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International Baccalaureate (IB)

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IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay, but it doesn't have to be a source of stress! In this article, I'll get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources you need to get an A on it.

If you're reading this article, I'm going to assume you're an IB student getting ready to write your Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our introductory IB articles first, including our guide to what the IB program is and our full coverage of the IB curriculum .

IB Extended Essay: Why Should You Trust My Advice?

I myself am a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. Don't believe me? The proof is in the IBO pudding:

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If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay , and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman's terms, my IB Diploma was graded in May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received an A grade on it.

What Is the Extended Essay in the IB Diploma Programme?

The IB Extended Essay, or EE , is a mini-thesis you write under the supervision of an IB advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts toward your IB Diploma (learn more about the major IB Diploma requirements in our guide) . I will explain exactly how the EE affects your Diploma later in this article.

For the Extended Essay, you will choose a research question as a topic, conduct the research independently, then write an essay on your findings . The essay itself is a long one—although there's a cap of 4,000 words, most successful essays get very close to this limit.

Keep in mind that the IB requires this essay to be a "formal piece of academic writing," meaning you'll have to do outside research and cite additional sources.

The IB Extended Essay must include the following:

  • A title page
  • Contents page
  • Introduction
  • Body of the essay
  • References and bibliography

Additionally, your research topic must fall into one of the six approved DP categories , or IB subject groups, which are as follows:

  • Group 1: Studies in Language and Literature
  • Group 2: Language Acquisition
  • Group 3: Individuals and Societies
  • Group 4: Sciences
  • Group 5: Mathematics
  • Group 6: The Arts

Once you figure out your category and have identified a potential research topic, it's time to pick your advisor, who is normally an IB teacher at your school (though you can also find one online ). This person will help direct your research, and they'll conduct the reflection sessions you'll have to do as part of your Extended Essay.

As of 2018, the IB requires a "reflection process" as part of your EE supervision process. To fulfill this requirement, you have to meet at least three times with your supervisor in what the IB calls "reflection sessions." These meetings are not only mandatory but are also part of the formal assessment of the EE and your research methods.

According to the IB, the purpose of these meetings is to "provide an opportunity for students to reflect on their engagement with the research process." Basically, these meetings give your supervisor the opportunity to offer feedback, push you to think differently, and encourage you to evaluate your research process.

The final reflection session is called the viva voce, and it's a short 10- to 15-minute interview between you and your advisor. This happens at the very end of the EE process, and it's designed to help your advisor write their report, which factors into your EE grade.

Here are the topics covered in your viva voce :

  • A check on plagiarism and malpractice
  • Your reflection on your project's successes and difficulties
  • Your reflection on what you've learned during the EE process

Your completed Extended Essay, along with your supervisor's report, will then be sent to the IB to be graded. We'll cover the assessment criteria in just a moment.

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We'll help you learn how to have those "lightbulb" moments...even on test day!  

What Should You Write About in Your IB Extended Essay?

You can technically write about anything, so long as it falls within one of the approved categories listed above.

It's best to choose a topic that matches one of the IB courses , (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.), which shouldn't be difficult because there are so many class subjects.

Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay:

  • Biology: The Effect of Age and Gender on the Photoreceptor Cells in the Human Retina
  • Chemistry: How Does Reflux Time Affect the Yield and Purity of Ethyl Aminobenzoate (Benzocaine), and How Effective is Recrystallisation as a Purification Technique for This Compound?
  • English: An Exploration of Jane Austen's Use of the Outdoors in Emma
  • Geography: The Effect of Location on the Educational Attainment of Indigenous Secondary Students in Queensland, Australia
  • Math: Alhazen's Billiard Problem
  • Visual Arts: Can Luc Tuymans Be Classified as a Political Painter?

You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic . So how do you pick when the options are limitless?

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How to Write a Stellar IB Extended Essay: 6 Essential Tips

Below are six key tips to keep in mind as you work on your Extended Essay for the IB DP. Follow these and you're sure to get an A!

#1: Write About Something You Enjoy

You can't expect to write a compelling essay if you're not a fan of the topic on which you're writing. For example, I just love British theatre and ended up writing my Extended Essay on a revolution in post-WWII British theatre. (Yes, I'm definitely a #TheatreNerd.)

I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I was fortunate enough to receive a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC's School of Dramatic Arts program. In my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay; thus, I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship.

But how do you find a topic you're passionate about? Start by thinking about which classes you enjoy the most and why . Do you like math classes because you like to solve problems? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze literary texts?

Keep in mind that there's no right or wrong answer when it comes to choosing your Extended Essay topic. You're not more likely to get high marks because you're writing about science, just like you're not doomed to failure because you've chosen to tackle the social sciences. The quality of what you produce—not the field you choose to research within—will determine your grade.

Once you've figured out your category, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper . What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending a few hours on this type of brainstorming.

One last note: if you're truly stumped on what to research, pick a topic that will help you in your future major or career . That way you can use your Extended Essay as a talking point in your college essays (and it will prepare you for your studies to come too!).

#2: Select a Topic That Is Neither Too Broad nor Too Narrow

There's a fine line between broad and narrow. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can't write 4,000 words on it.

You can't write about WWII because that would be a book's worth of material. You also don't want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received behind enemy lines, because you probably won’t be able to come up with 4,000 words of material about it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps—and the rations provided—were directly affected by the Nazis' successes and failures on the front, including the use of captured factories and prison labor in Eastern Europe to increase production. WWII military history might be a little overdone, but you get my point.

If you're really stuck trying to pinpoint a not-too-broad-or-too-narrow topic, I suggest trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. Once you begin looking through the list of sample essays below, you'll notice that many use comparisons to formulate their main arguments.

I also used a comparison in my EE, contrasting Harold Pinter's Party Time with John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British theatre. Topics with comparisons of two to three plays, books, and so on tend to be the sweet spot. You can analyze each item and then compare them with one another after doing some in-depth analysis of each individually. The ways these items compare and contrast will end up forming the thesis of your essay!

When choosing a comparative topic, the key is that the comparison should be significant. I compared two plays to illustrate the transition in British theatre, but you could compare the ways different regional dialects affect people's job prospects or how different temperatures may or may not affect the mating patterns of lightning bugs. The point here is that comparisons not only help you limit your topic, but they also help you build your argument.

Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade-A EE, though. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison-based topic and are still unsure whether your topic is too broad or narrow, spend about 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there.

If there are more than 1,000 books, articles, or documentaries out there on that exact topic, it may be too broad. But if there are only two books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you're still unsure, ask your advisor—it's what they're there for! Speaking of advisors...

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Don't get stuck with a narrow topic!

#3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Familiar With Your Topic

If you're not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, create a list of your top three choices. Next, write down the pros and cons of each possibility (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!).

For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher and we get along really well, but he teaches English. For my EE, I want to conduct an experiment that compares the efficiency of American electric cars with foreign electric cars.

I had Ms. White a year ago. She teaches physics and enjoyed having me in her class. Unlike Mr. Green, Ms. White could help me design my experiment.

Based on my topic and what I need from my advisor, Ms. White would be a better fit for me than would Mr. Green (even though I like him a lot).

The moral of my story is this: do not just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor . They might be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. For example, I would not recommend asking your biology teacher to guide you in writing an English literature-based EE.

There can, of course, be exceptions to this rule. If you have a teacher who's passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my theatre topic), you could ask that instructor. Consider all your options before you do this. There was no theatre teacher at my high school, so I couldn't find a theatre-specific advisor, but I chose the next best thing.

Before you approach a teacher to serve as your advisor, check with your high school to see what requirements they have for this process. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form , for instance.

Make sure that you ask your IB coordinator whether there is any required paperwork to fill out. If your school needs a specific form signed, bring it with you when you ask your teacher to be your EE advisor.

#4: Pick an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best

Some teachers might just take on students because they have to and aren't very passionate about reading drafts, only giving you minimal feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts of your essay and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make my Extended Essay draft better.

Ask a teacher that you have experience with through class or an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have absolutely no connection to. If a teacher already knows you, that means they already know your strengths and weaknesses, so they know what to look for, where you need to improve, and how to encourage your best work.

Also, don't forget that your supervisor's assessment is part of your overall EE score . If you're meeting with someone who pushes you to do better—and you actually take their advice—they'll have more impressive things to say about you than a supervisor who doesn't know you well and isn't heavily involved in your research process.

Be aware that the IB only allows advisors to make suggestions and give constructive criticism. Your teacher cannot actually help you write your EE. The IB recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE.

#5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow

The IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be one to two double-spaced pages), research question/focus (i.e., what you're investigating), a body, and a conclusion (about one double-spaced page). An essay with unclear organization will be graded poorly.

The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about eight to 18 pages long (again, depending on your topic). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you were doing a comparison, you might have one third of your body as Novel A Analysis, another third as Novel B Analysis, and the final third as your comparison of Novels A and B.

If you're conducting an experiment or analyzing data, such as in this EE , your EE body should have a clear structure that aligns with the scientific method ; you should state the research question, discuss your method, present the data, analyze the data, explain any uncertainties, and draw a conclusion and/or evaluate the success of the experiment.

#6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later!

You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in just a week and get an A on it. You'll be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books and plays as well!). As such, it's imperative that you start your research as soon as possible.

Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your senior year; others will take them as late as February. Your school will tell you what your deadline is. If they haven't mentioned it by February of your junior year, ask your IB coordinator about it.

Some high schools will provide you with a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor, and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do this. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure whether you are on a specific timeline.

Below is my recommended EE timeline. While it's earlier than most schools, it'll save you a ton of heartache (trust me, I remember how hard this process was!):

  • January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least your top three options).
  • February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor. If they decline, keep asking others until you find one. See my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor.
  • April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least seven to 10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline.
  • Summer Between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between your junior and senior year. I know, I know—no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me—this will save you so much stress come fall when you are busy with college applications and other internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won't be able to get everything you want to say into 4,000 articulate words on the first attempt. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape so you don't have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework, college applications, and extracurriculars.
  • August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft.
  • September/October of Senior Year: Submit the second draft of your EE to your advisor (if necessary) and look at their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft.
  • November-February of Senior Year: Schedule your viva voce. Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to the IB. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate.

Remember that in the middle of these milestones, you'll need to schedule two other reflection sessions with your advisor . (Your teachers will actually take notes on these sessions on a form like this one , which then gets submitted to the IB.)

I recommend doing them when you get feedback on your drafts, but these meetings will ultimately be up to your supervisor. Just don't forget to do them!

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The early bird DOES get the worm!

How Is the IB Extended Essay Graded?

Extended Essays are graded by examiners appointed by the IB on a scale of 0 to 34 . You'll be graded on five criteria, each with its own set of points. You can learn more about how EE scoring works by reading the IB guide to extended essays .

  • Criterion A: Focus and Method (6 points maximum)
  • Criterion B: Knowledge and Understanding (6 points maximum)
  • Criterion C: Critical Thinking (12 points maximum)
  • Criterion D: Presentation (4 points maximum)
  • Criterion E: Engagement (6 points maximum)

How well you do on each of these criteria will determine the final letter grade you get for your EE. You must earn at least a D to be eligible to receive your IB Diploma.

Although each criterion has a point value, the IB explicitly states that graders are not converting point totals into grades; instead, they're using qualitative grade descriptors to determine the final grade of your Extended Essay . Grade descriptors are on pages 102-103 of this document .

Here's a rough estimate of how these different point values translate to letter grades based on previous scoring methods for the EE. This is just an estimate —you should read and understand the grade descriptors so you know exactly what the scorers are looking for.

Here is the breakdown of EE scores (from the May 2021 bulletin):

How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma?

The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get toward your IB Diploma.

To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive an IB Diploma, read our complete guide to the IB program and our guide to the IB Diploma requirements .

This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). In order to get your IB Diploma, you have to earn 24 points across both categories (the TOK and EE). The highest score anyone can earn is 45 points.

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Let's say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK. You will get 3 points toward your Diploma. As of 2014, a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB Diploma .

Prior to the class of 2010, a Diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the Extended Essay or Theory of Knowledge and still be awarded a Diploma, but this is no longer true.

Figuring out how you're assessed can be a little tricky. Luckily, the IB breaks everything down here in this document . (The assessment information begins on page 219.)

40+ Sample Extended Essays for the IB Diploma Programme

In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A on your EE, here are over 40 excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure. Essays are grouped by IB subject.

  • Business Management 1
  • Chemistry 1
  • Chemistry 2
  • Chemistry 3
  • Chemistry 4
  • Chemistry 5
  • Chemistry 6
  • Chemistry 7
  • Computer Science 1
  • Economics 1
  • Design Technology 1
  • Design Technology 2
  • Environmental Systems and Societies 1
  • Geography 1
  • Geography 2
  • Geography 3
  • Geography 4
  • Geography 5
  • Geography 6
  • Literature and Performance 1
  • Mathematics 1
  • Mathematics 2
  • Mathematics 3
  • Mathematics 4
  • Mathematics 5
  • Philosophy 1
  • Philosophy 2
  • Philosophy 3
  • Philosophy 4
  • Philosophy 5
  • Psychology 1
  • Psychology 2
  • Psychology 3
  • Psychology 4
  • Psychology 5
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology 1
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology 2
  • Social and Cultural Anthropology 3
  • Sports, Exercise and Health Science 1
  • Sports, Exercise and Health Science 2
  • Visual Arts 1
  • Visual Arts 2
  • Visual Arts 3
  • Visual Arts 4
  • Visual Arts 5
  • World Religion 1
  • World Religion 2
  • World Religion 3

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Extended essay

The extended essay is an independent, self-directed piece of research, finishing with a 4,000-word paper.

One component of the International Baccalaureate® (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) core, the extended essay is mandatory for all students.

Read about the extended essay  in greater detail.

You can also read about how the IB sets deadlines for the extended essay , find examples of extended essay titles from previous DP students and learn about the world studies extended essay .

Learn more about the extended essay in a DP workshop for teachers . 

DP subject briefs

Find out about what each subject offers within the Diploma Programme (DP).

Our DP subject briefs—for both standard and higher level—contain information about core requirements, aims and assessment.

  • Explore the DP subject briefs

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Extended Essay - Criteria: Citations and Referencing

  • Criterion A: Focus and Method
  • Criterion B: Knowledge and Understanding
  • Criterion C: Critical Thinking
  • Table of Contents
  • Citations and Referencing
  • Appendices (Optional)
  • Initial reflection
  • Interim reflection

Academic Honesty

When writing an extended essay, you must acknowledge any words, ideas, and opinions that are not your own. Additionally, you should be finding information in a variety of sources, such as books, journal articles, web sites, movies and illustrations. Throughout your paper, you must use a standard referencing style that is applied in a consistent way. Standard referencing styles include Chicago/Turabian, MLA and APA. All information that is not your own must be cited in the proper format for the type of source used.

IB Citation Guide

  • IB Guide to Effective Citing and Referencing

NoodleTools

NoodleTools helps you format your citations/footnotes and your works sited/bibliography page.

extended essay referencing

  • Citation Checklist

Citation Websites

  • MLA Style Center
  • Chicago Style Guide
  • << Previous: Word Limit
  • Next: Appendices (Optional) >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 7, 2023 7:58 AM
  • URL: https://sturgischarterschool.libguides.com/EEcriteria

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IB DP Extended Essay: Citations & Referencing

  • Define Topic & Develop Research Questions
  • Locate Resources
  • Lit Reviews
  • Integrating Quotes & Paraphrasing
  • Citations & Referencing
  • Back to Secondary
  • Back to BIS Library Home

Using MyBib to keep track of sources

Helpful Website About Harvard In-Text Citation

This website from Birmingham City University Library has some helpful examples of how you can integrate and cite your sources in-text (in the body of the essay).

extended essay referencing

How to use Turnitin in Managebac

extended essay referencing

  • Sample Harvard Reference List

Barros, B., Read, T. & Verdejo, M. F. (2008) Virtual collaborative experimentation: an approach combining remote and local labs. IEEE Transactions on Education . 51 (2), 242–250. Available from: doi:10.1109/TE.2007.908071.

Department of Health. (2009) Living well with dementia: a national dementia strategy . Available from: www.gov.uk/government/publications/living-well-with-dementiaa-national-dementia-strategy [Accessed 4th June 2015].

Errami, M. & Garner, H. (2008) A tale of two citations. Nature. 451 (7177), 397–399. 13

Goldacre, B. (2008a) Dore – the media’s miracle cure for dyslexia. Bad Science . Weblog. Available from: http://www.badscience.net/2008/05/dore-the-medias-miracle-cure-fordyslexia/#more-705 [Accessed 19th June 2015].

Goldacre, B. (2008b) Trivial Disputes. Bad Science . Weblog. Available from: http://www.badscience.net/2008/02/trivial-disputes-2/ [Accessed 19th June 2015].

Henderson, J. (2005) Google Scholar: A source for clinicians? Canadian Medical Association Journal . 172 (12), 1549–1550.

Holding, M. Y., Saulino, M. F., Overton, E. A., Kornbluth, I. D. & Freedman, M. K. (2008) Interventions in Chronic Pain Management. 1. Update on Important Definitions in Pain Management. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , 89 (3, Supplement 1), S38–S40.

Pears, R. & Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide . Palgrave study skills. 10th ed. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.

Ramalho, R., Helffrich, G., Schmidt, D.N. & Vance, D. (2010) Tracers of uplift and subsidence in the Cape Verde archipelago. Journal of the Geological Society . 167 (3), 519–538. Available from: doi:10.1144/0016-76492009-056.

Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering . London, Thomas Telford Publishing. Available from: http://www.myilibrary. com?ID=93941 [Accessed 18th June 2015].

Smith, A. (2004) Making mathematics count: the report of Professor Adrian Smith’s inquiry into post-14 mathematics education. London, The Stationery Office. Writing a reference list 14

Van Alphen, K., Voorst, Q. V. T., Kekkert, M. P. & Smits, R.E.H.M. (2007) Societal acceptance of carbon capture and storage technologies. Energy Policy . 35 (8), 4368–4380.

With thanks to Imperial College London Citing & Referencing Guide

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  • Next: Back to Secondary >>
  • Last Updated: Mar 26, 2024 9:57 AM
  • URL: https://bishanoi.libguides.com/EE/resources

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Extended Essay: Citations and Referencing - IB REQUIREMENTS

  • Introduction
  • Subject Guidance & Proposal Forms
  • 8 Simple Steps to writing an Academic Essay... and Outlines!
  • Finding a Topic
  • Academic Sources of Information
  • Researcher's Spaces
  • Reflections
  • IB Resources for Students
  • Citations and Referencing - IB REQUIREMENTS
  • In-Text Citations
  • Formatting your EE
  • Ms Sally's Presentations

This is a representation of the table found on p24 of Effective Citing and Referencing

extended essay referencing

For more information, including examples of different materials in the different styles of referencing, as outlined by the IB, please follow this link.

  • << Previous: IB Resources for Students
  • Next: MLA9 >>
  • Last Updated: Apr 5, 2024 2:28 PM
  • URL: https://nist.libguides.com/ee/home

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Extended Essay: Writing & Citing

  • Getting started
  • Organizational tools
  • NoodleTools
  • In-text citations
  • Image sources and labelling (including graphs, charts, and other visuals)
  • Reflecting on the process
  • Criterion C: Critical thinking
  • Ethics of AI
  • Timeline 2025 Cohort

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography for the Extended Essay

Early in the Extended Essay process, are required to submit an annotated bibliography summarizing and evaluating five sources . For each source you need to provide full bibliographic information (a compete MLA8 citation), and write a detailed annotation (paragraph) demonstrating your understanding of the source and its relevance to your larger research project. To structure your annotations, choose one of the following models:

OPCVL (best for History, Economics and Business & Management):

  • The origin of the source. ( Who wrote it? Who published it? When? Where?)
  • The purpose of the source, particularly relevant for primary sources . (Who is the intended audience of the source? What are they meant to get from it)
  • A summary of the content of the source
  • The value of the source for your research ( How does this source help you to explore your research question? How might you use it in your final paper?)
  • The limitations of the source. ( What questions does this source raise? What perspective does the source take? Does the information contrast with other sources? Does it present a balanced view?) 

Purdue Online Writing Lab guidelines (available here ):

  • Summarize the main argument or the main ideas in the source. What is it about?
  • Assess the reliability of the source. Who wrote it? Is it current, relevant, authoritative, accurate and what is the author’s purpose?
  • Reflect on the usefulness of this source to your extended essay. How will you use it to help you answer your research question? Where does it fit or how does it compare to other sources you’ve used? How has it changed or expanded your thinking? Does it raise new questions for your research?
  • Annotated Bibliography sample Visit this OWL Purdue site to see an example of an MLA-formatted annotated bibliography written at a university level. You do not, necessarily, include this much detail for each of the three categories (summarize, assess and reflect).
  • Annotated Bibliography sample in Google Docs This link takes you to a Google Doc template you can make a copy of and make your own.

MLA formatting quotations

The following is taken directly from the Purdue Online Writing Lab :

SHORT QUOTATIONS

To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page number (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the in-text citation, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.

Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.

For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:

According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.

According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).

Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?

LONG QUOTATIONS

For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented  1/2   inch  from the left margin while maintaining double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come  after the closing punctuation mark . When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)

For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples:

Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: 

They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)

Strategies for Essay Writing from the Harvard Writing Center

The Harvard Writing Center has "concise advice on some fundamental elements of academic writing." You can find advice on each stage of the writing process on their site.

During the later stages of writing, you should take the time to visit the entries Ending the Essay: Conclusions , Revising the Draft , and Editing the Essay Part 1 , and Part 2 .

Online sources for documenting sources

  • NoodleTools You can use NoodleTools to keep track of your sources and to create your Works Cited very easily and correctly formatted.

Use the citation tool in Google

Citing sources originally written in Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Russian or Mongolian

Hao, Chunwen 郝春文.  Tang houqi wudai Songchu Dunhuang sengni de shehui shenghuo  唐后期五代宋初敦煌僧尼的社会生活 [The social existence of monks and nuns in Dunhuang during the late Tang, Five Dynasties and early Song]. Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, 1998.

Journal article

Kondō, Shigekazu 近藤成一.  " Yēru Daigaku Shozō Harima no Kuni Ōbe no Shō Kankei Monjo ni tsuite" イェール大学所蔵播磨国大部庄関係文書について [On Harima no Kuni Ōbe no Shō Kankei Monjo at Yale University Collection]. Tōkyō:  Tokyō Daigaku Shiryō Hensanjo  Kenkyū  Kiyō 23   (March 2013) : 1-22. 

Newspaper article

Joo, Yong-jung 주용중, and Chung, Woo-sang 정우상. “Miseo gwangubyeong bal-saeng-hamyeon suip jungdan” 美서 광우병 발생하면 수입 중단 [Will Suspend the Import if Mad Cow Disease Attacks in the United States].  Chosun Ilbo  朝鮮日報 8 May, 2008: A1.

Database article

Beijing Airusheng shuzihua jishu yanjiu zhongxin 北京爱如生数字化技术研究中心.  Zhongguo jiben guji ku  中国基本古籍库 [Database of Chinese Classic Ancient Books], [include the URL]. Accessed [date].

Note: formatting should adhere to MLA requirements with the first line flush with the left margin and the second and subsequent lines indented. I was unable to replicate that formatting here.

MLA Checklist

  • MLA Checklist Use this checklist to ensure you have met all of the formatting and citation expectations.

Videos to support your understanding of MLA requirements

Useful links for MLA formatting

  • In-text citiations (Purdue OWL) This source details the correct formatting for a wide variety of types of texts and offers examples of both paraphrasing and quoting directly.
  • MLA Formatting Quotations (Purdue OWL) Use this page to help you learn/review formatting for shorter and longer quotations.
  • MLA Sample Works Cited Page (Purdue OWL) This page provides an example of a Works Cited page in MLA 2016 format.
  • MLA Sample Paper (Purdue OWL) This resource contains a sample MLA paper that adheres to the 2016 updates. NOTE: The EE has very specific cover page requirements. Your EE should omit your name in the header and omit your name, your teacher's name, course and date on page 1.

Essay resources at the ISU Library

Cover Art

  • They Say / I Say sentence frames

Cover Art

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Extended Essay: MLA Works Cited & In-Text Citations

  • Extended Essay- The Basics
  • Step 1. Choose a Subject
  • Step 2. Educate yourself!
  • Using Brainstorming and Mind Maps
  • Identify Keywords
  • Do Background Reading
  • Define Your Topic
  • Conduct Research in a Specific Discipline
  • Step 5. Draft a Research Question
  • Step 6. Create a Timeline
  • Find Articles
  • Find Primary Sources
  • Get Help from Experts
  • Search Engines, Repositories, & Directories
  • Databases and Websites by Subject Area
  • Create an Annotated Bibliography
  • Advice (and Warnings) from the IB
  • Chicago Citation Syle
  • MLA Works Cited & In-Text Citations
  • Step 9. Set Deadlines for Yourself
  • Step 10. Plan a structure for your essay
  • Evaluate & Select: the CRAAP Test
  • Conducting Secondary Research
  • Conducting Primary Research
  • Formal vs. Informal Writing
  • Presentation Requirements
  • Evaluating Your Work

MLA In-Text Citations

extended essay referencing

General Guidelines

Basic in-text citation rules.

In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.

In-text citations: Author-page style

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:

Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).  Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).

Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).

Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:

Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford UP, 1967. Print.

See Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide -  MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics   for detailed explanations and examples of in-text citations from different sources.

Quick MLA In-Text Citation Guide

Mla parenthetical (in-text) citation quick guide, place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence - normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. a period comes at the end of each citation., extra help with citing literary, classic and religious works, citing literary, classic, and religious works.

For works such as novels, plays and other classic works , it’s helpful to provide further identifying information along with the page information. Do this by adding a semicolon and then the identifying information following the page number .

(Tolstoy 5; pt. 2, ch. 3).

When citing c lassic poems and plays , replace page numbers with division numbers (part, book, scene, act).  The example below refers to book 10 line 5. Bear in mind the divisions and the way they are written can vary by source.

Fear plays a role in Homer’s Odyssey (10.5).

The titles of books in the Bible and other famous literary works should be abbreviated.

(New Jerusalem Bible, Gen. 2.6-9).

Extra Help with Placing Parenthetical Citations in Direct Quotations

Placing parenthetical citations in direct quotations.

When  directly quoting  a source, place the parenthetical citation  after the quote.

Sanders explains that economic woes are due to “the mortgage crisis and poor risk assessment” (20).  

Place the parenthetical citation at the end of an indented quotation.  There should be no period after the parenthetical citation.  The last sentence of the indented quote should look like:

It’s unclear whether multilateral tariffs are disruptive to bilateral talks. (Evert 30-31)

Extra Help with Long Quotes

Long quotes.

When quoting four lines or more,  indent every line you are quoting by one inch  (or 10 spaces) and  do not use quotes.  For example:

The use of nuclear weapons in today’s society is strikingly alarming. Though the United States is the only country to employ it in the past, they are at the same time the country that condemns its use the most. While this may seem hypocritical, is it the most proper action for the United States to make as the global leader. (Taparia 9)

Acknowledgment

The MLA Parenthetical (In-text) Citation Quick Guide  and Extra Help boxes were based on the ones found in the   I.B. Theatre - Director's Notebook guide  created by Nancy O'Donnell, School Library Media Specialist, for Kenmore West High School Library in Kenmore, New York.

How Are Those Citations & Works Cited Coming Along?

extended essay referencing

Any information you use that comes from another source must be cited both in  and  after the paper. This means only including a works cited page at the end of the paper is not sufficient.  You must also include parenthetical, or in-text, citations after each piece of information you reference.

Quick Links

Index card box - Britannica ImageQuest

The librarian is always happy to help you!

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The research process on the Extended Essay: Citations and References

  • Extended essay and the research process
  • Task definition
  • Identify Keywords
  • Find background information
  • Manage your time
  • Locate Books
  • Locate Articles
  • Search Engines, Repositories, & Directories
  • Databases and Websites by subject
  • 4. Organize
  • Citations and References
  • How to Avoid Colloquial (Informal) Writing
  • Academic Honesty
  • 6. Reflect/Evaluate

Present / Synthesis

  • How to avoid informal writing
  • Citation and references
  • Citation styles: an introduction

http://sisindia.libguides.com/acwr

Definitions: Bibliography, Citations, Referencing

Bibliography

A bibliography is an alphabetical list of every source used to research and write the essay. Sources that are not cited in the body of the essay but were important in informing the approach taken should be cited in the introduction or in an acknowledgment. The bibliography  must  list only those sources cited.

A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, either as an in-text citation or footnote/endnote. This must then be linked to the full reference at the end of the essay in the bibliography. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily. How sources are cited varies with the particular referencing style that has been chosen. It is important to emphasize that there must be consistency of method when citing sources.

Referencing

Sir James Murray (1837-1915) with his staff compiling the New English dictionary (later the Oxford English Dictionary) - Britannica ImageQuest

  • they acknowledge the sources used
  • they enable the reader to consult the work and verify the data that has been presented. 

References must be given whenever someone else’s work is quoted or summarized. References can come from many different sources, including books, magazines, journals, newspapers, emails, internet sites and interviews.  Any references to interviews should state the name of the interviewer, the name of the interviewee, the date and the place of the interview. 

There are a number of different styles available for use when writing research papers; whatever style is chosen, it must be applied consistently.  The style should be applied in both the final draft of the essay and in the initial research stages of taking notes. This is good practice, not only for producing a high-quality final product, but also for reducing the opportunities and temptation to plagiarize. 

Referencing Online Materials

References to online materials should include the title of the extract used as well as the website address, the date it was accessed and, if possible, the author.

Use the CRAAP Test!

extended essay referencing

Demystifying Citing and Referencing

Demystifying Citing and Referencing

This tutorial from can help you learn the principles of citing and referencing, and understand how to avoid plagiarizing when integrating source material into your research paper.

The tutorial takes approximately 20 minutes to complete.

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Extended Essay Guide: Criteria, Format, Sample EEs

  • Criteria, Format, Sample EEs
  • Annotated Bibliographies
  • DP Research Process
  • Databases & Academic Journals
  • Evaluate Sources
  • Academic Integrity
  • MLA Citation Format
  • CSE Citation Format (Science & Math)
  • Video Tutorials 2024

The Assessment Crtiteria in Detail!

  • Criterion A: Focus and method
  • Criterion B: Knowledge and understanding
  • Criterion C: Critical Thinking
  • Criterion D: Presentation
  • Criterion E: Engagement
  • EE_How to maximize marks for different subjects?

extended essay referencing

  • Criterion C: Critical thinking

Notes from the IB

RE: Research Question and Title of Extended Essay

Please note the statement below from the EE curriculum manager regarding the need to have both a title and a RQ for all subjects. Previous versions of the EE Guide indicated that the title and the RQ should be the same for History, Business Management and Mathematics. This is no longer the case.  All essays, regardless of the subject, need to have both a RQ and a title.

Hi Kathy, 

To answer your question, I am going to quote directly from a response John Royce provided, on this forum, in October in response to a very similar question: (it was a question about using Spanish sources - hence the mention of Spanish)

It is certainly  permissible to use sources which are not in the language of the essay, but translation into the target language is required , one cannot assume that the reader understands the original language.

It is usual to quote the original as well as presenting the translation.  [Do not put quotation marks around your translation, just around the original]

Umberto Eco argues ("in Mouse or rat?") that direct translation may lose meaning, paraphrase or use of different idioms may be required to get the ideas across. Paul Bellos ("Is that a fish in your ear?") makes a similar argument - direct translation may confound meaning... Direct translation may not be ideal - meaning and understanding are preferred - so, not to worry that your student with her good Spanish cannot present a direct translation.

What  must be made clear is that the translations are those of the student;  these are her understandings. Readers can make of that what they will - and if unsure, are presented with the original - they can seek another translation.  A note in the acknowledgements and/or in the introduction to the effect that all translations are those of the writer is ... essential.

In response to the question about the  Bibliography/Works cited, my preference would be to list the source in its original Thai version, but perhaps with the English in brackets, to help the examiner.

Your bibliography will have the entries in Thai characters first in the document. Any in-text citation to Thai sources will be in (Thai characters [English translation]).

Citation in Thai [English translation]

Works Cited Example:

วงษ์ปัญญา, ธนกร [Wongpunya, Thanakorn]. “โรงงานยาสูบรวยแค่ไหน และเอาเงินไปทำอะไรบ้าง.”  [How rich is the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly and where does the money go?] (candidate translation). The Standard, The Standard, 30 Aug. 2018, thestandard.co/thailand-tobacco-monopoly/.

Format of the Extended Essay

Required Formatting

The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. Given that the extended essay is a formally written research paper, it should strive to maintain a professional, academic look. 

To help achieve this, the following formatting is  required:

  • 12-point, readable font (Calibri or Times New Roman);
  • double spacing throughout entire Essay;
  • page numbering - top right corner;
  • no candidate or school name or supervisor name on the title page or page headers.

Submitting the extended essay in the required format will help set the tone of the essay and will aid readability for on-screen assessment by examiners.

Required S tructure

The structure of the essay is very important. It helps students to organize the argument, making the best use of the evidence collected. 

There are six required elements of the final work to be submitted. More details about each element are given in the  “Presentation”  section. Please note that the order in which these elements are presented here is not necessarily the order in which they should be written. 

Six required elements of the extended essay:

  • Contents page
  • Introduction
  • Body of the essay
  • References and bibliography -- if MLA "Works Cited" if CSE "References"

1. Required Title Page  

The title page should include  only  the following information: 

  • the title of the essay
  • the research question
  • the subject the essay is registered in (if it is a language essay also state which category it falls into; if a world studies essay also state the theme and the two subjects utilized) 

The upper limit is 4,000 words for all extended essays. 

extended essay referencing

2. Required Contents Page

A contents page must be provided at the beginning of the extended essay and all pages should be numbered. Please note that an index page is not required and if included will be treated as if it is not present.

3. Required Introduction

The introduction should tell the reader what to expect in the essay. The introduction should make clear to the reader the focus of the essay, the scope of the research, in particular an indication of the sources to be used, and an insight into the line of argument to be taken. 

While students should have a sense of the direction and key focus of their essay, it is sometimes advisable to finalize the introduction once the body of the essay is complete.

4. Required Body of the Essay  (research, analysis, discussion, and evaluation)

The main task is writing the body of the essay, which should be presented in the form of a reasoned argument. The form of this varies with the subject of the essay but as the argument develops it should be clear to the reader what relevant evidence has been discovered, where/how it has been discovered and how it supports the argument. In some subjects, for example, the sciences, sub-headings within the main body of the essay will help the reader to understand the argument (and will also help the student to keep on track). In structuring their extended essay, students must take into consideration the expected conventions of the subject in which their extended essay is registered. 

Once the main body of the essay is complete, it is possible to finalize the introduction (which tells the reader what to expect) and the conclusion (which says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved). 

Any information that is important to the argument  must not  be included in appendices or footnotes/endnotes. The examiner  will not  read notes or appendices, so an essay that is not complete in itself will be compromised across the assessment criteria.

5. Required Conclusion

The conclusion says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved. While students might draw conclusions throughout the essay based on their findings, it is important that there is a final, summative conclusion at the end. This conclusion(s) must relate to the research question posed.

6.  Required References & Bibliography

Students should use their chosen style of academic referencing as soon as they start writing. That way they are less likely to forget to include a citation. It is also easier than trying to add references at a later stage. For more information on this, refer to the guidelines in the IB document  Effective citing and referencing.

Writing the essay takes time but if students have used their Researcher's reflection space and reflection sessions in a meaningful way they should be well prepared to develop their arguments.

Extended Essay - Examples & Exemplars

  • Essays from May 2018 with IB marks and commentaries
  • Assessed Student Work & Commentary IB-provided. "Student sample extended essays, corresponding marks and comments from senior examiners are available for the following Diploma Programme disciplines. Please note that in light of not having authentic RPPFs to accompany these essays, they are marked against criteria A – D only, for a total of 28 possible marks. Following the first assessment session in 2018, exemplars will be refreshed with authentic sample material." more... less... Biology English Economics History Studies in language and literature Language acquisition Mathematics Psychology Visual arts World studies extended essay (WSEE)
  • Excellenet Extended Essays Concordian GoogleDoc
  • EngA1_Othello EE Othello 2018 From inThinking.net Click the link to see the score and evaluation.
  • Fifty (50) More Excellent Extended Essays DVD by International Baccalaureate Call Number: HS DVD 808.4 ISBN: 9781906345600 Publication Date: 2011 1 DVD-ROM (1:33 min.)

Past CIS Extended Essays

Available in the library behind the desk are file folders of past Extended Essays by Concordian students and IB EE Exemplars. Feel free to browse the papers which must be kept in the library.

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US IB Extended Essay: Home

  • Academic Writing
  • Researchers Reflective Space (RRS)
  • Research Questions
  • Databases & Web Resources (English & Spanish)
  • Bibliographies, References & Citations
  • Reflections
  • Subject Specific EE Resources

Getting Started

extended essay referencing

Academic Integrity-The IB Guide

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To read the full Academic Integrity IB Guide, click HERE.

Extended Essay Guides

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If you have questions or concerns about the Extended Essay, see your supervisor, or Dr. Bree. Research needs, see Ms. Keating.

The first part of the IB guide contains general information that is relevant to all Extended Essays, regardless of subject. The section is quite short, and it is well worth reading for the advice and information given. 

Six required elements of the extended essay: Title page Contents page Introduction Body of the essay Conclusion References and bibliography https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/extendedessay/apps/dpapp/guide.html?doc=d_0_eeyyy_gui_1602_1_e&part=5&chapter=5

Presentation of Your Extended Essay https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/extendedessay/apps/dpapp/guide.html?doc=d_0_eeyyy_gui_1602_1_e&part=5&chapter=6

ESSENTIAL TO KNOW!

The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. Given that the extended essay is a formally written research paper, it should strive to maintain a professional, academic look.

To help achieve this, the following formatting is required: the use of 12-point, readable font double spacing page numbering no candidate or school name on the title page or page headers.

Submitting the extended essay in the required format will help set the tone of the essay and will aid readability for on-screen assessment by examiners.

  • ASM Extended Essay Information
  • General EE Info for Juniors

Assessment Points

Points awarded for the Extended Essay in conjunction with the Theory of Knowledge Essay - out of a maximum total of 45 points.   (See the IBO webpage on Assessment for more information.)

Extended Essay Topics

Your Extended Essay (research topic) must fall into one of the six approved DP categories , or IB subject groups, which are as follows:

  • Group 1: Studies in Language and Literature
  • Group 2: Language Acquisition
  • Group 3: Individuals and Societies
  • Group 4: Sciences
  • Group 5: Mathematics
  • Group 6: The Arts

IB Academic Honesty/Integrity

Academic honesty in the IB educational context

Most students understand that it is wrong to copy another student's work and submit as their own. However, it is also dishonest to copy and paste text from WWW into your paper and submit as your own writing or ideas. 

Academic Honesty   The Plagiarism.org website provides some helpful information on intentional and unintentional plagiarism, and on how students can avoid plagiarism by good citation. Paraphrasing can be difficult, and the  Indiana University Writing Tutorial Services provides some helpful information on how to properly paraphrase.

Citing Sources for Academic Research When doing research for papers and projects, it is necessary to properly acknowledge authors whose work has been used in your end product. This acknowledgement takes place in your writing in the form of parenthetical references, footnotes, endnotes, works cited pages or bibliographies. There are many documentation styles used by a variety of academic disciplines.  At the American School of Madrid , students are strongly encouraged to use MLA. Noodle Tools is an excellent way to assure students that their citations will be correctly formatted.

Plagiarism Plagiarism is often clear to students only when it involves non-electronic sources. For example, buying a paper from a paper mill to turn in as one's own work is unquestionably plagiarism. Students realize that copying from a book or journal without properly citing the source is plagiarism, but using materials from Web documents seems to be different. Students have the perception that everything on the Web is free, therefore could be no theft involved in taking material that is found there. However, plagiarism is not limited to any specific format, electronic or non-electronic.

Copyright law protects Web documents. Georgia Harper, a lawyer for the University of Texas, says that people assume that everything on the Web is public domain, probably because the law used to require that copyrighted material display a copyright notice. The law changed, however, and "putting the fingers on the keyboard creates a copyrighted work." She says that copyright protection is automatic, so that postings of all kinds are protected (Harper). (Southeastern Louisiana University)

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To view this PowerPoint click HERE.

The Extended Essay-Understand the Process

Click here to get the full Extended Essay Guide , or the links below to the specific sections. 

Overview of the Extended Essay

Academic honesty in the IB

Ethical guidelines for Extended Essay research and fieldwork

Researcher's Reflection Space

Role of External Mentors

Viva voce final reflection session

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Extended Essay (IB): Finding and selecting sources

  • The Inquiry Process
  • EE Seminar 1
  • EE Seminar 2
  • IT Workshop 1
  • EE Investigation Days
  • EE Writing Days
  • Choosing a subject and topic
  • Developing a line of inquiry
  • Finding and selecting sources
  • Working with ideas
  • Expressing your ideas
  • Using ManageBac
  • Supervisor resources
  • Who can help?

Introduction

extended essay referencing

There is a huge range of resources available to you, and your most important task at this stage will be filtering these sources and using your time as efficiently as possible.

Start by looking exploring our Recommended Resources - Upper School guide to see which resources we particularly recommend for your subject. Then spend some time having a look around to see what is available, and talk to your supervisor or another subject specialist about the list of keywords you are building if you are having trouble.

If you still cannot find what you are looking for, come and have a chat with the Library staff and we would be happy to help you. 

If you need help with refining your Research Question, have a look at the previous tab on Developing a Line of Inquiry .

If you need help with making effective notes from your sources, have a look at the next tab on Working with Ideas .

Choosing which type(s) of resource to use

We have a wide range of books and subscription databases available - and you have the vast resources of the internet at your fingertips, so where should you start? Different resources are useful for different purposes.

Begin by looking at the home tab and the tab for your EE subject on our Recommended resources - Upper School guide .

Recommended resources guide

Effective search strategies

One of the most important features of any search strategy is the key words and phrases you use - computers aren't mind-readers although some internet search engines are very good at 'guessing', subscription databases and the library catalogue are less so. This can actually be helpful as you have more control over the results you get in a database than on the internet, but when you are used to internet search engines it can also be a challenge.

This keywording tool (that you may have begun to use in the Developing a Line of Inquiry tab ) will help you to develop an effective search strategy, and will also help you to discuss that with your supervisor and the Library staff if you need any help. Don't forget to check the second page of the document for useful hints and tips on how to use it.

Keyword Record document

There are many websites with excellent tutorials on Boolean searching (searching using AND, OR and NOT) if you want more advice. For example, this one from MIT Libraries:

extended essay referencing

Search for books using our Library catalogue .

  • Think about using different search terms. The results depend on your terms being used in the title, as a keyword or in the abstract. Use the keywording resource above to record your search terms as you work.
  • Look at the classification numbers of any promising results. Other books at these classification numbers will be on a similar subject. Go and look at the other books on the shelves at these classmarks. You are very likely to come across other books on your topic that weren’t picked up by your search.

If you really cannot find any books relevant to your topic, please speak to a member of library staff or use the link on this page to email the relevant Librarian for advice.We might be able to identify books to buy or to borrow from another library. Similarly, if you come across a reference to a book that looks particularly useful that we do not have, let us know and we can try and get hold of it for you.

Library Catalogue Logo

  • Searching the Library catalogue tutorial (Upper School)

Subscription databases

The Library subscribes to a number of Subscription Databases which you can then use for free. These are high-quality sources of articles and images for academic research. You can either filter the list above by subject, or the Recommended resources - Upper School guide gives you detailed guidance as to which are particularly suitable for your subject.

Note that there are different links (given in the document above) for using some databases in school or at home, and passwords are provided where necessary from home.

Internet searching

Please visit the  Recommended resources - Upper School guide for advice on how to search the internet effectively for academic sources.

The following is a comment from the IB on using 'online encyclopaedias' such as Wikipedia (from The IB Extended Essay Guide: The Research and Writing Process: Academic Honesty ):

extended essay referencing

Note that, while you might use a tool such as this as a starting point for general background information and to help you locate other, more reputable sources, during the Connect stage of your research, you should not be citing it in your final piece of work.

Evaluating sources

Whether you are using print or online resources, you need to consider whether you think they are suitable for your inquiry and why. Consider the:

  • Currency: How important is the age of the resources you use? This will matter more in some subjects than others.
  • Relevance: Does it address your core question?
  • Accuracy: How do you know it is accurate? Have you checked it against other sources?
  • Authority: Who wrote it? What qualifies them to write in this area?
  • Purpose: Why has it been written? To sell you something? To convince you of a point of view? Or is it academically neutral?

The resource below can be used for CRAAP testing, and is particularly useful for websites.

  • CRAAP Testing rubric
  • CRAAP Testing example

Primary vs secondary data

In some EE subjects it is compulsory to process raw data of some sort. This may be:

  • PRIMARY DATA which you have collected yourself, for example through experiments, questionnaires and surveys, interviews or observations.
  • SECONDARY DATA which someone else has collected (through methods like those above) and you have found, for example in a published study or paper, or from a database or website. For example, if you wanted statistics collected by the UK governement on a wide variety of social and economic issues, you might look at the Office for National Statistics website.

Whichever sort of data you have, it is very important to think about and comment on how it was collected and how that may affect your results. A tool like the CRAAP test is just as useful for data as it is for other types of source, paying particular attention to study/experiment design and sampling.

PRIMARY DATA: Questionnaires

A well-designed questionnaire can be an excellent way to collect relatively large amounts of primary data fairly quickly. A poorly designed one is a waste of everyone's time and can cause a lot of stress when you try to analyse the results and realise that the questionnaire did not work as intended.

In the interactive lesson (NearPod) below , Mr Foster leads you through how to design an effective questionnaire, and gives you lots of tips and advice. This lesson should take you about 10-15 minutes to complete.

Questionnaire Design Nearpod

  • If you have a specific question either about Microsoft Forms or questionnaires in general, or are stuck, do contact Mrs F ear , Mr Foster or your supervisor.

extended essay referencing

Settings to check before sharing your Form...

Before sharing your Form, make sure you check the settings (click on the three dots at the top right of the Forms screen).

extended essay referencing

  • Is that just people from within the school, or does it include people outside? The default is that only people within Oakham School can respond, so if you are sending it outside the school you need to select "Anyone can respond" . If you are sending a questionnaire to people outside Oakham School, please ask your supervisor to have a look first, both to confirm that it is suitable and that they are happy for you to send it to the people on your list.
  • If it is internal, do you need to know respondents' names? Usually it is better to leave a questionnaire anonymous if you can. [External questionnaires cannot record respondents' names].
  • You will generally want to tick the "one response per person" box to stop people completing the questionnaire multiple times (unless you have asked them to for some reason - e.g. a fitness diary they complete every week. In that case you would probably want to record their names so that you can match their responses from different weeks).
  • Do you want to add a start and end date? If you do, be careful not to make the window too small or you may not get many responses.
  • Do you want to be notified by email every time someone fills the Form in?

Investigative Journal

An excellent way to keep track of your investigation. Use one page per source and don't forget to insert a citation at the top of the page. If you choose not to use it, think about what you will use instead.

This is an ideal tool for using in your Researcher's Reflection Space .

extended essay referencing

Annotated bibliography

extended essay referencing

This resource will help you to keep track of all the different sources you find. Once you start working with each source in more detail, you will also need a tool like the Investigative Journal to organise your notes.

MInimum information to gather for citing and referencing later

It is so frustrating when you are under pressure to write up your work and you suddenly realise you can't find all the information you need to reference a source! Ideally you would gather all the information you need as you go along, but what is the minimum you need to gather to make sure that you can reconstruct the reference at the end?

  • For books: Title, author, publisher, date and place of publication and the page number of any useful quotes . There are no shortcuts here!
  • For websites: full URL and date accessed. However, if you think the site is likely to change then gather all the referencing info at the start
  • For online articles (from a database), make sure you have the permalink if you are offered it, and the date you accessed the article. The title of the article and the database you accessed it from should be enough to locate it again if there is a problem with the link later. Don't rely on a URL - for some databases this will just take you back to the home page.
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OIS Extended Essay: Referencing

  • Subject Guides

Referencing

  • OIS Secondary

You must reference ALL your sources to help your reader/ evaluator answer the following:

What kind of source is it?

Where can I find the source myself?

What range of sources did you use?

Definitions

Bibliography

A bibliography is an alphabetical list of every source used to research and write the essay.  The bibliography must list only those sources cited, in essence, it is a Work Cited list rather than a true Bibliography. A true bibliography is everything you read, even if you do not refer to the source in your paper since it influenced your thinking.

A r eference  is a way of indicating to the reader, using a consistent format, where information has been obtained. The purpose of a reference is it should help the reader to find the source material if they wish. 

References must be cited because:

  • they acknowledge the sources used
  • they enable the reader to consult the work and verify the data that has been presented. 

References must be given whenever someone else’s work is quoted or summarized.

There are a number of different styles available for use when writing research papers; whatever style is chosen, it must be applied consistently and in line with the IB’s minimum requirements.  The style should be applied in both the final draft of the essay and in the initial research stages of taking notes.  This is good practice, not only for producing a high-quality final product but also for reducing the opportunities and temptation to plagiarize. 

The IB’s minimum requirements include:

  • name of author
  • date of publication
  • title of source
  • page numbers (print sources only)
  • date of access (electronic sources only)

Any references to interviews should state the name of the interviewer, the name of the interviewee, the date and the place of the interview. 

For more detailed information on styles for citations and referencing please refer to:

extended essay referencing

Document Checklist

  • When you use someone else’s words or work, is it clear where such use starts—and where it finishes?
  • When you put someone else’s thoughts and ideas in your own words, have you still named (cited) the original author(s)?
  • For each reference in the list of references (works cited/bibliography) at the end, is there a citation in the text?
  • When you have used an author’s exact words, have you put “quotation marks” around the quotation and named (cited) the original writer? (If you indent your quotation(s), quotation marks are not needed, but the author must still be cited; have you cited your indented quotations?)
  • Have you included full references for all borrowed images, tables, graphs, maps, and so on?
  • Print material: Have you included the page number(s) of print material you have used (especially important with exact quotations)?
  • Web-based material: Have you included both the date on which the material was posted and the date of your last visit to the web page or site?
  • Web-based material: Have you included the URL or the DOI?
  • For each citation in the text, is there a full reference in your list of references (works cited/bibliography) at the end?
  • Is your list of references (works cited/bibliography) in alphabetical order, with the last name of the author first?  

extended essay referencing

Citation Style Resources

extended essay referencing

Owl Purdue: Overview and examples

extended essay referencing

Scribbr: Overview of Citation Styles and their Subjects

extended essay referencing

Plagiarism Org: Citation Styles

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Extended Essay: Criteria D - Check your Formatting

  • Introduction to the EE
  • Step 1 - Choose a subject
  • World Studies
  • Step 3 - The Researchers Reflection Space
  • Identify Sources
  • Tools for Note Taking
  • Video Guides
  • Step 5 - Creating Research Questions
  • Step 6 - Outlines and Plans
  • Step 7 - Citing
  • Criteria E - 3 Reflections
  • Know Your Criteria
  • Criteria D - Check your Formatting
  • 4000 words final hand in

Why it is important

Criteria D is giveaway marks time - You get 4 marks for just formatting and citing properly. Do not lose any of these marks for simple errors.

No Abstract required

PLEASE NOTE

3 years ago the syllabus changed. You must not put an abstract in your Extended Essay. If you do you will lose many marks.

a) because it will show your lack of engagement

b) it will use up 300 words at the beginning of the essay. Therefore your conclusion will not be read.

Use only the latest criteria!!! DO NOT WRITE AN ABSTRACT

There are a number of checklists that you can use to ensure that you max out for Criteria D.

1) This is one that I recommend and is in a google doc format -    the checklist.

2) The one below (which you can download here as a pdf ) is taken from the excellent EE course companion by Kota Lekanides that is found in all of your AG classes.

extended essay referencing

There is also a fantastic check list in the book that you have in your AG classes. It is Simply called Extended Essay by Paul Hoang. 

extended essay referencing

What you need to do

Required Formatting

The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. Given that the extended essay is a formally written research paper, it should strive to maintain a professional, academic look. 

To help achieve this, the following formatting is  required:

  • 12-point, readable font (Calibri or Times New Roman);
  • double spacing throughout entire Essay;
  • page numbering - top right corner;
  • no candidate or school name or supervisor name on the title page or page headers.

Required S tructure

The structure of the essay is very important. It helps students to organize the argument, making the best use of the evidence collected. 

There are six required elements of the final work to be submitted. More details about each element are given in the  “Presentation”  section. Please note that  the order in which these elements are presented here is not necessarily the order in which they should be written. 

Six required elements of the extended essay:

  • Contents page
  • Introduction
  • Body of the essay
  • References and bibliography -- if MLA "Works Cited" if CSE "References"

1. Required  Title Page  

The title page should include  only  the following information: 

  • the title of the essay
  • the research question
  • the subject the essay is registered in (if it is a language essay also state which category it falls into; if a world studies essay also state the theme and the two subjects utilized) 

The upper limit is 4,000 words for all extended essays. 

Please note:  Examiners are instructed not to read or assess any material in excess of the word limit. This means that essays containing more than 4,000 words will be compromised across all assessment criteria. Given the holistic nature of the assessment criteria, students who write in excess of the word limit will self-penalize across all criteria. 

Note for Chinese/ Korean/ Japanese Essays -  Clarification of word counts in Chinese for EEs. When typing in Chinese, word-processing software is likely to include the number of characters along with punctuation. Teachers and students are asked not to include punctuation in the word count for assessed work. The word count should only take into account the number of characters typed. (IBO Feb 2023)

Students writing their extended essay in Japanese, Korean or Chinese should use the following conversions.

  • Japanese: 1 word = approximately 2 Japanese characters (upper limit 8,000 characters)
  • Korean: 1 word = 1 Korean character (upper limit 4,000 characters)
  • Chinese: 1 word = approximately 1.2 Chinese characters (upper limit 4,800 characters)

extended essay referencing

source: ibo.org

2. Required Contents Page

A contents page must be provided at the beginning of the extended essay and all pages should be numbered. Please note that an index page is not required and if included will be treated as if it is not present.

3. Required Introduction

The introduction should tell the reader what to expect in the essay. The introduction should make clear to the reader the focus of the essay, the scope of the research, in  particular  an indication of the sources to be used, and an insight into the line of argument to be taken. 

While students should have a sense of the direction and key focus of their essay, it is sometimes advisable to finalize the introduction once the body of the essay is complete.

4.  Required Body of the Essay  (research, analysis, discussion, and evaluation)

The main task is writing the body of the essay, which should be presented in the form of a reasoned argument. The form of this varies with the subject of the essay but as the argument develops it should be clear to the reader what relevant evidence has been discovered, where/how it has been discovered and how it supports the argument. In some subjects, for example, the sciences, sub-headings within the main body of the essay will help the reader to understand the argument (and will also help the student to keep on track). In structuring their extended essay, students must take into consideration the expected conventions of the subject in which their extended essay is registered. 

Once the main body of the essay is complete, it is possible to finalize the introduction (which tells the reader what to expect) and the conclusion (which says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved). 

Any information that is important to the argument  must not  be included in appendices or footnotes/endnotes. The examiner  will not  read notes or appendices, so an essay that is not complete in itself will be compromised across the assessment criteria.

5. Required Conclusion

The conclusion says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved. While students might draw conclusions throughout the essay based on their findings, it is important that there is a final, summative conclusion at the end. This conclusion(s) must relate to the research question posed.

6.  Required References & Bibliography

Students should use their chosen style of academic referencing as soon as they start writing. That way they are less likely to forget to include a citation. It is also easier than trying to add references at a later stage. For more information on this, refer to the guidelines in the IB document  Effective citing and referencing.

Writing the essay takes time but if students have used their Researcher's reflection space and reflection sessions in a meaningful way they should be well prepared to develop their arguments.

source: concordian-Thailand

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Extended Essay Resources: Home

  • Research Video Tutorials
  • Video Tutorials
  • In-text Citations
  • Finding and Citing Images
  • Plagiarism VS. Documentation
  • MiniLessons
  • Human Rights News
  • Peace & Conflict News
  • Primary Sources
  • Introductory Resources
  • Narrowing Your Topic
  • Subject Resources

Destiny Catalog

  Search the DESTINY Catalog!

Research Databases

  • Click for database USERNAMES and PASSWORDS You must be logged into your @aisr.org account to access the above password document.

extended essay referencing

The Best Research Plan

1. Read broadly to build background knowledge about your SUBJECT (video search, general web search, encyclopedias, IB textbooks).

2. Formulate a FOCUSED research question.

3. Gather information that addresses your research question (survey, interview, journal articles, etc.)

4. Write your essay. 

ALWAYS be able to answer these questions about your topic:

What is your paper about?

What is your thesis? Your argument? Your point?

So what? Why is it important? 

Now what? Given the research you've done, what action should happen?

Topic Finders

Browse through these resources to go from a general topic of interests down to a specific area of focus.

  • Global Issues in Context Topic Finder A visual search drilling down to areas of focus.
  • Global Resources in Context Browse Issues A list of global issues and topics you may want to explore.
  • JSTOR Browse by subjects.
  • Literary Themes and Topics An interesting list of possible themes to explore if you are considering an EE in English.
  • Literature Themes A Huge List of Common Themes in Literature. Not everything is here, but it's a place to start.
  • Pew Research Group A detailed listing of Pew Research Center polling and demographic topics and subjects
  • Points of View Database Lists of debatable topics with academic sources of information. AISR library password required. Please find the password in the Research Databases box.
  • Procon.org This is not a suitable source of information, but it could be a place to browse for a topic of interest. You can also mine the articles for links to more academic sources.
  • Student Resources in Context Browse Topics Lists a variety of topics which may spark your interest.
  • Student Resources in Context Topic Finder A visual search drilling down to potential areas of focus.
  • World Economic Forum Strategic Intelligence Explore and monitor the issues and forces driving transformational change across economies, industries, and global issues. This is a visual search using categories and then drilling down to open resources about specific topics. You must sign up for a free account.

General Reference

  • Reference.com
  • Teen Health and Wellness
  • Smithsonian Encyclopedia
  • Encyclopedia of Earth
  • Bartleby.com Literature, reference, and verse
  • Artcyclopedia
  • Sweet Search Biographies
  • Who2 Biographies

extended essay referencing

  • World Fact Book
  • Encyclopedia of Life
  • Visual Dictionary Online
  • Encyclopedia of Math
  • SoftSchools Timelines

IB Extended Essay Resources

  • 2019 IB Extended Essay Guide The offical guide from the IB. It contains information on overall requirements, subject-specific requirements, tips for conducting research, and assessment information. IMPORTANT!
  • Subject-specific resources Click here to see exemplars and other useful links for resources to your subject area.
  • 2019 Exemplars Student sample extended essays, corresponding marks and comments from senior examiners.
  • IB Extended Essay Homepage Official IB website for Extended Essay resources.

Statistics Websites

  • 19 Places to Find Free Data Sets for Data Science Projects More sites to find data sets.
  • Google Data Sets A data set search powered by Google.
  • Knoema Knoema is the most comprehensive source of global decision-making data in the world. Our tools allow individuals and organizations to discover, visualize, model, and present their data and the world’s data to facilitate better decisions and better outcomes.
  • The Observatory of Economic Complexity The Observatory of Economic Complexity is a tool that allows users to quickly compose a visual narrative about countries and the products they exchange. It was Alexander Simoes' Master Thesis in Media Arts and Sciences at the MIT Media Lab.
  • Pew Research Center Datasets Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. We conduct public opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science research. We do not take policy positions.
  • Statista Statista Research & Analysis is a combined provider of market research as well as research and analysis services. We help corporate customers collect and prepare market, customer and competitive information.
  • Statistics Sweden Our main task is to supply users and customers with statistics for decision making, debate and research. We do this mainly through assignments from the government and other government agencies.
  • United Nations Statistics Division The United Nations Statistics Division is committed to the advancement of the global statistical system. We compile and disseminate global statistical information, develop standards and norms for statistical activities, and support countries' efforts to strengthen their national statistical systems.
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  • Last Updated: Aug 15, 2023 3:34 PM
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IMAGES

  1. APA Referencing

    extended essay referencing

  2. How to Write an Extended Essay: The Fullest Guide

    extended essay referencing

  3. How to Write an Extended Essay: A Step-by-Step Guide

    extended essay referencing

  4. Guide To Referencing Your Extended Essay

    extended essay referencing

  5. Guide To Referencing Your Extended Essay

    extended essay referencing

  6. Harvard Referencing Sample Paper

    extended essay referencing

VIDEO

  1. What is Extended Essay? (Conclusion)

  2. Writing a Synthesis Essay, Composite Summary and Referencing During Examination/ UGRC210 PastQuo2024

  3. Using a Reference Manager

  4. Extended Response, Episode I

  5. From Failing to 10/10

  6. Referencing Basics: In-text citation. What is it and why do it?

COMMENTS

  1. Extended Essay: Step 8. Decide on a Citation Style

    Citations. A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, either as an in-text citation or footnote/endnote. This must then be linked to the full reference at the end of the essay in the bibliography. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily.

  2. LibGuides: Extended Essay: Step 7

    A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, either as an in-text citation or footnote/endnote. This must then be linked to the full reference at the end of the essay in the bibliography. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily.

  3. US IB Extended Essay: Bibliographies, References & Citations

    An extended essay must reflect intellectual honesty in research practices and provide the reader with the exact sources of quotations, ideas and points of view through accurate bibliographies and referencing. Producing accurate citations, referencing and a bibliography is a skill that students should be seeking to perfect.

  4. LibGuides: Extended Essay: Formatting your EE

    Standard form of academic referencing applied consistently throughout the essay including in-text citations or footnoting MLA9; APA; Chicago; All references in the bibliography must be cross-referenced Cross-referenced: each reference in the essay is ticked off in the bibliography to ensure all references are included and no extraneous ...

  5. Extended Essay: Advice (and Warnings) from the IB

    Adapted from "Introduction; Academic honesty, Acknowledge the work or ideas of another person", from Extended Essay Guide, International Baccalaureate Organization, 2016. Referencing Online Materials References to online materials should include the title of the extract used as well as the website address, the date it was accessed and, if ...

  6. APA

    Images and Graphs. When using pictures and graphs to illustrate your argument, you still need to cite and reference each item. You need to clearly label each item as a Figure. Each item is captioned Figure 1. etc., in bold above the image or table. On the next line, the caption should include a brief title in italics and title case, which means ...

  7. The Complete IB Extended Essay Guide: Examples, Topics, and Ideas

    Conclusion. References and bibliography. Additionally, your research topic must fall into one of the six approved DP categories, or IB subject groups, which are as follows: Group 1: Studies in Language and Literature. Group 2: Language Acquisition. Group 3: Individuals and Societies. Group 4: Sciences.

  8. Extended essay

    The extended essay is an independent, self-directed piece of research, finishing with a 4,000-word paper. One component of the International Baccalaureate® (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) core, the extended essay is mandatory for all students. Read about the extended essay in greater detail. You can also read about how the IB sets deadlines for ...

  9. LibGuides: Extended Essay

    Extended Essay - Criteria: Citations and Referencing. Home. Criterion A: Focus and Method. Criterion B: Knowledge and Understanding. Criterion C: Critical Thinking. Criterion E: Engagement. Academic Honesty. When writing an extended essay, you must acknowledge any words, ideas, and opinions that are not your own.

  10. LibGuides: IB DP Extended Essay: Citations & Referencing

    IB DP Extended Essay: Citations & Referencing Use this guide as you journey through the extended essay process. Material adapted from the EE support materials developed by Kosta Lekanides

  11. Extended Essay: Citations and Referencing

    Extended Essay: Citations and Referencing - IB REQUIREMENTS. Introduction; Subject Guidance & Proposal Forms; 8 Simple Steps to writing an Academic Essay... and Outlines! ... This is a representation of the table found on p24 of Effective Citing and Referencing. This Table shows what information is required by the IB when citing and referencing ...

  12. Writing & Citing

    Annotated Bibliography for the Extended Essay. Early in the Extended Essay process, are required to submit an annotated bibliography summarizing and evaluating five sources.For each source you need to provide full bibliographic information (a compete MLA8 citation), and write a detailed annotation (paragraph) demonstrating your understanding of the source and its relevance to your larger ...

  13. Extended Essay: MLA Works Cited & In-Text Citations

    In-text citations: Author-page style. MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number (s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the ...

  14. Citations and References

    A citation is a shorthand method of making a reference in the body of an essay, either as an in-text citation or footnote/endnote. This must then be linked to the full reference at the end of the essay in the bibliography. A citation provides the reader with accurate references so that he or she can locate the source easily.

  15. Extended Essay Guide: Criteria, Format, Sample EEs

    The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. ... refer to the guidelines in the IB document Effective citing and referencing. Writing the essay takes time but if students have used their Researcher's reflection space and reflection sessions in a ...

  16. Home

    The first part of the IB guide contains general information that is relevant to all Extended Essays, regardless of subject. The section is quite short, and it is well worth reading for the advice and information given. Six required elements of the extended essay: Title page Contents page Introduction Body of the essay Conclusion References and ...

  17. PDF Citing and referencing for the Extended Essay

    A reference style is a set of rules on how you should deal with in-text citations and referencing as a whole. Always be consistent in your use of a reference style - choose a style and stick with it. What is a reference list? A reference list, also known as bibliography, is a list of all sources cited in your essay. In the reference list, the

  18. Smallbone Library: Extended Essay (IB): Expressing your ideas

    This starts with a research question, which is then answered by your thesis in the conclusion of the essay. Your essay presents the evidence that shows how you have arrived at your conclusion. In both approaches, you must state the research question in your introduction, and follow your Subject-specific guidelines carefully.

  19. Extended Essay (IB): Finding and selecting sources

    Minimum information to gather for citing and referencing later ; If you need help with refining your Research Question, ... The following is a comment from the IB on using 'online encyclopaedias' such as Wikipedia (from The IB Extended Essay Guide: The Research and Writing Process: Academic Honesty):

  20. Referencing

    Referencing. A reference is a way of indicating to the reader, using a consistent format, where information has been obtained. The purpose of a reference is it should help the reader to find the source material if they wish. References must be cited because: they enable the reader to consult the work and verify the data that has been presented.

  21. LibGuides: Extended Essay: Criteria D

    The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. Given that the extended essay is a formally written research paper, it should strive to maintain a professional, academic look. ... Body of the essay; Conclusion; References and bibliography -- if MLA ...

  22. AIS-R LibGuides: Extended Essay Resources: Home

    Literary Reference Center This link opens in a new window Combining information from major respected reference works, books, literary journals, and original content from EBSCO, Literary Reference Center features an expansive collection of author biographies, plot summaries and work overviews, full-text essays from leading publishers, literary reference books and monographs, cover-to-cover full ...