twenty-first century on the basis of new historical research. Because it is impossible for any one historian to possess in-depth knowledge of all the relevant sources and to keep up with the specialized literature that has to be considered in so large a field of study, such an exploration necessarily is a collective endeavor. Therefore, this volume brings together a number of professional historians whose expertise lies in different places and eras. The contributors have also pursued a variety of approaches in their earlier research. To be sure, all had studied the phenomenon of violence in history before, violence that in its various forms (such as assassination, guerrilla war, revolution, or terror) was important for their respective time and place. But not all of the contributors carried out research on terrorism before contributing to this Handbook , and only a few of them would describe themselves as having a special focus on the history of terrorism. Furthermore, in their chapters they consult a wide-ranging set of sources, which they analyze using different methodologies. For these reasons, the chapters of this Handbook offer a wide variety of innovative and original perspectives on the history of terrorism.

In light of the breadth and diversity of the research covered by this Handbook , two guidelines ensure its cohesion. The first is a common definition of terrorism. The German sociologist Peter Waldmann defines it as “violence against a political order from below which is planned and prepared [ planmäßig vorbereitet ] and meant to be shocking. Such acts of violence are supposed to spread feelings of insecurity and intense fear, but they are also meant to generate sympathy and support.” 83 The term “political order” in the original German terminology can include the social and economic order of a society, so Waldmann’s definition also includes right-wing terrorists (such as the National Socialist Underground [NSU] in Germany or Anders Behring Breivik in Norway) and social-revolutionary terrorists (such as the nineteenth-century anarchists). Waldmann underlines the political dimension expressed in the political intentions and objectives of the violence committed by the terrorists. 84 Terrorism is thus a politically motivated strategy of resorting to spectacular violence with the goal of producing a powerful psychological effect in a society—fear on the one hand, sympathy on the other—in order to compel political change. This view limits the concept of terrorism to underground acts of violence against an inherently more powerful opponent (bottom-up), whereas acts of violence by the state against the population (top-down) are called “terror.” And even if one can find a wealth of definitions of terrorism in the general literature on this topic, more recent research literature reflects broad international agreement on the elements identified in this definition. 85 Therefore, the contributors to the Handbook have used this definition, as far as was feasible for them with regard to their respective fields.

The major narratives in the history of terrorism, taken together, constitute the second guiding principle. Because the Handbook intends to reevaluate these narratives on the basis of new empirical research, basic statements constituting these narratives indicate crucial fields of study. This holds true for the standard narrative of terrorism presented by Laqueur and Rapoport as well as for the two narratives challenging this standard narration: the one maintaining that modern terrorism begins with the 1972 attack against the Israeli Olympic team in Munich, and the other stating that terrorism is a universal phenomenon spanning the entirety of time. 86 The historical reevaluation in this Handbook takes all of these narratives into account either implicitly or explicitly.

Of these three narratives of the history of terrorism, the standard narrative certainly poses the greatest challenge for historical reevaluation. For instance, it is imperative to study the question of whether there existed a premodern terrorism that mainly had religious goals, a modern terrorism fighting for secular-political aims, and a postmodern terrorism that is primarily motivated by religion. Then, for each of these time frames, the question arises of whether terrorism was actually perpetrated by the groups that the authors of the standard narrative have suggested. Regarding premodern religious terrorism, for example, the question arises of whether the Sicarii, the Assassins, and the Thugs actually used terrorist tactics, and if so, with what objective. Thus, the statements set forth in the standard narrative of the history of terrorism served as a selection criterion in deciding, for this Handbook , what required study regarding the emergence and use of terrorism in world history, from antiquity up to the twenty-first century. Of course, there are always other topics that warrant inclusion as well.

At the core of the standard narrative is the problem of the relationship between terrorism and modernity. The term “modernity” has at least two different basic meanings, one temporal and one substantive: “modern” can be used to denote an epoch in world history—the modern era—but it can also be used to characterize distinct phenomena and processes, such as industrialization or urbanization. However, there is no general agreement on how to flesh out these two meanings. When does the modern era start? When does it end? Suggestions for the beginning of the modern era range from the emergence of nominalism in the European High Middle Ages via Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press and the Reformation around 1500 to the political and industrial revolutions of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Furthermore, the substantive meaning of the term is as contested as the temporal one. In this respect, technological processes are as important as “big developments” such as urbanization, migration, mobility, and internationalization. Moreover, there are cultural aspects of modernity, its “promissory notes” (Björn Wittrock), that were able to create new affiliations and identities even in places and at times where the substantive changes were marginal. 87 All these aspects of modernity have to be taken into account when examining possible links between modernity and the emergence of terrorism.

However, this coming together of technological innovations, enormous socioeconomic developments, and modern culture is precisely the point where the expertise of historians is called for. It is where their work has to begin. Rapoport and Laqueur both argued that the concept of modern terrorism originated in the French Revolution with the birth of modern democracy, and they repeatedly emphasized the importance of technological, societal, and intellectual developments for the emergence of terrorism in the nineteenth century as well as the changes it underwent in the twentieth. But how exactly did these factors—technological innovations, immense socioeconomic developments, and modern culture—come together to bring forth the new form of political violence that we today call terrorism? Exactly how and where did this transformation of political violence take place? How did it work? Who contributed what? And concerning the time frame we have to ask: What was the starting point? What traditions and practices in the use of political violence already existed that were subject to the transformations unfolding in modern society? What kinds of events were its precursors? Did the phenomenon of terrorism as Waldmann defined it exist prior to the invention of the term in the French Revolution—for example, in the European religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? If so, what does that mean for our assumptions about the relationship between terrorism and modernity?

And finally, there is the question of transfer and reception. According to the standard narrative of terrorism studies, modern rebel terrorism originated in Europe and quickly spread to other parts of the world, such as the Balkans, Asia, and South America. If terrorism and modernity are linked, the question arises of whether there are causal links between their spread: did somebody using terroristic methods in China or the Philippines have to embrace certain techniques and ideas that might be characterized as modern? In other words: Did terrorism spread with modernity? Where and at what time was it taken up, and in what ways? What were the preconditions in different societies that made the concept and the method of terrorism appear to certain groups to be an interesting and relevant tool? How was it linked to the general global movement of goods, people, and ideas?

The contributions assembled in this Handbook provide specific answers to questions such as these and thus shape a new history of terrorism. And it might well be that questions such as the ones above and the answers provided are of current relevance if we want to understand the upsurge of terrorism worldwide and find long-lasting political responses.

Acknowledgments

I wrote most of this chapter while I was a Heisenberg Fellow of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; DFG), and I would like to express my gratitude to the Foundation for its support of my work. Some of the thoughts presented here were presented in an initial version in the radio feature “Der Anschlag und seine Geschichte: Was wir aus den tatsächlichen Ursprüngen des Terrorismus lernen können,” broadcast on April 23, 2017 by Deutschlandfunk in the series “Essay & Diskurs.” My thanks go to Wolfgang Schiller for inviting me to contribute to the series and for his encouragement and support when formulating these ideas. Moreover, I am indebted to Richard Bach Jensen, Andrea Meyer-Fraatz, and Franziska Schedewie, whose corrections and critiques were extremely valuable. Unless otherwise indicated, all translations are mine.

For a critique of the concept of modernity, see my “Toward a History on Equal Terms: A Discussion of Provincializing Europe ,” History and Theory 47, no. 1 (2008): 69–84. In this text and this volume, however, the term is employed according to common usage.

See, e.g., Alphons Thun, Geschichte der revolutionären Bewegungen in Russland (Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, 1883); Cesare Lombroso and Rodolfo Laschi, Il delitto politico e le rivoluzioni in rapporto al diritto (Turin: Fratelli Bocca, 1890). Thun was a professor of national economies, and Lombroso was an Italian medical scientist, psychiatrist, and anthropologist. Lombroso’s study was very influential in its time. It appeared in German translation in 1891 and in French translation in 1892.

Richard Bach Jensen, “The United States, International Policing, and the War against Anarchist Terrorism, 1900–1914,” Terrorism and Political Violence 13, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 15–46, at 16; reprinted in Terrorism: Critical Concepts in Political Science , vol. 1, The First or Anarchist Wave , ed. David C. Rapoport (London: Routledge, 2006) , 369–400, at 371.

See Richard Bach Jensen, “Daggers, Rifles and Dynamite: Anarchist Terrorism in Nineteenth Century Europe,” Terrorism and Political Violence 16, no. 1 (2004) : 116–153, at 116.

One of these few is Martha Crenshaw. See her Revolutionary Terrorism: The FLN in Algeria, 1954–1962 (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1978), and Terrorism in Africa (New York: G. K. Hall; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada, 1994).

For more on these terrorist groups and their attacks, see p. 7, nn. 49–51.

For an analysis and assessment of these security policies by one of the pioneers in the field of terrorism studies, see David Carlton, The West’s Road to 9/11: Resisting, Appeasing, and Encouraging Terrorism since 1970 (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).

Seminal works in English from this pioneering research period are David Carlton and Carlo Schaerf, eds., International Terrorism and World Security (London: Croom Helm, 1975); Yonah Alexander, ed., International Terrorism: National, Regional, and Global Perspectives (New York: Praeger, 1976); Yonah Alexander and Seymour Maxwell Finger, eds., Terrorism: Interdisciplinary Perspectives , with a foreword by Hans J. Morgenthau (New York: John Jay Press, 1977); Yonah Alexander, David Carlton, and Paul Wilkinson, eds., Terrorism: Theory and Practice (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1979); Martha Crenshaw, “The Causes of Terrorism,” Comparative Politics 13, no. 4 (July 1981): 379–399; Martha Crenshaw and Irving Louis Horowitz, eds., Terrorism, Legitimacy, and Power: The Consequences of Political Violence; Essays (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1983); Alex P. Schmid and Janny de Graaf, Violence as Communication: Insurgent Terrorism and the Western News Media (London: Sage, 1982); Alex P. Schmid, Political Terrorism: A Research Guide to Concepts, Theories, Data Bases and Literature , with a bibliography by the author and a world directory of “terrorist” organizations by Albert J. Jongman (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1984).

See esp. the publications of Walter Laqueur: Terrorism (Boston: Little, 1977), reprinted as A History of Terrorism: With a New Introduction by the Author , 2 nd ed. (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002), and The Terrorism Reader: A Historical Anthology (New York: New American Library, 1978), published in a new and supplemented edition as Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings, and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from Around the World and Throughout the Ages (New York: Reed Press, 2004); and of David C. Rapoport, Assassination and Terrorism (Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1971), “Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions,” American Political Science Review 78, no. 3 (1984): 658–677, “Why Does Messianism Produce Terror?” in Contemporary Research on Terrorism , ed. Paul Wilkinson and A. M. Stewart (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1987), 72–88, and “Four Wave Theory,” first presented as a paper to the American Political Science Association in 1985. For the respective titles see n. 59.

See his web page at UCLA, College: Social Sciences, Political Science, Distinguished Professor Emeritus David Rapoport, Biography, accessed February 19, 2021, https://polisci.ucla.edu/person/david-rapoport/ . See also Jeffrey Kaplan, “Waves of Political Terrorism,” in Oxford Research Encyclopedia: Politics, Oxford University Press 2016, accessed February 19, 2021, https://oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-24 .

Cf. the web page of the publisher Taylor & Francis for the two journals: https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=uter20 and https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ftpv20 .

See the information given on the Centre’s web page, “About CSTPV,” https://cstpv.wp.st-andrews.ac.uk/# .

Standard works in English, many of which have become standard works for students of terrorism across the world, are Grant Wardlaw, Political Terrorism: Theory, Tactics, and Counter-Measures (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); James M. Poland, Understanding Terrorism: Groups, Strategies, and Responses (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988); Martha Crenshaw, ed., Terrorism in Context (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995) ; Bruce Hoffman, Inside Terrorism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998); Clifford E. Simonsen and Jeremy R. Spindlove, Terrorism Today: The Past, the Players, the Future (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000); David C. Rapoport, ed., Inside Terrorist Organizations (London: Frank Cass, 2001); Charles Townshend, Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002); Louise Richardson, What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Enemy, Containing the Threat (New York: Random House, 2006) ; Gus Martin, Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues , 3 rd ed. (Los Angeles: Sage, 2010). Most of these books have seen several editions.

Carlton observes a similar tendency for the higher echelons of the fields of security studies and international relations as represented for example by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), the U.S. Council on Foreign Relations, the United Kingdom’s Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House), and “most of the leading Western journals in the international relations field.” See Carlton, The West’s Road to 9/11 , 3–4, at 4.

Michael Howard, as cited in Bruce Hoffman, “Current Research on Terrorism and Low-Intensity Conflict,” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 15, no. 1 (1992): 25–37, at 25. Carlton, The West’s Road to 9/11 , 4 also gives this quotation.

There are exceptions to the rule, however, such as Menachem Begin, who fought against the British mandatory government in the 1940s and later became prime minister of Israel; and Gerry Adams, who is said to have been a high-ranking member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) in the 1970s before he was elected president of Sinn Féin and member of the British House of Commons.

Isabelle Duyvesteyn, a global historian and international studies scholar, the historian of international relations Beatrice de Graaf, the modern historians Robert Gerwarth, Heinz-Gerhard Haupt, and Sylvia Schraut have come to similar conclusions. See, e.g., Isabelle Duyvesteyn, “The Role of History and Continuity in Terrorism Research,” in Mapping Terrorism Research: State of the Art, Gaps and Future Direction , ed. Magnus Ranstorp (New York: Routledge, 2006) , 51–75; Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Beatrice de Graaf, “Terroristen en hun bestrijders, vroeger en nu,” in Terroristen en hun bestrijders, vroeger en nu , ed. Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Beatrice de Graaf (Amsterdam: Boom, 2007), 7–12; Robert Gerwarth and Heinz-Gerhard Haupt, “Internationalising Historical Research on Terrorist Movements in Twentieth-Century Europe,” European Review of History 14, no. 3 (2007): 275–281, at 275; Sylvia Schraut, “Zentrale Begriffe und Konzepte,” in Terrorismus und politische Gewalt (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2018) , 15–63.

They contributed in two distinct roles: as historical researchers and as contemporary pundits. For an early French study on a perpetrator of what is now discussed as one of the earliest cases of terrorist violence, see Louis-François du Bois, Charlotte de Corday, essai historique, offrant enfin des détails authentiques sur la personne et l’attentat de cette héroïne; avec pièces justificatives, portrait et fac-simile (Paris: Librairie historique de la Révolution, 1838). For a prominent German example of a historian-pundit, see Heinrich von Treitschke, “Der Socialismus und der Meuchelmord,” Preußische Jahrbücher 41, no. 6 (1878): 637–647. For examples of nineteenth-century terrorism research in disciplines other than history, see n. 2.

For an informative overview and in-depth discussion of the Russian historiography on terrorism as well as its political contexts, see the historiographical introductions in Mikhail Gerasimovich Sedov, Geroicheskii period revoliutsionnogo narodnichestva (Iz istorii politicheskoi bor’by) (Moscow: Mysl, 1966), 3–54, esp. 24–28 (focusing on Narodnaia Volia); Mikhail Ivanovich Leonov, Partiia sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov v 1905–1907 gg. (Moscow: ROSSPĖN, 1997), 3–25; Roman Aleksandrovich Gorodnitskii, Boevaia organizatsiia partii sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov v 1901–1911 gg . (Moscow: ROSSPĖN, 1998), 3–26, esp. 5f. (both focusing on the Socialist Revolutionary Party and its fighting organization). For an English-language overview, see Anke Hilbrenner and Frithjof Benjamin Schenk, “Introduction: Modern Times? Terrorism in Late Tsarist Russia,” Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 2 (2010): 161–171.

The most famous example is the 1921 autobiography by Vera Figner, Memoirs of a Revolutionist , trans. Camilla Chapin Daniels and G. A. Davidson (New York: International, 1927). On the Russian-language historiography on terrorism in this period, see esp. O. V. Shemiakina, “Istoriografiia narodnicheskogo dvizheniia glazami ego uchastnikov,” Vestnik RGGU: Seriia literaturovedenie, iazykoznanie, kul’turologiia 1 (2017): 132–139.

See esp. the studies by Mikhail Konstantinovich Lemke, Ocherki osvoboditel’nogo dvizheniia “shestidesiatykh godov” po neizdannym dokumentam s portretami (1908; The Hague: Mouton, in cooperation with Europe Printing, Vaduz, 1968); and Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Kornilov, Obshchestvennoe dvizhenīe pri Aleksandre II, 1855–1881: Istoricheskīe ocherki (Moscow: Tovarishchestvo tipografīi A. I. Mamontova, 1909).

A case in point is Dmitrii Vladimirovich Karakozov, who perpetrated the first assassination attempt on Tsar Alexander II in 1866. See, e.g., the Russian sources and research published on him, his background, and his attempt on the tsar’s life: Aleksei A. Shilov, “Iz istorii revoliutsionnago dvizheniia 1860-ch gg.,” Golos minuvshago 10–12 (1918): 159–168; V. P. Alekseev and B. P. Koz’min, Politicheskie Protsessy 60-kh g.g. materialy po istorii revoliutsionnogo dvizheniia v Rossii (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo, 1923); Aleksei A. Shilov, “Pokushenie Karakozova 4 Aprelia 1866 g.,” Krasnyi arkhiv 17, no. 7 (1926): 91–137; M. M. Klevenskii and K. G. Kotel’nikov, eds., Pokushenie Karakozova: Stenograficheskii otchet po delu D. Karakozova, I. Khudiakova, N. Ishutina i. dr. (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo tsentrarchiva R.S.F.S.R., 1928); Boris Jakovlevich Bukhshtab, “Posle vystrela Karakozova,” Katorga i ssylka: Istoriko-revoliutsionnyi vestnik 5 (1931): 50–88, at 78; B. I. Gorev and B. P. Koz’min, Revoliutsionnoe dvizhenie 1860-kh godov (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo vsesoiuznogo obshchestva politkatorzhan i ssyl’no-poselentsev, 1932).

See Sedov, Geroicheskii period , 45f.; Leonov, Partiia sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov , 10f.; Gorodnitskii, Boevaia organizatsiia , 5, 10; Hilbrenner and Schenk, “Introduction,” 162.

See esp. the source edition of S. N. Valk, S. S. Volk, B. S. Itenberg, and Sh. M. Levin, eds., Revoliutsionnoe narodnichestvo 70-kh godov XIX veka: Sbornik dokumentov i materialov , 2 vols. (Moscow: Nauka, 1964); and the studies of R. V. Filippov, Revoliutsionnaia narodnicheskaia organizatsiia N. A. Ishutina—I. A. Khudiakova (1863–1866) (Petrozavodsk: Karel’skoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo, 1964); Ė. S. Vilenskaia, Revoliutsionnoe podpol’e v Rossii (60-e gody XIX v.) (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka,” 1965); Sedov, Geroicheskii period ; Stepan Stepanovich Volk, Narodnaia Volia, 1879–1882 (Moscow: Nauka, 1966); Nikolai Alekseevich Troitskii, “Narodnaia Volia” pered tsarskim sudom 1880—1894 gg. , 2 nd expanded and revised ed., (Saratov: Izdat. Saratovskogo universiteta, 1983); Evgeniia Levovna Rudnitskaia, Russkaia revoliutsionnaia mysl: Demokraticheskaia pechat 1864–1873 g. (Moscow: Nauka, 1984).

For such studies in English, see, e.g., Edward Hallett Carr, Michael Bakunin (London: Macmillan, 1937); Franco Venturi, Roots of Revolution: A History of the Populist and Socialist Movements in Nineteenth Century Russia [Italian Orig. 1952], trans. Francis Haskell, revised ed. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1960); Avrahm Yarmolinsky, Road to Revolution: A Century of Russian Radicalism (London: Cassell & Company, 1957); Oliver H. Radkey, The Agrarian Foes of Bolshevism: Promise and Default of the Russian Socialist Revolutionaries February to October 1917 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958).

See esp. the anthologies by Eric John Hobsbawm, Revolutionaries: Contemporary Essays (London: Weidenfeld, 1973), including essays from the years 1961–1972; and Wolfgang J. Mommsen, and Gerhard Hirschfeld, eds., Social Protest, Violence, and Terror in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Europe (London: Macmillan, in association with Berg Publishers for the German Historical Institute, 1982) .

Notable studies by historians of Russia and Eastern Europe teaching in Western Europe, Israel, and the United States from this period are for example Paul Avrich, The Russian Anarchists (1967; repr., Oakland, CA: AK Press, 2005), chap. 2; Philip Pomper, The Russian Revolutionary Intelligentsia , 2 nd ed. (Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1993); Maureen Perrie, The Agrarian Policy of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party from Its Origins through the Revolution of 1905–1907 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976); Adam Bruno Ulam, In the Name of the People: Prophets and Conspirators in Prerevolutionary Russia (New York: Viking Press, 1977); Manfred Hildermeier, The Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party before the First World War [German Orig. 1978] (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000); Astrid von Borcke, Gewalt und Terror im revolutionären narodničestvo: Die Partei Narodnaja Volja (1879–1883); Zur Entstehung und Typologie des politischen Terrors im Russland des 19. Jahrhunderts (Cologne: Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, 1979); Jacques Baynac, Les socialistes-révolutionnaires de mars 1881 à mars 1917 (Paris: Éditions Robert Laffont, 1979); Norman M. Naimark, Terrorists and Social Democrats: The Russian Revolutionary Movement under Alexander III (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983); Deborah Hardy, Land and Freedom: The Origins of Russian Terrorism, 1876–1879 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1987); Nurit Schleifman, Undercover Agents in the Russian Revolutionary Movement: The SR Party, 1902–14 (Houndsmill, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988); Hannu Immonen, The Agrarian Program of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party, 1900–1914 (Helsinki: SHS, 1988). On this see esp. Leonov, Partiia sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov , 14–17.

See esp. Barbara Alpern Engel and Clifford N. Rosenthal, eds., Five Sisters: Women against the Tsar , with a foreword by Alix Kates Shulman (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1976); Richard Stites, The Women’s Liberation Movement in Russia: Feminism, Nihilism, and Bolshevism, 1860–1930 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978), chap. 5; Jay Bergman, Vera Zasulich: A Biography (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1983); Barbara Alpern Engel, Mothers and Daughters: Women of the Intelligentsia in Nineteenth-Century Russia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983); Barbara Alpern Engel, Women, Gender and Political Choice in the Revolutionary Movement of the 1870’s , Research Paper 66 (Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Marjorie Mayrock Center for Soviet and East European Research, March 1988). See also the book by the Menshevik writer Vera Broido, Apostles into Terrorists: Women and the Revolutionary Movement in the Russia of Alexander II (London: Maurice Temple Smith, 1978).

See the source editions of Viktor Efimovich Kel’ner, ed., 1 marta 1881 goda: Kazn imperatora Aleksandra II; Dokumenty i vospominaniia (Leningrad: Lenizdat, 1991); Oleg Vital’evich Budnitskii, ed., Istoriia terrorizma v Rossii v dokumentakh, biografiiakh, issledovaniiakh , 2. expanded and revised ed. (Rostov-on-Don: Feniks, 1996); Oleg Vital’evich Budnitskii, ed., Zhenshchiny-terroristki v Rossii (2. Rostov-on-Don: Feniks, 1996); Evgeniia Levovna Rudnitskaia, ed., Revoliutsionnyi radikalizm v Rossii: Vek deviatnadtsatyi; Dokumental’naia publikatsiia (Moscow: Arkheograficheskii tsentr, 1997); N. I. Delkov, A. A. I. Ushakov, A. A. Chernobaev, and E. I. Shcherbakova, eds., Politicheskaia politsiia i politicheskii terrorizm v Rossii (vtoraia polovina XIX–nachalo XX vv.): Sbornik dokumentov (Moscow: AIRO-XX, 2001); as well as the studies by V. M. Chernov, V partii sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov: Vospominaniia o vos’mi liderakh . Publication, introduction, edition and commentaries by A. P. Novikov and K. Khuzer. (Saint Petersburg: Dmitrii Bulanin, 2007); K. N. Morozov, ed., Individual’nyi politicheskii terror v Rossii, XIX–nachalo XX v. Materialy konferentsii (Moscow: “Memorial,” 1996); Leonov, Partiia sotsialistov-revoliutsionerov ; Gorodnitskii, Boevaia organizatsiia ; Oleg Vital’evich Budnitskii, Terrorizm v Rossiiskom osvoboditel’nom dvizhenii: Ideologiia, ėtika, psichologiia (vtoraia polovina XIX–nachalo XX v.) (Moscow: ROSSPĖN, 2000); Valerīi M. Volkovins’kii and Īvanna V. Hīkonova, Revoliutsīinii terorizm v Rociīs’kīI imperiī i Ukraina (druga polovina XIX—pochatok XX ct.) (Kiev: Starii cbīt, 2006). Ekaterina Igorevna Shcherbakova, “Otshchepentsy”: Put k terrorizmu (60-e–80-e gody XIX veka) (Moscow: Novyi khronograf, 2008) contains a number of crucial sources.

See esp. Anna Geifman, Thou Shalt Kill: Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia, 1894–1917 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993); Anna Geifman, Russia under the Last Tsar: Opposition and Subversion, 1894–1917 (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1999); Anna Geifman, Entangled in Terror: The Azef Affair and the Russian Revolution (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000); Leonid Grigor’evich Praisman, Terroristy i revoliutsionery, okhranniki i provokatory (Moscow: ROSSPĖN, 2001).

Michael Kronenwetter, Terrorism: A Guide to Events and Documents (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2004), vii; Michael Fellman, In the Name of God and Country: Reconsidering Terrorism in American History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010), 1.

Kronenwetter, Terrorism , vii–viii.

On violence in the United States in connection with class conflict, see Robert Hunter, Violence and the Labour Movement (London: Routledge & Sons, 1916); Louis Adamic, Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America (New York: Viking Press, 1931); Paul Avrich, The Haymarket Tragedy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984); Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991); Kevin Kenny, Making Sense of the Molly Maguires (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); and esp. Melvyn Dubofsky, We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969). On the Ku Klux Klan, see David Mark Chalmers, Hooded Americanism: The First Century of the Ku Klux Klan, 1865–1965 (Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1965); Allen W. Trelease, White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction (London: Secker & Warburg, 1971).

Beverly Gage, “Terrorism and the American Experience: A State of the Field,” Journal of American History 98, no. 1 (2011): 73–94, at 81.

For Austria, Germany, and Switzerland see, e.g., Julius Hans Schoeps, Bismarck und sein Attentäter: Der Revolveranschlag Unter den Linden am 7. Mai 1866 (Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein, 1984); Harald Seyrl, Der Tod der Kaiserin: Die Ermordung der Kaiserin und Königin Elisabeth von Österreich-Ungarn am 10. September 1898 im Spiegel der zeitgenössischen Darstellung (Vienna: Edition Seyrl, 1998). For France see, e.g., Jean Maitron, Ravachol et les anarchistes (Paris: Julliard, 1964); Association Française pour l’histoire de la justice, ed., L’assassinat du Président Sadi Carnot et le procès de Santo Ironimo Caserio (Lyon: Presses universitaires de Lyon, 1995).

There are a few exceptions, however. See, e.g., Jonathan Stevenson, “We Wrecked the Place”: Contemplating an End to the Northern Irish Troubles (New York: Free Press, 1996).

Thus also Schraut, “Zentrale Begriffe und Konzepte,” 25.

Thus also, e.g., Frank Trommler, “Foreword,” in War and Terror in Historical and Contemporary Perspective , ed. Michael Geyer (Washington, DC: American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, 2003), v. The holdings of the Library of Congress may be taken as an indicator of this wealth of literature. Even before the first decade of the twenty-first century had passed, a search for the term “terrorism” in the LC Catalog Quick Search would result in the note “Your search retrieved more records than can be displayed. Only the first 10,000 will be shown.”

For notable studies by pioneers of terrorism studies, who—under the impression of new events and their contexts—expanded earlier interpretations in interesting ways, see esp. Carlton, The West’s Road to 9/11 ; Walter Laqueur, No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Continuum, 2003); James M. Poland, Understanding Terrorism: Groups, Strategies, and Responses , 2 nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005). For a contribution from French terrorism studies pioneers and experts in English, see Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin, eds., The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007) .

See, e.g., Thomas R. Mockaitis, The “New” Terrorism: Myths and Reality (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2007); Peter R. Neumann, Old and New Terrorism: Late Modernity, Globalization and the Transformation of Political Violence (Cambridge: Polity, 2009).

See, e.g., Brenda J. Lutz and James M. Lutz, Global Terrorism (London: Routledge 2004); James M. Lutz and Brenda J. Lutz, Terrorism: Origins and Evolution (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005); Brenda J. Lutz and James M. Lutz, eds., Global Terrorism , 4 vols. (Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2008).

For interesting and in some respects especially original and thought-provoking interpretations by journalists and publicists, see, e.g., Caleb Carr, The Lessons of Terror: A History of Warfare against Civilians; Why It Has Always Failed, and Why It Will Fail Again (London: Little, Brown, 2002); Andrew Sinclair, An Anatomy of Terror (London: Macmillan, 2003); Kronenwetter, Terrorism ; Matthew Carr, The Infernal Machine: A History of Terrorism from the Assassination of Tsar Alexander II to Al-Qaeda (New York: New Press, 2006) .

See, e.g., Noam Chomsky, Pirates and Emperors, Old and New: International Terrorism in the Real World , new ed. (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2002); Paul Virilio, Ground Zero (London: Verso, 2002); Slavoj Žižek, Welcome to the Desert of the Real! Five Essays on 11 September and Related Dates (London: Verso, 2002); Jean Baudrillard, The Spirit of Terrorism and Other Essays (London: Verso, 2003); Paul Berman, Terror and Liberalism (New York: Norton, 2003); John Gray, Al Quaeda and What It Means to Be Modern (London: Faber & Faber, 2003); Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit, Occidentalism: The West in the Eyes of Its Enemies (New York: Penguin Press, 2004); Terry Eagleton, Holy Terror (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); Judith Butler, Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence (London and New York: Verso, 2006).

For publications in English covering this large time frame, see esp. Brett Bowden and Michael T. Davis, eds., Terror: From Tyrannicide to Terrorism (Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 2008); Randall D. Law, Terrorism: A History (Cambridge: Polity, 2009) ; Randall D. Law, The Routledge History of Terrorism (Abingdon: Routledge, 2015) .

For publications at least partly in English, see esp. European Review of History/Revue européenne d’histoire 14, no. 3 (September 2007), ed. Robert Gerwarth and Heinz-Gerhard Haupt; Modern Times? Terrorism in Late Imperial Russia , ed. Anke Hilbrenner and Frithjof Benjamin Schenk, special issue, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas , N.F. 58, no. 2 (2010); Michael Burleigh, Blood and Rage: A Cultural History of Terrorism (London: Harper Press, 2008).

See, e.g., Mike Davis, Buda’s Wagon: A Brief History of the Car Bomb (London: Verso, 2007); Annette Vowinckel, Flugzeugentführungen: Eine Kulturgeschichte (Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 2011).

See Ana Siljak, Angel of Vengeance: The “Girl Assassin,” the Governor of St. Petersburg, and Russia’s Revolutionary World (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2008); Claudia Verhoeven, The Odd Man Karakosov: Imperial Russia, Modernity and the Birth of Terrorism (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009), John M. Merriman, The Dynamite Club: How a Bombing in Fin-de-Siècle Paris Ignited the Age of Modern Terror (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009); Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in Its First Age of Terror (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Thus also Schraut, Terrorismus und politische Gewalt , 152f.

For Germany, see esp. Klaus Weinhauer, Jörg Requate, and Heinz-Gerhard Haupt, eds., Terrorismus in der Bundesrepublik: Medien, Staat und Subkulturen in den 1970er Jahren , (Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 2006); Andreas Elter, Propaganda der Tat: Die RAF und die Medien (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2008); Hanno Balz, Von Terroristen, Sympathisanten und dem starken Staat: Die öffentliche Debatte über die RAF in den 70er Jahren (Frankfurt am Main: Campus, 2008); Beatrice A. de Graaf, Nicole Colin, Jacco Pekelder, and Joachim Umlauf, eds., Der “Deutsche Herbst” und die RAF in Politik, Medien und Kunst: Nationale und internationale Perspektiven (Bielefeld: Transcript, 2008). For the United States, see esp. Bernardine Dohrn, William Ayers, and Jeff Jones, Sing a Battle Song: The Revolutionary Poetry, Statements, and Communiqués of the Weather Underground, 1970–1974 (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2006); Mark Rudd, Underground: My Life with SDS and the Weathermen (New York: William Morrow, 2009); Arthur M. Eckstein, Bad Moon Rising: How the Weather Underground Beat the FBI and Lost the Revolution (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016).

See Ulrich Herbert, “Drei politische Generationen im 20. Jahrhundert,” in Generationalität und Lebensgeschichte im 20. Jahrhundert , ed. Jürgen Reulecke (Munich: Oldenbourg, 2003), 95–114.

For a comparative study on Germany and the United States, see esp. Jeremy Varon, Bringing the War Home: The Weather Underground, the Red Army Faction, and Revolutionary Violence in the Sixties and Seventies (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004); for a study on transnational connections and influences with a special focus on Germany and Italy, see Petra Terhoeven, Deutscher Herbst in Europa: Der Linksterrorismus der siebziger Jahre als transnationales Phänomen (Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag, 2014); for different case studies with a transnational component, see Jussi M. Hanhimäki and Bernhard Blumenau, eds., An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences (Abingdon: Routledge, 2013).

Mikkel Thorup, An Intellectual History of Terror: War, Violence and the State (London: Routledge, 2010), ix–x.

Martin A. Miller, The Foundations of Modern Terrorism: State, Society and the Dynamics of Political Violence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013) , 2.

See Jensen, “Daggers, Rifles and Dynamite,” 116, 143. See also Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Beatrice de Graaf, “Terroristen en contraterrorisme: continuïteit en discontinuïteit,” in Terroristen en hun bestrijders, vroeger en nu , ed. Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Beatrice de Graaf (Amsterdam: Boom, 2007), 139–147.

See esp. Richard Bach Jensen, The Battle against Anarchist Terrorism: An International History, 1878–1934 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014) ; Elun T. Gabriel, Assassins and Conspirators: Anarchism, Socialism, and Political Culture in Imperial Germany (DeKalb, IL: NIU Press, 2014); Marcus Mühlnikel, “Fürst, sind Sie unverletzt?” Attentate im Kaiserreich, 1871–1914 (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2014); Iuliia Safronova, Russkoe obshchestvo v zerkale revoliutsionnogo terrora, 1879–1881 gody (Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2014); Carola Dietze, The Invention of Terrorism in Europe, Russia an the United States , trans. David Antal, James Bell and Zachary Murphy King, revised and expanded from the German edition (London and New York: Verso 2021; a Russian translation is published in Moscow by Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2022); “Explosive Melange: Terrorismus und imperiale Gewalt in Osteuropa,” ed. Anke Hilbrenner and Felicitas Fischer von Weikersthal, special issue, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas , N.F. 66, no. 4 (2016); Tim-Lorenz Wurr, Terrorismus und Autokratie: Staatliche Reaktionen auf den Russischen Terrorismus 1870–1890 (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, [2017]); Schraut, Terrorismus und politische Gewalt ; Carola Dietze, “Legitimacy and Security from a Historical Perspective: A Case Study in the History of Terrorism,” in Conceptualizing Power in Dynamics of Securitization: Beyond State and International System , ed. Regina Kreide and Andreas Langenohl (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2019) , 135–173.

Laqueur, Terrorism , reprinted as A History of Terrorism .

Laqueur, A History of Terrorism , 7–12.

Ibid., 12–14, 16–18.

See esp. Rapoport, “Fear and Trembling”; Rapoport, “Why Does Messianism Produce Terror?”; David C. Rapoport, “The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism,” in Attacking Terrorism: Elements of a Grand Strategy , ed. Audrey Kurth Cronin and James M. Ludes (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2004) , 46–73; David C. Rapoport, “Terrorism,” in Encyclopedia of Government and Politics , vol. 2, ed. Mary E. Hawkesworth and Maurice Kogan (London: Routledge, 2004), 1049–1077; David C. Rapoport, Terrorism: Critical Concepts in Political Science , 4 vols. (London: Routledge, 2006) ; David C. Rapoport, “Generations and Waves: The Keys to Understanding Rebel Terror Movements,” February, 20, 2021, https://international.ucla.edu/institute/article/5118 . For his earlier work, see n. 9.

Rapoport, “Generations and Waves.” See also Rapoport, “The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism”; Rapoport, “Terrorism”; Kaplan, “Waves of Political Terrorism.” On the reaction to his theory, see, e.g., Berto Jongman, “Research Desiderata in the Field of Terrorism,” in Mapping Terrorism Research: State of the Art, Gaps and Future Direction , ed. Magnus Ranstorp (New York: Routledge, 2006), 255–291; Kaplan, “Waves of Political Terrorism,” 10–14.

See, e.g., Rapoport, “Terrorism,” 1051f., 1067.

See, e.g., Grant Wardlaw, Political Terrorism: Theory, Tactics, and Counter-Measures , 2 nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), chaps. 1–3, or Peter Waldmann, Terrorismus: Provokation der Macht (Munich: Gerling Akademie, 1998), reprinted as Terrorismus: Provokation der Macht; Das Standardwerk , 2 nd , completely revised ed. (Hamburg: Murmann, 2005), chap. 3.

An example of this view is John Deutch, “Terrorism,” Foreign Policy 108 (1997): 10–22.

See Bowden, and Davis, Terror ; Carr, The Lessons of Terror ; Kronenwetter, Terrorism ; Lutz and Lutz, Global Terrorism ; Lutz and Lutz, Terrorism ; Law, The Routledge History of Terrorism ; the relevant chapters in a series of general survey books, e.g., in Martin, Understanding Terrorism .

Carr, The Lessons of Terror , 6.

Miller, The Foundations of Modern Terrorism , 2.

The importance of analytically precise distinctions is emphasized by, e.g., Ariel Merari, “Terrorism as a Strategy of Insurgency,” in The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda , ed. Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007) , 12–51; Sylvia Schraut, “Terrorismus und Geschichtswissenschaft,” in Terrorismusforschung in Deutschland , ed. Alexander Spencer, Alexander Kocks, and Kai Harbrich (Wiesbaden: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaft, 2011), 99–122, at 106. For a case from Germany available in English, see Peter Sloterdijk, Terror from the Air , trans. Amy Patton and Steve Corcoran (Los Angeles: Semiotext[e], 2009).

For a succinct, contemporary explication of this connection, see Astrid von Borcke, “Violence and Terror in Russian Revolutionary Populism: The ‘Narodnaya Volya,’ 1879–83,” in Social Protest, Violence, and Terror in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Europe , ed. Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Gerhard Hirschfeld (London: Macmillan Press in association with Berg Publishers for the German Historical Institute, London, 1982), 48–62, at 48f. For later presentations of similar arguments, see, e.g., Anna Geifman, Death Orders: The Vanguard of Modern Terrorism in Revolutionary Russia (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2010), e.g., 3f.

For this literature, see esp. nn. 19–24.

For a partly autobiographical portrait of the group fleeing Germany as youth, see Walter Laqueur, Generation Exodus: The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany (Hanover, NH: Brandeis University Press, 2001).

This might hold true, even though Adam B. Ulam explicitly refers to his “enduring addiction to the detective story” when he traces the reasons for studying prerevolutionary terrorism in Russia. See his Understanding the Cold War: A Historian’s Personal Reflections [2000], 2 nd ed. (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2008), chap. 21, quotation at 241. See also Walter Laqueur, Thursday’s Child Has Far to Go: A Memoir of the Journeying Years (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1992), where he traces the topics of his intellectual engagement until 1951 (see esp. 335–345).

Albert Parry, Terrorism: From Robespierre to Arafat (New York: Vanguard Press, 1976).

Donald H. Rumsfeld, interview with Tony Snow, Fox News Sunday , September 16, 2001, 9:05 A.M. EDT, accessed January 16, 2016, http://archive.defense.gov/Transcripts/Transcript.aspx?TranscriptID=1887 ; and George W. Bush, remarks by the president upon arrival: the South Lawn, September 16, 2001, 3:23 P.M. EDT, accessed January 16, 2016, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010916-2.html .

Lance Morrow, “The Case for Rage and Retribution,” Time , Wednesday, September 12, 2001, accessed December 4, 2016, http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,175435,00.html .

E.g., Reed Johnson, “Will War on Terrorism Define a Generation? Historians Ponder to What Extent the Attacks Will Be a True Turning Point for Society,” Los Angeles Times , September 23, 2001, E1; Ralf Beste et al., “Wir sind eine Welt,” Spiegel Online , September 15, 2001, accessed January 7, 2016, http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-20128594.html ; Martin Klingst and Gunter Hofmann, “Ich will nicht nur Sicherheit: Bundesinnenminister Otto Schily über die Schwierigkeiten, eine Strategie gegen den neuen Terror zu finden,” Die Zeit , September 17, 2001, 4.

Thus also Isabelle Duyvesteyn and Leena Malkki, “The Fallacy of the New Terrorism Thesis,” in Contemporary Debates on Terrorism , ed. Richard Jackson and Samuel J. Sinclair (London: Routledge, 2012), 35–42.

On the concept of “holy terror” or religious terrorism, see esp. Rapoport, “Why Does Messianism Produce Terror?”; Mark Juergensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2000). Both authors point out that this type of violence can arise from all major religions, such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

For the Assassins’ place in the standard narrative of terrorism, see esp. Laqueur, A History of Terrorism , 8–9; Rapoport, “Why Does Messianism Produce Terror?,” 72f.; Rapoport, “Fear and Trembling,” 659f. and 664–668. On the medieval sect of the Ismailis (i.e., the Assassins, in the Western tradition) and the interpretations surrounding them, in English see the classic work of Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Secret Order of Assassins: The Struggle of the Early Nizârî Ismâʻîlîs against the Islamic World (1955; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005); Farhad Daftary, The Ismā’īlīs: Their History and Doctrines (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1990); Farhad Daftary, The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Ismaʻilis (London: Tauris, 1994); Farhad Daftary, A Short History of the Ismailis: Traditions of a Muslim Community (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998); Meriem Pagès, From Martyr to Murderer: Representations of the Assassins in Twelfth- and Thirteenth-Century Europe (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2014).

On suicide terrorism as a specific kind of terrorism and its rise and spread since the 1990s, see Laqueur, No End to War , chap. 4; Hoffman, Inside Terrorism , chap. 5; and esp. Robert A. Pape, “The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism,” American Political Science Review 97, no. 3 (2003): 343–361, reprinted in Lutz and Lutz, Global Terrorism , 311–346. See also Christoph Reuter, My Life Is a Weapon: A Modern History of Suicide Bombing , trans. Helena Ragg-Kirkby (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004); Mia Bloom, Dying to Kill: The Allure of Suicide Terror (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005); Robert Anthony Pape, Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism (New York: Random House, 2005); Ami Pedahzur, Suicide Terrorism (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005); Nasra Hassan, “Suicide Terrorism,” in The Roots of Terrorism , ed. Louise Richardson (New York: Routledge, 2006), 29–42; Assaf Moghadam, The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008).

On the suicidal character of the attacks on September 11, 2001, see esp. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, The 9/11 Commission Report , authorized ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, [2004]); on suicide attacks by the Tamil Tigers and by Lebanese and Palestinian groups, see, e.g., Laqueur, No End to War , chap. 4; Hoffman, Inside Terrorism , chap. 5; Pape, Dying to Win , esp. chap. 8; Pedahzur, Suicide Terrorism , chaps. 3 and 4. On the July 7 attacks in London, see Moghadam, The Globalization of Martyrdom , chap. 6.

See, e.g., Reuter, My Life Is a Weapon , 20–28; Bloom, Dying to Kill , 4–11; Pedahzur, Suicide Terrorism , 9; James M. Poland, Understanding Terrorism: Groups, Strategies, and Responses, 3 rd ed. (Boston: Prentice Hall, 2011), 23f.; Jeremy Spindlove and Clifford Simonsen, Terrorism Today: The Past, the Players, the Future (Boston: Pearson, 2013), 32. For a different perspective, see, e.g., the introduction in Moghadam, The Globalization of Martyrdom . See also Pape, Dying to Win , who draws these long historical lines (11–14, 33–35) while emphasizing that “the presumed connection between suicide terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism is misleading” (3).

Waldmann, Terrorismus , 12, with minor changes, as translated in Carola Dietze and Claudia Verhoeven, “Introduction,” paper presented at the Conference on Terrorism and Modernity: Global Perspectives on Nineteenth-Century Political Violence, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, October 23–26, 2008, 6.

Waldmann, Terrorismus , chaps. 1–2, at 12.

For Germany see also Friedhelm Neidhardt, “Zur Soziologie des Terrorismus,” Berliner Journal für Soziologie 1, no. 2 (2004): 263–272; from the perspective of security policy, Kai Hirschmann, Terrorismus (Hamburg: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 2003), 7–9; from the criminological viewpoint, Anne Wildfang, Terrorismus: Definition, Struktur, Dynamik (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2010). For the Netherlands, see Erwin Roelof Muller, Ramón F. J. Spaaij, and A. G. W. Ruitenberg, Trends in terrorisme (Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer, 2003), 2–3. For the United Kingdom and Ireland, see Charles Townshend, Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), chap. 1; Richardson, What Terrorists Want , chap. 1. For the United States, see Laqueur, A History of Terrorism , 79; Martha Crenshaw, “Thoughts on Relating Terrorism to Historical Contexts,” in Terrorism in Context , ed. Martha Crenshaw (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995) , 3–24; Hoffman, Inside Terrorism , chap. 1, 40–41. For Israel, see Boaz Ganor, Defining Terrorism: Is One Man’s Terrorist Another Man’s Freedom Fighter? (Herzliya: International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, the Interdisciplinary Center, 1998); Ariel Merari, “Terrorism as a Strategy of Insurgency.” For Russia, see Murat Islamovich Dzliev, El’zad Seifullaevich Izzatdust, and Mikhail Pavlovich Kireev, Sovremennyi terrorizm: Sotsial’no-politicheskii oblik protivnika (Moscow: Akademiia, 2007), chap. 1.1, 28–35. For Australia, see Grant Wardlaw, Political Terrorism , chap. 1.1. The Italian sociologist Donatella Della Porta, Clandestine Political Violence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 9–10, likewise singles out these elements to define her term “clandestine political violence.”

For an overview over these narratives and the most important statements they contain, see above, pages 9–11.

Björn Wittrock, “Modernity: One, None, or Many? European Origins and Modernity as a Global Condition,” Daedalus 129, no. 1 (2000): 31–60. The skeptical stance toward the concept of “modernity” set forth in my “Toward a History on Equal Terms” certainly is compatible with the recognition of the fact of “big developments” and the “promissory notes” of the term “modernity” and therefore does not preclude such an approach, as Dietze, The Invention of Terrorism and my chapter in this Handbook show.

Carr, Matthew . The Infernal Machine: A History of Terrorism from the Assassination of Tsar Alexander II to Al-Qaeda . New York: New Press, 2006 .

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  • Terrorism Essay

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Essay on Terrorism

Terrorism is a blunder committed by the terrible individuals around us. To demonstrate their strength, a group of people attempts to govern a specific arena. Terrorism has a negative impact on both society and personal life. As a result of their acts, a large number of families are destroyed. Regrettably, the number of crimes in India is increasing on a daily basis. Ancient India was ruled by a monarchy, and the ruling was a source of pride for the king. However, India later accepted democracy, and everyone is treated equally under the Indian constitution. Even so, some cowards try to keep their power over the impoverished and weak.

Terrorism represents the foolish act done by the cruel people around us. The bunch of groups tries to rule the certain arena to show their power. Terrorism had a adverse effect on the society as well as a personal life. Their number of families gets destroyed due to their actions. In India, it's sad to say, but the number of crimes is increasing day by day. Ancient India was in Monarchy where ruling was a pride to the king, but later on India accepted democracy and everyone is treated the same under the Indian constituent. Still some cowards try to maintain their dominance over poor and helpless people.

Who could forget the date 26th November, better known as 26/11! Where 10 terrorists entered the country and attacked the economic city in India. Bringing grenades, pistols, automated rifles and other destructive weapons they almost destroyed the city and shocked the Indians in the midnight. The people are helpless, weaponless and in their own world of enjoyment at the railway station, hotels and in the drives on the roads, and suddenly a danger happens in their lives, which they did not expect. 

Osama Bin Laden was the greatest terrorist in the world! People are still afraid of hearing his name. He had destroyed a building named ‘world-trade center’ with the help of an airplane. It has also been stated in the reports that frequently Osama had been amorphous with him. Even the police themselves got confused and captured the wrong one. After his death there was lots of time still required to recognize the originality of him.

Lying in court is an offense. Frequently the needy and poor people lie in court for the sake of a certain amount of money. But, this money would be a help to criminals outside the world. Even, we purchased CDs and DVDs at an economic rate. To save a certain amount of money, we help piracy. These pirates invest this money in the armonony and indirectly we are sponsoring a bullet in every war which would be used against us only. 

The origin of terrorism starts with a little things. The first pen stolen from a friend could even lead to mortal works. Everything has a start and if left unmanaged, they can leave the astray and lose the right path. In the school, if the adverse effects of being bad are explained properly with illustrations to some real life examples, the students may get aware about all the facts and take an initiative to stop the spread of crime. Instead of making criminals with heroic roles in the television serials, the more heroic movie super cops are to be made. Instead of writing biographies of terrorism supporters, write articles about terrorism demonization. The start of this cleaning starts from home, if you have a child, teach them the ways to be a great person in good habits rather than supporting him when he starts stealing something. Terrorism has an end, if we are united the terrorism can be thrown is out of the windows! 

Various Forms Of Terrorism

Political terrorism, which raises mass concern, and criminal terrorism, which involves abduction for ransom money, are the two sorts of terrorism. Political terrorism is significantly more essential than criminal terrorism since it is carried out by well-trained personnel. As a result, apprehending them in a timely way becomes increasingly challenging for law enforcement agencies.

Terrorism has spread across the country and around the world. Regional terrorism is the most dangerous type of terrorism. Terrorists feel that dying as a terrorist is a priceless and sacred experience, and they will go to any extent to attain it. Each of these terrorist groups was founded for a different motive.

Who can forget November 26th, often known as "26/11"? Ten terrorists infiltrated the country and assaulted India's economic centre. They nearly devastated the city and astonished the Indians by bringing explosives, pistols, automatic rifles, and other lethal weapons. People are defenceless, without weapons, and engrossed in their own realms of pleasure at the railway station, motels, and on the highways when an unanticipated menace enters their life.

The Origins of Terrorism

The invention or manufacture of vast quantities of machine guns, atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, nuclear weapons, missiles, and other weapons fuels terrorism. Rapid population expansion, political, social, and economic issues, public dissatisfaction with the country's system, a lack of education, corruption, racism, economic disparities, and language disparities are all key factors in the development of terrorism. Terrorism is sometimes used to establish and maintain one's stance. Despite the contrast between caste and terrorism, the most well-known riots have taken place between Hindus and Muslims.

Consequences of Terrorism

Individuals are filled with fear as a result of terrorism, and people of the country feel vulnerable as a result. Millions of goods have been destroyed, thousands of people have died, and animals have been slaughtered as a result of terrorist assaults. People lose trust in humanity after seeing a terrorist attack, which fosters more terrorists. Terrorism comes in many forms and manifests itself in different parts of the country and outside.

Terrorism is becoming a problem not just in India, but also in our neighbouring countries, and governments throughout the world are battling it. The World Trade Center attack on September 11, 2001, is considered the world's worst terrorist strike. Osama bin Laden launched an attack on the world's tallest tower, resulting in millions of injuries and thousands of deaths.

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FAQs on Terrorism Essay

1. Who was Osama bin Laden?

Osama Bin Laden was the world's greatest terrorist! Hearing his name still makes people fearful. With the help of an aeroplane, he had destroyed the 'world-trade centre.' According to the rumours, Osama had been amorphous with him on several occasions. Even the cops got mixed up and arrested the wrong person. There was still a lot of time required after his death to acknowledge his uniqueness.

2. Identify the countries that are the most impacted by terrorism.

Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Syria were the countries most hit in 2014, with the highest number of terrorist incidents. This year has been dubbed "Terrorism Year." Furthermore, it has been reported that these five countries were the primary targets of 78 per cent of all attacks last year. Apart from them, there are 39 countries that endured the most attacks, and their index rating is based on the severity and frequency of attacks they experienced.

3. What is the true cause of terrorism?

Terrorism is defined as the use of violence for a specific purpose. This motivation could stem from a sense of social and political injustice, or just a belief that violence can bring about change. The main cause of terrorism is usually perceived unfairness or rage against specific societal conditions. Many people join terrorist groups out of desperation or to exact personal vengeance on powerful authorities. Terrorism is also a result of strong feelings of injustice. Millions of young people aspire to make a difference by utilising violence as a tool for social upheaval. As a result, in order to combat these extremists, we must provide them with alternatives to violence that can be useful to them.

4. What is the best way to combat terrorism?

The reduction of terrorism threats and the safeguarding of the state, its interests, and citizens against all types of terrorist activity are two of the State Security Service's top priorities in the battle against terrorism. It is critical to detect and suppress operations carried out by international terrorist groups and anyone linked to them. It is necessary to conduct an active search for persons linked to terrorist organisations. Enhancing the capacity of readiness and reaction to terrorist threats should receive special focus.

5. Give an overview of the history of terrorism.

The term "terrorist" was coined by François-Nol Babeuf, a French philosopher, in 1794. As a result of his denunciation of Robespierre's regime as a dictatorship, the Brunswick Manifesto threatened Paris with military punishment and complete devastation. This threat, however, only fueled the Revolution's determination to overthrow the monarchy. Tyranny, according to ancient philosophers, was the greatest political threat to Greco-Roman civilization prior to the French Revolution. Philosophers in the Middle Ages were also preoccupied with the concept of tyranny.

6. Explain the historical background of terrorism.

The word "terrorist" was first used in 1794 by François-Noël Babeuf who was a French philosopher. He denounced Robespierre's regime as a dictatorship therefore Brunswick Manifesto threatened Paris that the city would be subjected to military punishment and total destruction. But this threat only increased the Revolution's will to abolish the monarchy.

Prior to the French Revolution, ancient philosophers wrote tyranny as the greatest political threat to Greco-Roman civilization. Medieval philosophers were similarly occupied with the concept of tyranny.

7. How to fight against terrorism?

One of the main priorities of the State Security Service in fighting against terrorism is the reduction of the risks of terrorism and the protection of the state, its interests and citizens against all forms of terrorist activities. The detection and suppression of activities carried out by international terrorist organizations and persons related to them is important. Active search of individuals connected with terrorist organizations needs to be conducted. Considerable attention should be paid in enhancing the capabilities of readiness and responses to terrorist threats.

8. What is the real reason behind terrorism?

Terrorism is the use of violence for a certain cause. This cause may be due to the perceived social and political injustice or simply a belief that violence can lead  to change.

Usually perceived injustice or anger against a certain social conditions is the main cause  that foster terrorism. Many people join terrorist groups because of poverty or to take their personal revenge from the powerful authority. Strong feelings of injustice also results in terrorism. There are millions of young people who want to create change by using fight as the tools for social upheaval. So, in order to counter these extremists we need to give them alternatives to violence which can prove beneficial for them.

9. Name the countries which are most affected by terrorism.

Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan and Syria are the most affected countries which suffered the largest number of terrorist attacks in 2014. This year is called the year of terrorism.

Also it has been recorded that these five countries were the major victims of 78% of all attacks that happened last year. Apart from these countries there are 39 countries which saw the greatest number of attacks, and their index ranking is calculated against severity and frequency of attacks they experienced.

English Aspirants

Terrorism Essay in English [100, 150, 200-250, 300 Words]

Terrorism Essay in English: Terrorism is the use of indiscriminate violence for political ends. In this article, you are going to learn how to write an essay on Terrorism. Here we’ve provided 4 short and long essays (100, 150, 200-250, and 300 words). These essays will be helpful for the students from class 1 to class 12. So, let’s begin.

Table of Contents

Terrorism Essay: 100 Words

Terrorism is the result of widespread discontentment that has gone deeper into the minds of the poor and exploited class of people. Being instigated by some power-hungry politicians, these people take up arms against the establishment to voice their protest. When the language of protest violence and cause takes the shape of immense damages to mankind, it becomes terrorism.

Poor, ordinary people remain helpless at the hands of terrorists who want to exercise their authority against the government. Explosions and other terrorist attacks make the country unsafe and take away the peace of common people. The government has taken many steps to curb terrorist attacks, yet the menace of terrorism is still rocking the foundation of a stable country like India.

Terrorism Essay in English

Essay on Terrorism: 150 Words

Terrorism is the use of violence to attain one’s political ends. Every day there are reports of sensational and shocking terrorist activities. A worldwide phenomenon, today it has struck terror in the hearts of the people. Terrorism includes kidnapping of eminent personalities, bombing of civilian territories, blowing of buses, trains, aeroplanes and killing innocent people all with a view to spreading fear among the masses. It is a kind of proxy war against the existing elected government.

The evils of terrorism are obvious and the world has become very familiar with its acts. It is a crime against humanity Terrorism must be curbed with a heavy hand. A group of senseless people cannot be allowed to hold the country to ransom. Law and order enforcement agencies should be made more effective to combat the terror campaign and prevent the creation of fear. The root causes should be analyzed to eradicate terrorism. If that is done people all over the world can live in peace and prosperity.

Essay on Terrorism

Also Read: Essay on Republic Day

Terrorism Essay in English: 200-250 Words

Terrorism becomes now a days a great problem all over the world. It is also a great threat to mankind. It is the use of terror or violence. A certain group of people adopt it as tactics for a purpose. This group is said to be the terrorists. The purpose is a gain, Most gains are political. Sometimes there may be a personal gain. The criminals operate violence to fulfill their wishes or demands. They have various modes of operation.

Sometimes it is in the form of kidnapping or hijacking. Sometimes it is a kind of blasting bombs in a crowded train or bus. In some cases, they release their hostage on a big ransom. At times their terms and conditions are hard to accept and impossible to fulfil. On most occasions, a dateline is fixed. If they are refused or dishonoured, they turn hostile. The criminals kill their captives. It is a matter of great regret that some countries harbour the militants.

Terrorism creates social unrest. It intends to damage the national progress. Even a government falls victim to their wishes. Such a group hijacked an Indian Boeing from Nepal on the 24th December, 1999. They released it when India freed their leader Masood Azhar from the jail. The militants skyjacked American planes and crashed them into World Trade Centre. It was destroyed completely. The massacres in our Parliament and the American Embassy are the glaring examples in the recent times. We can combat and perish it from the face of the earth. But we must keep it in mind: United we stand, divided we fall.

Terrorism in India Essay

Also Read: Essay on Independence Day

Terrorism in India Essay: 300 Words

Communal disharmony is one of the causes of terrorism in India. People here are belonging to the different ethnic groups. Prejudiced, some of them show their commitment to their own minority. And this kind of conservative attitude is the genesis of terrorism in India.

Since 1947 India and Pakistan are regarded as two different free countries, although they were undivided India during the reign of the British colonialists. The British left India by conferring freedom on both India and Pakistan, but the relationship remained unfriendly. Although it is not right to say that Pakistan directly gave shelter to the terrorists, there is little doubt that the terrorists have to some extent nourished by Pakistan.

The terrorists threatened the peace in Jammu and Kashmir. Even the terrorists often attacked India between these two countries by way of causing explosions in large cities like Mumbai, Delhi, and Hyderabad. Some Tamil terrorists have also been constantly threatening the peace of India. The most crucial problem that India has now been facing is the activities of the Maoists in West Bengal.

Indians are now uneasy because of the price hike, corruptions in a large scale, and the problem of unemployment. At this time terrorist activities are obligatory to the progress of the nation. All of the political leaders and the Government should be aware of the fact that communal disharmony causes this terrorism. Thus, the liberalism of Indians and proper development of the country, and above all, good administration are very necessary to stop this evil of terrorism.

If it continues, the nation will soon lose its integrity and become the most disgraceful country in the world. Unfortunately, political leaders do politics for the sake of politics only, not for the sake of the making of their country. Every Indian should be conscious of the curse of terrorism and should do well in order to restore the peace of India.

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Essay on terrorism

Essay on terrorism

What is terrorism?

In the most comprehensive sense, terrorism is an intentional use of indiscriminate violence as a mechanism to create terror or fear in order to achieve a political, religious, or ideological objective. Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare. It is the use of violence against innocent civilians or non-combatants. The word terrorism has gained popularity following the attacks on the World Trade Centers New York in September 2001 also referred to as the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

History of terrorism

The nuisance of terrorism is as old as the Roman Empire. The roots and practice of terrorism can be traced back at least to the first century AD. The word terrorism itself was used for the first time to describe the acts of the Jacobin Club during the reign of terror in the French Revolution.

Types of terrorism

Types of terrorism

State-Sponsored terrorism

It is pursued in order to achieve such clearly stated foreign policy objectives. Massive-scale state-sponsored terrorism reemerged in international politics in the 1960s and 1970s. Now, along with religious terrorism, state-sponsored terrorism has greatly altered the design of terrorist attacks around the world. Since its independence, India has been having the same problems from Pakistan.

Ideology-oriented terrorism  

Ideology-oriented terrorism is typically categorized into two: left-wing and right-wing terrorism. 

Left-wing terrorism 

It is violence against the ruling class, mostly by the lower classes, motivated by leftist ideology. These include the Red Army faction or the Baader Meinhof Gang in former West Germany, the Red Brigades in Italy, the Maoist groups in India and Nepal. 

Right-wing Terrorism 

Right-wing groups tend to seek to protect the status quo or to return to some past situation that they feel should have been preserved. Examples of this include: fascism in Italy, nazism in Germany, white supremacist movements in the USA known as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).

Religious terrorism

Terrorist groups are notably motivated by religion. Religious terrorism is more destructive in nature. These groups are motivated either in whole or in part by a religious imperative that considers violence as a sacred duty. The theology of ISIS is in accordance with the Wahabi theological ideology. 

Criminal Terrorism 

Terrorist activities are used to aid in crime and criminal profit. For instance, in narco-terrorism, narcotics traffickers attempt to influence the policies of the Government by systematic threat or use by violence.  

Ethnic terrorism

It is deliberate violence by a subnational ethnic group to advance its cause. Such violence usually focuses either on the creation of a separate state or on the elevation of the status of one ethnic group over others. Tamil Nationalist groups in Sri Lanka, insurgent groups in North East India, and the Khalistan movement are examples of ethnonationalism terrorist activities.

Reasons behind the terrorism

There are many reasons which make people or a group terrorist. Those reasons are political, religious, poverty, and lack of education.

The main cause of terrorism is perceived socio-political or historical injustice and a belief that violence will lead to change. People who choose this path when they have been stripped off their land or rights are denied the same. Examples- Hamas group of Palestine, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam ( LTTE), Maoists and the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) 

Terrorist groups use a specific religious ideology to inspire people to join terrorist groups. For example, ISIS and Al-Qaeda use Islamic ideology making people follow them. 

Socio-e conomic

Many people who join terrorist groups are illiterate and poor. Terrorism can spread like a virus in vulnerable and marginalized communities. These people can easily be pursued by terrorism groups. 

A lack of employment and unequal growth encourages unemployed youth to indulge in criminal acts and narcotics.

However, the above arguments are partially true. Of the 9/11 conspirators, eight were engineers by education. Osama bin Laden’s father owned the largest construction company in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. So, terrorism is not always a result of illiteracy and poverty.

Intolerance  

Because of the increasing population and decreasing resources, intolerance is growing in society. Increasing globalization of the society come to transcend national boundaries spreading terrorism. 

The ineffective anti-terrorism legislation and misplaced judicial activism are somehow also responsible for growing terrorism. 

Structural issues

There are structural inadequacies in the state apparatus namely weaknesses in the intelligence structure -human as well as technical, inadequate modernization of police paramilitary forces and the Armed Forces, unimaginative media management and coverage, reactive response, and slow government decision-making lack of clear strategy and policy on internal security.

In the Indian context, the reasons over the past few years have been numerous. Our consolidation as a secular, federal, and democratic state is still evolving and the fundamentalist forces often exploit a diversity of our multi-ethnic and multi-religious society. 

Role of technology Terrorism is spreading fast in the modern era as technology is now available to conduct acts of terror and the targets of terrorism are more widespread than ever before. Sophisticated means of communications such as electronic media, print media, social media, and the Internet help terrorists to quickly promote their ideology and hate campaign and exploit cyber terrorism. There are secure and encrypted messaging apps like Telegram. It is the very messaging platform at Isis used to claim responsibility for attacks. For instance, the PlayStation primarily is a gaming device. Experts believe that ISIS terrorists use PlayStation to communicate. One can send private messages via the PlayStation Network. The FBI and the CIA believe that potential terrorists have been communicating via these networks. In the case of 26/11 Mumbai attacks, the terrorists came armed not just with guns and grenades but also carrying cell phones, GPS devices, and other high-tech gear. This level of sophistication is worrying. In the Christchurch massacre of New Zealand, the attack was not reported by bystanders or by security cameras at mosques. This had been live-streamed by the shooter himself on Facebook.

Global Terrorism Index (GTI) 2019

This report is annually released by the Sydney-based Institute for Economics and Peace. As per this report, India as the seventh-worst terrorism affected the country. Jammu & Kashmir is India’s most affected region by terrorism in 2018. Most of these attacks were perpetrated by the Hizbul Mujahideen (HM), Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), and Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT). 8,437 Indians have lost their lives since 2001 at the hands of terrorists.

terrorists at Mumbai with AK 47

Why is India a victim of terror? 

India is suffering from ethno-nationalist, religious, left-wing, and narco-terrorism. Some well-known examples of terrorist activities in India are Mumbai attacks of 26/11, 1993 Mumbai serial bomb blasts, attack on Akshardham temple in 2002, Mumbai train blasts 2006, Parliament attacks of 2001 attacks on Armed Forces camps in Pathankot and Uri. 

India is geographically located between Asia’s two principal areas of illicit opium production -the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle. This leads to a heavy influx of drugs and arms. 

Pakistan and China

India has a hostile neighbor in the form of Pakistan with a land border of 3,400 kilometers. Pakistan sponsors state terrorism and fundamentalist forces, particularly through its inter-services intelligence, also known as ISI.

Also, India has unresolved border issues with China. And China has active military and nuclear cooperation with Pakistan. 

Porous border

India shares a contiguous and porous border with smaller SAARC nations such as Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka. Accompanying problems such as illegal migration and smuggling in the border belt and resulting social tensions create a conducive environment for terrorism.  

India has a long sea border of more than seven thousand kilometers prone to pirating and smuggling. During the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, terrorists had used sea routes to enter the country.

Terrorism has no religion Another troubling trend is that the so-called war on terror is seen as a war against Islam. This is irrational and dreadful for Muslims, as they now face religious discrimination and are socially disadvantaged. The Koran clearly says, ‘let there be no compulsion in religion’. Nothing could be more explicit than this. So, the entire mythology of the spread of Islam through the sword is unjustified. There is no sanctity of the Koran to spread the faith with the sword.   If it was about religion, Christchurch would not have happened. Brenton Tarrant was a white supremacist and part of the alt-right. The dark face of terrorism neither has religion nor nationality. The religious interpretation is idiosyncratic. There are other political and social factors. These things are complex and this is where nuance is necessary.

Impact of terrorism

According to ourworldindata.org , over the past decade, terrorists killed an average of 21,000 people worldwide each year. Terrorism accounted for 0.05% of global deaths in 2017.

Schools have been bombed and burned in Gaza, Syria, Somalia, Nigeria, and elsewhere across the world in the last decade. Teachers were killed, and students were recruited as child soldiers. 

Foreign investment

Terrorism affects FDI in many ways. Terrorism leads to insecurity and uncertainty in the country. This causes a lack of trust in foreign investors, forcing them to divert their resources from the host country to other, peaceful countries. Costly security measures decrease the returns on FDI. Terrorism also harms local infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, and communications. It prohibits foreign investment by raising the costs of doing business.

Domestic investment

Terrorism also reduces domestic investment as it becomes difficult for domestic investors to invest in a panic-ridden environment. In addition, public investment is also severely damaged as government projects such as roads, highways, canals, dams, bridges, highways, hospitals, and school construction also brought to an end in the presence of terrorist activities.

Tourists usually avoid visiting the city that has been attacked. For tourism-dependent economies, terrorist attacks can hit even harder.

A recent example is Sri Lanka (Easter bombing). Sri Lanka has made significant progress thanks to a tourism boom post  25-year civil war ended. However, the Easter bombing changed the picture. Among those killed in bombings were 45 foreigners. Tourists fled: the number of arrivals dropped. For several days following the attack, many businesses remained closed. A huge share of jobs was lost in the tourism sector. 

Similarly, in Kashmir, tourism is the biggest source of livelihood in the state. But, terrorism ruined the tourism industry. The owners of hotels, guest houses, and houseboats, whose business is entirely dependent on the influx of tourists, suffer huge economic losses. By threatening visitors from visiting Kashmir, the terrorists are strangling a major source of jobs and making those who have become unemployed potential recruits to Pakistan-inspired separatism by violence.

Government spending

Terrorist attacks also increase defense and security spending and this reduces economic growth. If the cost of terror decreases, more money could be allocated to spending on infrastructure and that would lead to higher growth.

Steps already taken to combat and end terrorism

India has already achieved progress on various institutional and legislative mechanisms aimed at combating terrorism.

After the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, a national investigation agency also known as the NIA was formed to counter terrorist acts in the future.

The National Intelligence Grid also known as NATGRID is an integrated intelligence grid. It will link the databases of several departments and ministries of the government of India. NATGRID aims to gather detailed intelligence patterns that intelligence agencies can readily access. It collects and collates a variety of data from government databases such as tax and bank account information, credit card activity, visa and immigration records, and itineraries of train and air travel. 

India has a multi-agency center also known as MAC for counterterrorism with a mandate of sharing terrorism-related intelligence inputs on a day-to-day basis. 

Various legal frameworks are created such as the Terrorist And Disruptive Activities Act and the Prevention of Terrorism Act of 2002, along with the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act and the NIA Act of 2008. 

How to overcome terrorism?

From the understanding of the nature of international terrorism that we are facing today, it is clear that a long term strategy is required to fight against terrorism. It has to be comprehensive on all fronts.

Core strategy

The strategy needs to be evolved to protect core values. These core values are to protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity, to consolidate as a secular, federal, democratic state with freedom of speech, equality, and justice, to promote socio-economic growth and development.

Socio-economic dimension 

Socially, India must continue to promote liberal and secular polity by media, intelligentsia, and religious institutions. 

There is a need to develop all regions more evenly throughout the country with greater development effort in the remote weaker sections of the society. Economic empowerment of the poor especially in areas like J&K and the Naxal belts would automatically drive out the extremist elements and their ideologies would be abandoned.

Education reforms

Education is the antidote against terrorism. Education provides the confidence and analytical skills youngsters need to condemn hatred and violence. We must teach values of peace, non-violence, fraternity. So, no one will be able to brainwash young minds. 

Also, there is a tendency to brand students from madrasas as terrorists. This further, alienate Indian madrasas. There is an urgent need to de-stigmatize madrasas as a breeding ground for terrorism and address the outdated education system in the Madrasahs by modernization.

Upgrading communication systems

There is also a need to develop our communication networks so that television and telecommunication can spread to remote and border areas which are currently under the constant reach of Pakistani propaganda. 

Military strategy

India should clearly spell out a counterterrorism doctrine. This should address the causes and not the symptoms alone. The aim of military operations is to create a secure and suitable environment so that social, economic, and political issues can be addressed effectively. 

Effective border surveillance and management is also required to check infiltration. This should be achieved through technical means of surveillance backed by highly mobile specialized forces the other than the present system which is manpower intensive. 

Foreign-based terrorists must be targeted at the bases, training camps, and sanctuaries to end the surrogate terrorism or the proxy wars. 

India must leverage its improved ties with the first world countries. Platforms of multinational bodies like the UN, G20, BRICS, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization should be utilized to further India’s agenda of anti-terrorism.

International cooperation

International terrorism can not be confronted alone successfully as has been our experience so far. All nations must join hands to combat it. Countries have to cooperate by intelligence exchange, joint operations, and investigations. 

Pakistan sponsored proxy war  

It must be further exposed and international pressure should be applied. We have to convey more vigorously the justness of our cause and Pakistan’s support for terrorism by both state and non-state actors, as well as trying to isolate Pakistan within the international community. A strong message must be conveyed to Pakistan. 

Lessons from other nations

We have to learn from the experiences of other nations. However, at the same time, we need to realize clearly that a situation is particular to us and there are no direct lessons to learn except a revaluation of our own experience. 

A strategy must be pragmatic and cannot be similar to the US model of global capacity or the Israeli strategy of massive and immediate retaliation, as the respective environment and capabilities are different.

Dr. Salman Farsi was said to have been involved in the Malegaon blasts. He was acquitted eight years later. By this time, he had nothing to fall back upon. He is a qualified Unani doctor. But, he even took to rearing goats to meet his needs. These outcomes can be easily avoided. The media, instead of calling each accused a terrorist, may perhaps restrict itself to calling them only an accused, and avoid displaying their photographs as if they have been convicted.

Other steps

There is a need to adopt proactive policies to confront the terrorists at the roots of the ideology of fundamentalists social evils and sources of terror funding like narcotics and drug trade. 

India also needs to strengthen its anti-terrorism laws. There is a need to modernize and enlarge intelligence networks, State Police and paramilitary forces in training equipment and ethos. 

There should be enough preventive measures against nuclear biological and chemical attacks as well as cyber terrorism.

This unconventional war can not be won by conventional methods. It can only be won by showing that our values are stronger, better, fairer, and more humane than the alternative. The values that will rule the future of humanity are those of peace, tolerance, liberty, respect for diversity, and not those of reaction, discord, and hatred.

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Essay on Terrorism in India

Students are often asked to write an essay on Terrorism in India in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

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100 Words Essay on Terrorism in India

Understanding terrorism.

Terrorism is a grave issue in India. It’s a violent act to create fear, often for political reasons. Terrorists use threats and violence to intimidate or coerce.

Impact on India

India has suffered a lot due to terrorism. Many innocent lives have been lost, and property destroyed. It has also affected India’s image internationally.

Root Causes

The reasons for terrorism are complex. Some are political, others are religious or social. Often, it’s a mix of these factors.

Combating Terrorism

India is fighting terrorism with law enforcement, intelligence, and military power. Education and social development are also key in preventing terrorism.

Also check:

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250 Words Essay on Terrorism in India

Introduction.

Terrorism in India is a complex and multifaceted issue, deeply rooted in sociopolitical, economic, and religious contexts. It’s a threat that has undermined the country’s security and stability, causing widespread fear and disruption.

Types of Terrorism

Terrorism in India manifests in various forms, including ethno-nationalist terrorism, religious terrorism, and left-wing terrorism. Ethno-nationalist terrorism is predominantly seen in the northeastern states and Punjab, driven by demands for secession or autonomy. Religious terrorism, often linked to communal tensions, has caused significant unrest. Left-wing extremism, primarily from Naxalite groups, poses a considerable threat in central and eastern India.

Impact on Society and Economy

Terrorism has a profound impact on India’s social fabric and economic development. It not only causes loss of lives and property but also instigates fear and insecurity among the population. Economically, terrorism disrupts business operations, deters investment, and diverts resources from development to security.

Counter-Terrorism Measures

India’s counter-terrorism strategy involves a combination of legal, administrative, and security measures. The government has enacted stringent laws like the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act and established specialized agencies like the National Investigation Agency. However, the challenge lies in effectively implementing these measures without infringing upon human rights.

Addressing terrorism in India requires a comprehensive approach that goes beyond security-centric measures. It involves addressing underlying socio-economic disparities, fostering communal harmony, and strengthening regional cooperation. Only through such a holistic approach can the menace of terrorism be effectively tackled.

500 Words Essay on Terrorism in India

India, a nation known for its rich cultural heritage and diversity, has been a victim of numerous terrorist attacks over the years. Terrorism in India is a complex issue, with roots in historical, political, and socio-economic contexts. It poses a significant threat to the country’s security, peace, and development.

Historical Context

Terrorist activities in India can be traced back to the pre-independence era, but the intensity and frequency have escalated dramatically in recent decades. The partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 triggered communal tensions, which have since been exploited by various extremist groups. The Kashmir issue, which arose following the partition, has also been a significant contributor to terrorism in the country.

Forms of Terrorism

Terrorism in India manifests in various forms, including ethno-nationalist terrorism, religious terrorism, left-wing terrorism, and narco-terrorism. Ethno-nationalist terrorism is primarily driven by separatist movements, like those in Punjab and the Northeastern states. Religious terrorism, on the other hand, is often linked to communal tensions between different religious groups. Left-wing terrorism, mainly represented by Naxalism, is a significant concern in central and eastern India. Narco-terrorism, which involves the use of drug trafficking to fund terrorist activities, is another emerging threat.

Terrorism has severe implications for India’s society and economy. It not only leads to loss of lives and property but also instills fear and insecurity among citizens. It disrupts normal life, hampers economic activities, and deters foreign investment. Moreover, it strains India’s relations with neighboring countries, affecting regional peace and cooperation.

India has taken numerous measures to counter terrorism. These include legislative actions, like the enactment of the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act and the National Investigation Agency Act, and operational measures, like the establishment of specialized counter-terrorism forces. India also engages in international cooperation against terrorism through platforms like the United Nations and SAARC.

Challenges and the Way Forward

Despite these efforts, India faces significant challenges in countering terrorism. These include issues related to intelligence gathering, inter-agency coordination, and legal complexities. Moreover, addressing the root causes of terrorism, like socio-economic disparities and communal tensions, is a daunting task.

While the fight against terrorism is a long one, it is not insurmountable. India needs to adopt a multi-pronged approach that combines stringent security measures, diplomatic efforts, socio-economic development, and communal harmony. Public awareness and participation are also crucial in this regard.

Terrorism in India is a grave concern that requires comprehensive and concerted efforts to tackle. While the journey is challenging, a resilient India stands firm in its resolve to eradicate terrorism and ensure a peaceful and prosperous future for its citizens.

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Terrorism Essay

An act of violence intended at the unsuspecting civilians or military personnel who are not in a combat, is termed as terrorism.  Generally it is carried out for political gain and to destabilize a government. Those who carry out such attacks are called terrorists. World had been suffering from terrorism since long, yet there is no relief. People die and government’s struggle to end terrorism. Terrorism has also become global making its elimination difficult. There is a need to fight together against terrorism and make the world a better place to live.

Long and Short Essay on Terrorism in English

Now-a-days people are really afraid of the terrorism and terrorists attack all time. It has become a warm topic as it is a big social issue .

We have provided below long and short essay on terrorism in English for your information and knowledge.

These Terrorism Essays have been written in simple English to make it easily understandable and presentable when required.

You can use following terrorism essay in your school events and occasions like essay writing, debate and speeches.

Terrorism Essay 1 (100 words)

Terrorism is the unlawful act of violence which is used by the terrorists to make people fear. Terrorism has become a common social issue. It is used to threaten common public and government. Terrorism is used by various social organizations, politicians and business industries to achieve their goals in very easy way.

A group of people who take support of terrorism are known as terrorists. Explaining terrorism is not so easy as it has spread its roots very deep. Terrorists have any rule and law; they only use violent acts intending to create and enhance level of terror in the society and country.

Terrorism

Terrorism Essay 2 (150 words)

Terrorism has become a big national and international problem all over the world. It is a global issue which has affected almost all the nations throughout the world directly or indirectly. Opposing terrorism has been tried by many countries however; terrorists are still getting support by someone. Terrorism is a violent act of terrifying the common public anytime in the day or night. Terrorists have many objectives such as spreading threat of violence in the society, fulfilling political purposes, etc. They make civilians of the country their primary target.

Some of the examples of terrorism are bombing of US Embassy, atom bomb attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, etc. The main goal of the terrorists is fulfillment of their demands by the government of a specific country. They contact online social media or newspaper, magazine, etc to spread their voices to the public and government. Sometimes, terrorists attack is done to fulfill the religious and ideological goal.

Terrorism Essay 3 (200 words)

India is a developing country who has faced many challenges in the past and currently, terrorism which a big national problem. It has faced challenges like hunger death, illiteracy , poverty , inequality, population explosion and terrorism which have affected its growth and development to a great extent.

Terrorism is a big threat fighting with a government and common public for the purpose of religion, motherland, and other unreasonable motives of the terrorists. Terrorists call themselves brave soldiers however, they are not real soldiers. Real soldiers never hurt common public and they fight only to save their country from the enemies. Real soldiers fight to fulfill the purpose of a nation. Whereas terrorists fight to fulfill their own, individual and unfair purposes.

A national soldier is fully responsible for his all the responsibilities however a terrorist never do that. Terrorists got their name from the word terror. Earlier, terrorism was limited to some specific areas like state of Jammu and Kashmir however; now-a-days, it has spread to almost all the areas especially regions of north eastern India. Recently, the terrorist attack in India was in Taj Hotel and Nariman house in Mumbai. In that attack, India had lost lives of many people and suffered financial loss.

Terrorism Essay 4 (250 words)

Terrorism is a big national issue which is using the human mind to get complete victory. Terrorism is terrifying the mind of the human being to make them weak so that they can rule the nation again. It needs to be solved on international level. We all should think about terrorism together to finish it from the root. We should make a strong policy to completely destroy its kingdom as well as removing the striking terror from the human minds. Terrorism uses violent ways to achieve the purpose and get positive result.

Terrorism is the act of violence performed by the group of people called terrorist. They become very common people and somehow they lost their control over the mind because of some unfair natural disasters or unfair activities with them by others which make them unable to fulfil desires in normal and accepted ways. Slowly they are taken under the confidence of some bad people in the society where they are promised to get fulfilled all the desires. They get together and form a group of terrorists to fight with their own nation, society and community. Terrorism has affected all the youths of the country, their growth and development.

It has pulled the nation many years back from the proper development. Terrorism is ruling the country just like Britishers, from which we again need to be free. However, it seems that terrorism would always continue spreading its root to deep because some rich people from our nation are still supporting them to fulfill their unfair purposes.

Terrorism Essay 5 (300 words)

India had faced lots of challenges such as poverty, population growth, hunger, illiteracy, inequality, and many more however, terrorism is highly dangerous till now affecting the mankind and humanity. It is more than dangerous and frightening disease which is affecting the people mentally and intellectually. Whether it exists in the small (Ireland, Israel, etc) or big (USA, Russia, etc) countries; it has challenged both to a same level. Terrorism is act of using international violence by the group of frustrated people means terrorists to achieve some political, religious or individual goals. The spread of terror by the terrorists is increasing day by day.

Terrorism has no any rule and laws, it only attacks on society or colony or crowd of the innocent people living in order to spread terror as well as give pressure to government to complete their demands. The demands of the terrorist become very specific to fulfil only what they want. It is a greatest threat to mankind. They never compromise their friends, family, innocent kids, woman and old people. They only want to explode atom bomb at the place of people crowd. They shoot on crowd, hijack flight and other terror activities.

Terrorist target to spread terror in their preferred areas, region or country within minimum time. Previously, it is supposed that terrorist’s activities were limited to the Kashmir only however, it has spread its roots to all over the country. There are many terrorist groups exists in the nation with their special name depending on their name. Two main types of terrorism are political terrorism and criminal terrorism depends on their works. Terrorists are well-trained group of people prepared to perform some specific purpose. More than one terrorist group are trained to perform different purposes. It is like a disease which is spreading regularly and need some highly effective medicine for permanent removal.

Terrorism Essay 6 (400 words)

Terrorism is the process unfair and violent activities performed by the group of trained people called terrorists. There is only one boss who gives strict orders to the group to perform particular activity in any ways. They want money, power and publicity for the fulfilment of their unfair ideas. In such conditions, it is media which really helps to spread the news about terrorism in the society of any nation. Group of terrorist also take support of the media by especially contacting them to let them know about their plan, ideas and goals.

Various groups of the terrorists are named according to their aims and objectives. Acts of terrorism affects the human mind to a great extent and makes people so fear that they fear to go outside from their own home. They think that there is terror everywhere outside the home in the crowd like railway station, temple, social event, national event and so many. Terrorists want to spread terror within specific area of high population in order to publicize for their act as well as rule on people’s mind. Some recent act of terrorism are 9/11 attacks on the U.S. and 26/11 attack in India. It has affected the financial status and humanity to a great extent.

In order to reduce the terror and effect of terrorism from the nation, a tight security arrangement is done on the order of government. All the places which are crowded because of any reasons like social programmes, national events like Republic day, Independence Day, temple and etc. Each and every person has to follow the rules of security arrangement and has to pass from the automatic machine of full body scanner. Using such machines, security get help in detecting the presence of terrorists. Even after arrangement of such tight security, we are still unable to make it effective against the terrorism.

Our country is spending lots of money every year to fight against the terrorism as well as remove the terrorist group. However, it is still growing like a disease as new terrorists are getting trained on daily basis. They are very common people like us but they are trained to complete some unfair act and forced to fight against their one society, family and country. They are so trained that they never compromise their life, they are always ready to finish their life while fighting. As an Indian citizen, we all are highly responsible to stop the terrorism and it can be stopped only when we never come into the greedy talk of some bad and frustrated people.

All the above essay on terrorism are written in such a simple way so that students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, etc can use very easily without any difficulty in understanding. Terrorism is an important social issue which urgently needs to be solved and ended in order to maintain a peaceful life all over the world. Terrorism essay written above may greatly help students to take part in the essay writing competition or get good marks in the exam. You can also get other related essays and related information such as:

Speech on Terrorism

Speech on Global Terrorism

Article on Terrorism

Slogans on Terrorism

Essay on Terrorism in India

Essay on Global Terrorism

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As Trial Looms, Trump Plays to a Jury of Millions

Donald J. Trump and his lawyers realize his chances in the courtroom are dicey. He intends to make whatever happens a political triumph.

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Donald J. Trump in a courtroom hallway amid security officers.

By Ben Protess ,  Jonah E. Bromwich ,  Maggie Haberman and William K. Rashbaum

The first criminal trial of Donald J. Trump will begin on Monday, and the 45th president thinks he can win — no matter what the jury decides. Mr. Trump will aim to spin any outcome to his benefit and, if convicted, to become the first felon to win the White House.

Manhattan prosecutors, who have accused Mr. Trump of falsifying records to cover up a sex scandal, hold advantages that include a list of insider witnesses and a jury pool drawn from one of the country’s most liberal counties. Mr. Trump and some aides and lawyers privately concede that a jury is unlikely to outright acquit him, according to people with knowledge of the discussions.

So Mr. Trump, the presumptive 2024 Republican nominee, is seeking to write his own reality, telling a story that he believes could pave his return to the White House. He has framed his failed efforts to delay the case as evidence he cannot receive a fair trial, casting himself as a political martyr under attack from the prosecution and the judge.

To pull off an acquittal, he is considering testifying to personally persuade jurors of his innocence.

It would be a rare and risky move for most defendants. But Mr. Trump is putting his own stamp on the role, attacking the district attorney who brought the case, Alvin L. Bragg, with all the power of his bully pulpit. That behavior and its aftershocks are expected to continue throughout a weekslong trial.

Mr. Trump, 77, is deploying the same tactics that made him the singular political figure of the last decade. Since announcing his first presidential candidacy, he has bulldozed through American life, flattening political and cultural norms as he goes. He stunned the world as the insurgent victor in the 2016 election, was twice impeached as president and pushed democracy to the brink as the incumbent who refused to concede his 2020 election loss.

Now, with jury selection starting on Monday, Mr. Trump will become the first former U.S. president to stand trial on criminal charges. Win or lose, he will be the first presidential candidate whose political fate , before being decided by millions of voters, will be shaped by 12 people in a jury box.

The 34 felonies Mr. Trump is facing, which could carry a four-year prison sentence, have struck a nerve with the former president. While Mr. Trump has spent years reveling in the glow of the White House and his sunny South Florida estate, the trial will be held in a dingy county courtroom. When the former president is there — he is required to be in court, but can ask to be excused — he will be transported back to the borough and tabloid atmosphere where he made his name.

He established himself as one of the loudest voices in a loud city, gossiping about his love affairs and broadcasting his political opinions. That bombastic style, and his time on “The Apprentice” television show, gave him an immediate following when he became a candidate in 2015. He repeatedly condemned Muslims, insulted a prominent female journalist and a reporter with a physical disability and glorified political violence by saying he would pay the legal fees of supporters who assaulted protesters at his rallies.

“He’s been able to create the age of Trump by becoming the fist smashing into America’s sacred institutions,” the historian Douglas Brinkley said.

He added that while many Democrats hoped the trial would put an end to that, “Trump understands media culture well enough to really believe that ‘as long as other people are talking about me, I win.’”

In the courtroom, however, it has been quite some time since Mr. Trump won a major victory. In this year’s first two months alone, he lost a pair of civil trials in spectacular fashion, leading to an $83 million defamation judgment and a $454 million fraud penalty. In both cases, he took the stand. Both times it went poorly.

The losses hit his wallet and his ego. But they never threatened his freedom, unlike his four criminal cases unfolding in cities up and down the East Coast.

Whether those cases could imperil or aid his presidential campaign is an open question. Of the four, which include charges that he mishandled classified documents and tried to subvert democracy, the sex scandal cover-up case in Manhattan is viewed within Mr. Trump’s campaign as the least damaging. A conviction in any case would not prevent him from taking office .

Still, the Manhattan prosecution presents distinctive threats: For now, it is the only case on track to conclude before Election Day, as Mr. Trump has managed to bog down the others in delays and appeals. And even if Mr. Trump wins back the White House, he could not pardon himself for the Manhattan charges, as he could in the two federal cases he’s facing.

The Manhattan case is also replete with mortifying personal details for Mr. Trump and his family: There’s the porn star who said she had sex with him, the former Trump fixer who paid her off and the tabloid publisher who helped him bury all manner of scurrilous stories.

To adapt his candidacy to the trial, he will essentially bring his presidential campaign to the courthouse. One person familiar with his preliminary plans described weekend events held in strategically important states near New York, including Pennsylvania, where he is holding a rally this weekend. He will conduct radio and television interviews from Trump Tower, where he is expected to stay during the trial, which will be in session every weekday except Wednesday.

Mr. Trump and the Republican Party have made the trial a staple of his campaign fund-raising. One email sent on Friday had the subject line “72 hours until all hell breaks loose!” — ominous language evocative of his social media posts before a pro-Trump mob swarmed the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021.

Mr. Trump has not since summoned a similar uprising. But the spectacle of the trial is expected to spill into the streets of Lower Manhattan, where protesters, both those who love and defend Mr. Trump and those who hate and want him convicted, will gather behind police barricades as traffic grinds to a halt.

Stephen K. Bannon, the right-wing media host who is Mr. Trump’s former White House chief strategist, will have episodes of his “War Room” show recorded outside the courthouse. The area will be crawling with police officers and the U.S. Secret Service, and, for a few weeks, the general disruption will alter the flow of life on the city’s downtown streets.

The atmosphere will be less raucous and more tense inside the courtroom, under the watchful eye of the presiding trial judge, Juan M. Merchan, who is known for his strict control of proceedings. There, while the Secret Service and much of the press corps remain glued to Mr. Trump’s every move, prosecutors from the Manhattan district attorney’s office will tell the story that they hope will lead the jury to convict Mr. Trump.

Mr. Bragg, the district attorney who has bet his career on the case’s outcome, argues that the payment was Mr. Trump’s original act of election interference. His prosecutors will tell jurors that during the 2016 campaign, Mr. Trump repeatedly tried to kill damaging stories, regardless of whether they were true, and coordinated hush-money payments to three different people who were hawking embarrassing information.

The 34 felony charges of falsifying business records, though, directly relate to only one of those episodes, involving the porn star Stormy Daniels, who said she and Mr. Trump had sex in 2006. When Ms. Daniels looked to sell her story a decade later, Mr. Trump sought to keep it under wraps.

At Mr. Trump’s direction, prosecutors will say, the former fixer, Michael D. Cohen, paid Ms. Daniels $130,000 to keep quiet. After Mr. Trump won the election, the new president reimbursed Mr. Cohen, and his company disguised the purpose of the payments in corporate records, stating they were for a “legal expense.”

In response, Mr. Trump has falsely claimed that Mr. Bragg is following orders from President Biden to prosecute him. He has assailed Mr. Bragg, who is Black and a Democrat, as a “racist” and sought to change the conversation by blaming the district attorney for violent crime in New York City — even though murders and shootings have gone down during Mr. Bragg’s tenure.

At Mr. Bragg’s request, Justice Merchan recently imposed a gag order on Mr. Trump, barring him from attacking witnesses, prosecutors and jurors. After Mr. Trump took aim at Justice Merchan’s daughter, a Democratic political consultant, the judge expanded the gag order to include his own family.

Mr. Trump has pressed the judge to step aside, citing his daughter’s career. Justice Merchan has already rejected one such request, noting that a judicial ethics panel concluded last year that he had no real conflict.

The former president has also taken aim at some of Mr. Bragg’s key witnesses, hurling threats and social media screeds in their direction. Mr. Cohen, in particular, has felt the brunt of the attacks from Mr. Trump, who has sued him, called him a “rat” and referred to him as “death.” Their confrontation in the courtroom, where Mr. Cohen will be the star witness, is expected to be the climactic moment of the trial.

But if Mr. Trump were to take the stand, Mr. Cohen would be quickly overshadowed. The former president is likely to delay a final decision until he knows whether the judge will restrict prosecutors’ efforts to cross-examine him, and until he can assess the performance of his former fixer.

The jurors will be assessing Mr. Cohen, too. If even one does not believe his testimony, the trial could end with a hung jury, a clear victory for the former president. Todd Blanche, the lawyer leading the case, has told Mr. Trump in recent weeks that he can win the trial, people with knowledge of the discussion said.

The case could be won or lost during jury selection, in the next two weeks. The expectation is that many potential jurors will be Manhattan Democrats with animus for Mr. Trump. The former president’s lawyers are hoping to spot sympathizers and will focus on younger Black men and white working-class men.

But Mr. Trump may struggle even with sympathetic jurors if he chooses to testify. At the civil fraud trial, the judge — who decided that case instead of a jury — was not impressed.

He “rarely responded to the questions asked, and he frequently interjected long, irrelevant speeches,” the judge wrote in his decision, adding, “His refusal to answer the questions directly, or in some cases, at all, severely compromised his credibility.”

Ben Protess is an investigative reporter at The Times, writing about public corruption. He has been covering the various criminal investigations into former President Trump and his allies. More about Ben Protess

Jonah E. Bromwich covers criminal justice in New York, with a focus on the Manhattan district attorney’s office and state criminal courts in Manhattan. More about Jonah E. Bromwich

Maggie Haberman is a senior political correspondent reporting on the 2024 presidential campaign, down ballot races across the country and the investigations into former President Donald J. Trump. More about Maggie Haberman

William K. Rashbaum is a senior writer on the Metro desk, where he covers political and municipal corruption, courts, terrorism and law enforcement. He was a part of the team awarded the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News. More about William K. Rashbaum

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Winners of the 2024 Writing Contests

The winners of the 2024 Writing Contests have now been named.

Thank you to all who submitted work! All entries were read by at least two judges with entrants names removed, to ensure a fair process. The awards ceremony will be held on Friday, April 26, at 1 p.m. , in the Greenberg Center.  Please see the list of winners below:

Melvin Goldstein Awards for Papers on Film/Art Using Interdisciplinary Approaches

First Place: Warren Parton Second Place: MaKenna Sweeney Third Place (tie): Christopher Hinson, Kendall Grenolds

Joseph Doyle Prize for Best Critical Essay Written in an Introductory Class

First Place (tie): Indiana Pellegrino, Diana Isaacs Second Place: Emma Walsh Honorable Mention: Camille Henri

Phyllis B. Abrahms Awards in Drama

First Place: MaKenna Sweeney Second Place: Kendall Grenolds Third Place: Brendan C. McGee

Phyllis B. Abrahms Awards in Poetry

First Place: Alexa Schwartz Second Place: Shelby Barrett-Whitmore Third Place: Kendall Grenolds Honorable Mentions: MaKenna Sweeney, Sophie Lee

Phyllis B. Abrahms Awards in Fiction

First Place: Kyle Mieczkowski Second Place: Kaitlyn Hirtle Third Place: Sequoia Hornsby Honorable Mention: Isabella Ruiz

Phyllis B. Abrams Awards in the Personal Essay

First Place (tie): Shelby Barrett-Whitmore, Alexa Schwartz Second Place: Gianna Balsamo

Joseph Doyle Prize for Critical Essays on American Literature

First Place: Indiana Pellegrino          Second Place: Joshua Weiner

Melvin Goldstein Awards for Papers on Literature Using Interdisciplinary Approaches

First Place: Alyssa Archambault Honorable Mentions: Warren Parton, Joshua Weiner

Phyllis B. Abrahms Awards for Critical Essays on Literature Other than American Literature

First Place: Roz Green Second Place (tie): Warren Parton, Albert Vargas

Minerva Nieditz Awards for Metaphysical Poetry

First Place: Nell Shore Sirotin Second Place: Nawilda Vasquez Third Place: Isabella Ruiz

Joseph Doyle Prize for Best Personal Essay Written in an Introductory Class

First Place: Sequoia Hornsby Second Place: Diana Isaacs

Congratulations to all of those who will receive awards!

This year, winners will receive:

Questions? Please email Ben Grossberg at [email protected] .

Gig workers are writing essays for AI to learn from

  • Companies are hiring highly educated gig workers to write training content for AI models .
  • The shift toward more sophisticated trainers comes as tech giants scramble for new data sources.
  • AI could run out of data to learn from by 2026, one research institute has warned. 

Insider Today

As artificial intelligence models run out of data to train themselves on, AI companies are increasingly turning to actual humans to write training content.

For years, companies have used gig workers to help train AI models on simple tasks like photo identification , data annotation, and labelling. But the rapidly advancing technology now requires more advanced people to train it.

Companies such as Scale AI and Surge AI are hiring part-timers with graduate degrees to write essays and creative prompts for the bots to gobble up, The New York Times reported . Scale AI, for example, posted a job last year looking for people with Master's degrees or PhDs, who are fluent in either English, Hindi, or Japanese and have professional writing experience in fields like poetry, journalism, and publishing.

Related stories

Their mission? To help AI bots "become better writers," Scale AI wrote in the posting.

And an army of workers are needed to do this kind of work. Scale AI has as many as tens of thousands of contractors working on its platform at a time, per the Times.

"What really makes the A.I. useful to its users is the human layer of data, and that really needs to be done by smart humans and skilled humans and humans with a particular degree of expertise and a creative bent," Willow Primack, the vice president of data operations at Scale AI, told the New York Times. "We have been focusing on contractors, particularly within North America, as a result."

The shift toward more sophisticated gig trainers comes as tech giants scramble to find new data to train their technology on. That's because the programs learn so incredibly fast that they're already running out of available resources to learn from. The vast trove of online information — everything from scientific papers to news articles to Wikipedia pages — is drying up.

Epoch, an AI research institute, has warned that AI could run out of data by 2026.

So, companies are finding more and more creative ways to make sure their systems never stop learning. Google has considered accessing its customers' data in Google Docs , Sheets, and Slides while Meta even thought about buying publishing house Simon & Schuster to harvest its book collection, Business Insider previously reported.

Watch: Nearly 50,000 tech workers have been laid off — but there's a hack to avoid layoffs

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  1. Terrorism Essay for Students and Teacher

    500+ Words Essay on Terrorism Essay. Terrorism is an act, which aims to create fear among ordinary people by illegal means. It is a threat to humanity. It includes person or group spreading violence, riots, burglaries, rapes, kidnappings, fighting, bombings, etc. Terrorism is an act of cowardice. Also, terrorism has nothing to do with religion.

  2. 528 Terrorism Topic Ideas to Write about & Essay Samples

    Write controversial terrorism essay titles. While your title should be catchy and grab your readers' attention, you should not resort to cheap tactics to make your headings memorable by shock value. Remember that your audience may perceive this tactic as making light of your subject, thus destroying your hard-earned credibility. ...

  3. Essay on Terrorism in 500+ Words in English for School Students

    Essay on Terrorism: The horrific events of 9/11 at the World Trade Centre and the terrorist strikes on the Taj Hotel in Mumbai on June 26, 2011, come to mind when we discuss terrorism. Terrorism is an act of violence to achieve political or ideological gains. Terrorism is a threat to life. Killing innocent people in the name of religion or politics shows that it's an act of a coward.

  4. Essay on Terrorism

    100 Words Essay on Terrorism. Terrorism is the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political and personal aims. It is a global phenomenon that has affected countries worldwide, causing harm to innocent civilians, damaging economies, and destabilizing governments. The causes of terrorism are complex and can include religious ...

  5. International Terrorism: The Challenge to Global Security Essay

    International Terrorism as a Global Challenge. International terrorism has become the greatest danger to world security, overtaking the threats of military confrontations from rival great powers. Stewart (2006) observes that the international security threat posed by military confrontations between rival great powers has reduced dramatically ...

  6. How to Write a Terrorism Essay: Tips, Topics, and Useful Sources

    Writing a terrorism essay can be quite challenging, but you have this guide and your logical thinking, so it's not that bad. 7. Use strong arguments. Let's define a strong argument first. A strong argument is a piece of evidence that proves your point in such a way that your readers are persuaded to believe you. We suggest you to use real ...

  7. Terrorism in the United States of America Essay

    Aryan Nations (AN) is a white supremacist terrorist organization that is headquartered in Hayden, Idaho. It is a form of right-wing terrorism that is anti-Semitic and neo-Nazi, and that was founded by Richard Girnt Butler in 1977. Its main objective is to establish a white state that excludes other races by fighting against people that pose a ...

  8. Essay on Terrorism

    Students are often asked to write an essay on Terrorism in their schools and colleges. And if you're also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic. ... 500 Words Essay on Terrorism Introduction to Terrorism. Terrorism, a term that sends chills down the spine of many, is a complex phenomenon ...

  9. PDF Essay 1. Terrorism and the law: past and present international approaches

    Before briefly tracing the history of international responses to terrorism, this essay presents observations on the question of definition or nomenclature. The first quality worth remarking on is the sheer diversity and range of activities encompassed by even restrictive notions of terrorism. In international law, for example, terrorism is

  10. Full article: Making sense of terrorism: a narrative approach to the

    Introduction. Terrorism has been the most prominent security issue since the start of the new millennium. Footnote 1 Since 2014, series of deadly attacks in France, Belgium, Germany, the United States, and Great Britain have fueled new anxieties about terrorist incidents, particularly in Western countries. That the terrorism label has remained ambiguous and contentious, with hundreds of ...

  11. 12 Articles and Sources to Support Your Terrorism Essay

    Source #2: Global Terrorism Database. This comprehensive, open-source database is hosted and updated by the University of Maryland. It includes over 150,000 terrorism cases from around the world (dating from 1970 to present) with information sourced from over four million news articles and 25,000 news sources.

  12. Introduction: Writing the History of Terrorism

    Terrorism and its history have been the topic of considerable public, political, literary, artistic, and academic attention, since this specific tactic of violence was invented concurrently with the advent of modernity. 1 It therefore can come as no surprise that the first academic treatises on terrorism as a subject of inquiry began to appear in the nineteenth century. 2 They were a reaction ...

  13. Opinion

    Sensible Ways to Fight Terrorism. To the Editor: Re " The West Still Hasn't Figured Out How to Beat ISIS ," by Christopher P. Costa and Colin P. Clarke (Opinion guest essay, April 1): Two ...

  14. Terrorism Essay for Students in English

    Essay on Terrorism. Terrorism is a blunder committed by the terrible individuals around us. To demonstrate their strength, a group of people attempts to govern a specific arena. Terrorism has a negative impact on both society and personal life. As a result of their acts, a large number of families are destroyed.

  15. Telling stories of terrorism: a framework for applying narrative

    ABSTRACT. Narrative has recently garnered in much attention in the study of terrorism but remains poorly understood. This paper offers some initial steps towards translating the promise of narrative approaches into a set of steps for systematically analysing and understanding terrorists' own accounts of their engagement with extremism and militancy.

  16. Terrorism Essay in English [100, 150, 200-250, 300 Words]

    Terrorism Essay in English: Terrorism is the use of indiscriminate violence for political ends. In this article, you are going to learn how to write an essay on Terrorism. Here we've provided 4 short and long essays (100, 150, 200-250, and 300 words). These essays will be helpful for the students from class 1 to class 12. So, let's begin.

  17. Essay on Terrorism

    English writing skills - Essay on Terrorism. 'Terrorism' is the unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims. Find here more information on how to write an essay on Terrorism.

  18. Terrorism Essay: Essay on Terrorism For Students in 500+ Words

    Terrorism Essay in English: Short Essay on Terrorism in 500+ Words. Terrorism Essay: Terrorism is a cheap act of threatening people and promoting violence. It destroys communal harmony and evokes fear in the public. Terrorism can include violent acts that aim to spread unrest and fear among the local populations.

  19. Essay Sample on Terrorism: Its Roots and Reasons

    Ben Sabbah's actions had started a whole new trend; people began to follow his actions and started to form terrorist organizations. Terrorism started back then, and its motives and tactics have continued to evolve through the reign of Stalin and Lenin in the Soviet Union and Mao Tse-tung in China. Many people consider what Hitler did in ...

  20. 67 Terrorist Attack Topic Ideas to Write about & Essay Samples

    The Goal of a Terrorist Attack. This objective is being accomplished by the mean of exposing people to the graphic accounts of terrorist acts-in-making, as was the case with the attacks of 9/11. Boilover: Fire Aspects of the World Trade Center Terrorist Attacks Analysis.

  21. Essay on terrorism

    Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare. It is the use of violence against innocent civilians or non-combatants. The word terrorism has gained popularity following the attacks on the World Trade Centers New York in September 2001 also referred to as the 9/11 terrorist attacks. History of terrorism.

  22. Essay on Terrorism in India

    Students are often asked to write an essay on Terrorism in India in their schools and colleges. And if you're also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic. ... 500 Words Essay on Terrorism in India Introduction.

  23. Long and Short Essay on Terrorism in English

    You can use following terrorism essay in your school events and occasions like essay writing, debate and speeches. Terrorism Essay 1 (100 words) Terrorism is the unlawful act of violence which is used by the terrorists to make people fear. Terrorism has become a common social issue. It is used to threaten common public and government.

  24. Opinion

    Mr. Clarke is the director of research at the Soufan Group. For all of the counterterrorism wins that the United States has had in its fight against the Islamic State — and there have been many ...

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    Properly Write Your Degree. The correct way to communicate your degree to employers and others is by using the following formats: Degree - This is the academic degree you are receiving. Your major is in addition to the degree; it can be added to the phrase or written separately. Include the full name of your degree, major (s), minor (s ...

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    April 14, 2024, 3:01 a.m. ET. The first criminal trial of Donald J. Trump will begin on Monday, and the 45th president thinks he can win — no matter what the jury decides. Mr. Trump will aim to ...

  28. Winners of the 2024 Writing Contests

    Joseph Doyle Prize for Best Personal Essay Written in an Introductory Class. First Place: Sequoia Hornsby. Second Place: Diana Isaacs. Congratulations to all of those who will receive awards! This year, winners will receive: $500 for 1st Place designations. $400 for 2nd Place designations. $300 for 3rd Place designations.

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