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16 Drafting Your Ad Analysis

Dr. Karen Palmer

Now that you have a solid outline, it’s time to start writing your ad analysis paper! Here we will work through fleshing out each part of your outline–turning your outline into a full draft.


The first part of your paper is your introduction. You may remember from the Writing Formula chapter that an introduction consists of three main parts: the hook, the introduction to the topic, and the thesis. Let’s begin with the hook. A hook does two jobs–it connects the topic of your paper to your readers, and it attempts to capture their attention.

This video highlights some of the most common techniques for writing a good hook:

Now that you have a general idea of what a hook does, let’s focus in on the kind of hook that would be most useful for your ad analysis essay. Let’s say you are doing an analysis on that milk ad we discussed earlier in the text.

Strategy 1: Connect to the topic of the ad: milk. You could say something like, “Do you drink milk?” But…would that really draw in readers? Surely, there is a better way to grab the attention of our audience.

Strategy 2: Connect to the broader topic of advertising. Here you might say something like, “Advertisers are always trying to get our attention.” Sure, this is a broad opening to the paper, but is it really going to make anyone interested in the topic?

A good idea is to brainstorm some current events or topics that link to your ad. A brainstorming list for this milk ad could include lactose intolerance, the concept of looking at TV sitcom characters as role models, the changing role of mothers, and even the pressure placed on moms (and women in general)  to be perfect. Choose something that appeals to you and that illustrates a theme that runs through the ad. When brainstorming with my classes, we often land on the idea of perfection with this particular milk ad. It makes a compelling frame for the paper.

Introducing the topic is just that–letting readers know what the paper will be about. ie An ad for ________ located in _________ magazine illustrates this concept. Note that you need to include the specific product advertised in the ad, the name of the magazine in which the ad is located, and include a connection/transition to your hook.

Finally, the last sentence of your introduction is your thesis. Here you make your argument. While you already wrote a thesis for your outline, you want to double check that the thesis connects in some way to your hook. Our example thesis is: “The advertisers successfully persuade the consumer that milk will make them a great mom by using nostalgia, milk branding, and the image of ideal motherhood.” We might make a slight adjustment here to make the connection a bit more explicit: “The advertisers play on the desire of moms to fulfill an image of perfection by using nostalgia, milk branding, and the image of ideal motherhood.”

In the ad analysis, our background consists of two different sections: the description and the discussion of context.


Remember that your audience cannot see the ad you are discussing. If you were in a room presenting to your audience, you might project an image of the ad up on a screen. Since we can’t do that in an essay, we need to describe the ad for our readers. Essentially, you want your readers to be able to draw a basic picture of your ad–or at least visualize it accurately in their minds.

This video from James Rath discussing how people with visual impairments see images on social media gives an important life reason for learning how to write solid image descriptions:

Here are some good tips for writing a description of an image:

1. Start by giving readers a one sentence overview of the ad. For our milk ad, that might be, “In this ad, three mothers from iconic sitcoms sit side by side in a beauty parlor under old-fashioned hair dryers.”

2. Determine in advance how you want readers to see the image–do you want them to look at the image left to right? Foreground to background? Clockwise? Bottom line here–don’t make readers minds jump around from place to place as they try to visualize the image.

3. Choose the key elements. You don’t have to describe every single thing in this paragraph. Tell readers who the three moms are and what show they are from. Give enough basic details so that readers know the setting is old-fashioned. Remember, you’ll be able to bring forward more detail as you analyze the ad in the body of your paper. Readers don’t need to know what color a person’s eyes are unless it’s a key part of the ad.

4. Don’t forget the text! While you should not write every word in the ad in your description, especially if there are lengthy paragraphs, you should include a brief overview of the text. ie placement, basic overview Again, you’ll be able to give specific quotes that are relevant to your analysis in the body of your paper.

5. Write in present tense!

The context of an ad really focuses on the audience of the ad. Remember that advertisers very carefully consider the audience for their product and create their advertisements to best reach that target audience. Let’s look at this from the perspective of a company looking to place an ad:

So, if an advertiser goes to this much trouble to determine the demographics of their target audience, it’s obviously important! The ad (unless perhaps it was published by an inexperienced advertiser) is not “for everyone.” An ad in Newsweek , no matter how childlike it appears, was not created for children. It was created for the audience who will purchase and read this magazine. When we do an ad analysis, we want to share similar information with our readers. What magazine is the ad placed in? What is the general focus of that publication? What kinds of articles appear in the publication? What general types of ads appear? In short, who is the audience? Of course, you can look at a magazine and get some of this information. You can also do a quick online search for the demographics of the magazine or for their media kit, which is what advertisers look at prior to purchasing advertising space to ensure the magazine is a good fit for their ad.

Now that you have the background out of the way and your audiences thoroughly understand the topic, it’s time to begin your analysis. Your thesis should have given at least three advertising strategies used in the ad. Your paper should include a paragraph for each one of those strategies.

Topic Sentence

The topic sentence should echo the wording of the thesis and clearly introduce the topic. For example, “One way the advertisers use the concept of the perfect mother to convince readers to purchase milk is by using iconic mothers from television shows.” For your next paragraph, you’d want to be sure to include a transition. For example, “Another way” or “In addition to” are both phrases that can be used to show that you are building onto your previous paragraph.

In this part of the paragraph, you want to give specific examples from the ad to support your point.

First, you should introduce the example. “The three moms from iconic tv shows are the focus of this ad.”

Next, you should give specific examples from the ad–this could be pointing out particular details about the images in the ad or quoting from the text–or both! For example, for the milk ad, you might give the specific names of the characters and the shows they are from. You might point out that every detail of their outfits are perfect. That they are wearing makeup and jewelry. That they have their wedding rings prominently focused in the image. You might also quote text, like the line from the ad that says, “Another all-time great mom line.”

Finally, wrap up your examples with a clear explanation of how the example proves your point. For example, you might say that, especially in modern times, it is very difficult for mothers to live up to the standard of perfection set by these three television moms. You might explain how causing readers to feel “less than” sets the stage for them to accept the premise that giving their children milk will make them more like these TV moms.

The wrap up for your paragraph is similar to the wrap up for the evidence provided. Here you want to reiterate your thesis in a simple sentence. For example, you might say, “Using the images of these iconic moms convinces moms that, in order to be a good mom, they must buy milk for their children.”


The conclusion of your paper is essentially a mirror image of your introduction. Think of your paper as an Oreo cookie. The introduction and the conclusion are the cookies that surround the best part–the body of the paper. Like the cookie outsides of the Oreo, the introduction and conclusion should be mirror images of each other.

1. Start with re-stating the thesis.

2. Reiterate the topic.

3. Return to your hook and elaborate.

Unlike an Oreo, the conclusion should not simply copy your introduction word for word in a different order. Try to restate your sentences in a different way. Elaborate on your hook so that you leave readers with something to think about!

 Content written by Dr. Karen Palmer and is licensed CC BY NC.

The Worry Free Writer Copyright © 2020 by Dr. Karen Palmer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Advertisement Analysis – How to Write & Ad Analysis Essay Examples

🔝 top-10 advertisement analysis examples, 🖥️ advertisement analysis – what is it, 🤓 steps of an ad analysis, 🌟 advertisement analysis essay examples, 📝 advertisement analysis research paper examples, 💡 essay ideas on advertisement analysis, 👍 good advertisement analysis essay examples to write about, 🎓 simple research paper examples with advertisement analysis, ✍️ advertisement analysis essay examples for college, 🏆 best advertisement analysis research titles.

In this day and age, advertising is everywhere, from billboards and TV commercials to social media feeds and mobile apps. It’s an essential tool many companies use to draw customers’ attention and showcase their products and services. However, creating a compelling and distinctive advertisement is more challenging than it seems, and professionals often rely on ad analysis to achieve this goal. Advertisement analysis is a form of research that examines advertisements’ effectiveness and impact on society. Below, we will discuss how advertisement analysis can help businesses develop successful ad campaigns while ensuring their ads are ethical and socially responsible.

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Ad analysis is a type of research that experts use to develop compelling and eye-catching advertisements . It addresses each step of the ad’s creation process. Such an approach has become increasingly common because it shows marketing techniques’ impact on human consciousness. Experts evaluate the effectiveness of an ad using qualitative and quantitative methods , which help them create better advertisements. Language, imagery, and music used in a successful marketing campaign are just a few examples of what makes up effective ad messaging.

How to analyze the advertisement? While every company and its marketing team may have their own approach to ad analysis, the framework usually includes these 5 major steps:

Gather information. Before starting a project, looking up information about the product is vital. Make a SWOT analysis of the company for which you are conducting an ad analysis. This method will help you identify potential market opportunities and internal weaknesses.

Find target-audience preferences. To choose the perfect media tools for your marketing campaign, you must know your ad’s target audience . Knowing your audience will also assist you in learning how to convince the customers to get interested and purchase the product you are advertising.

Start questioning. You have to create a list of detailed inquiries regarding the advertisement. These questions will aid in finding information about the message or context of the ad . Also, it will help you understand which areas require more research and improvement.

Examine the strategic and tactical components. During this step, you first need to identify the objective. Make sure the message is conveyed clearly so the advertisement can serve its intended purpose. Then, you need to identify the target message. It’ll help to create a brief messaging framework.

Onlook the results. You have to watch whether your advertisement analysis works or not. Analyze how many new customers you receive after publication and your product’s popularity level. That way, you will both improve your research and gain experience for your next project.

Here you can find 2 incredible examples of advertisement analysis essays! The primary focus of each report is to examine how the created advertisement will affect potential customers.

Essay sample #1 – Pepsi advertisement

Target Audience: Pepsi targets consumers in their teens, early 20s, and early middle age. Pepsi print is of bright color , and that instantly attracts customers’ attention. In the commercial, many young people with happy smiles enjoy life, skating on the board and drinking Pepsi.

Implicit messages: The appearance of joyful teens in the Pepsi ad makes you want to buy this drink. The advertisement suggests that after consuming the product, you’ll feel like you’re living your best life.

Essay sample #2 – YSL perfume advertisement

Target Audience: YSL perfume advertisement targets women of early middle age. In the ad, the women are confident, independent, and successful. The advertisement connects the sensation of freedom and high status in society to the perfume itself.

Implicit messages: The advertisement appeals to those who want to make their own rules. YSL customers are women, so the company creates an image of powerful yet feminine females. The commercial suggests that after buying the perfume, you will embrace freedom and will be able to set old bridges on fire.

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BusinessEssay. (2023, March 25). Advertisement Analysis – How to Write & Ad Analysis Essay Examples. https://business-essay.com/analyses/advertisement-analysis-research-paper-examples/

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Analysis Essay On An Advertisement (Writing Guide)

How to write good analysis essay on an advertisement.

Analysis Essay On An Advertisement, Writing Guide, customessayorder.com

Outline example

How to start, introduction example.

  • How to write the thesis statement

Thesis example

How to write body paragraphs, example of body paragraphs.

  • How to conclude

Conclusion example

  • Revision tips

Advertising plays a major role in our society today; everywhere you go you will find products being advertised on television, online pages, billboards. Advertisement analysis is a common assignment students are required to undertake. Writing an analysis of an advertisement is more about writing a review of the advertisement using a specific format. There are several strategies to go about this type of assignment. So, below is a step-by-step approach to writing an analysis of an advertisement.

Introduction :

  • What is the advertisement for
  • Summary of the context of the advertisement
  • Background information about the company
  • The thesis statement
  • The effect of the advertisement and the target audience

Body Paragraphs :

  • Present evidence of the effectiveness of the ad on the target audience
  • Give examples
  • Show various components of the advertisement
  • Explain some of the outstanding strategies used to persuade the target audience
  • Describe the values and emotion the ad provokes in the readers
  • Describe the visual strategies
  • Describe the ethos, pathos, and logos
  • Describe the textual strategies, including the diction and the tone.

Conclusion :

  • Present the most important points justify why the advertisement is successful
  • The present technique used that makes the product outstanding
  • Review the intention of the advertisement
  • Provide your opinion.

In the introduction, it is important to state what the analysis will focus on. The ideas to get to the point as early as possible. The essay writer should not assume that the readers are familiar with the product. That is why the first step is to analyze if the advertisement presents a brief history and a detailed description of what the product is about. A good advertisement needs to show how the product is superior to other products in the market.

For example, when a company produces a commercial the aim is to increase sales.

  • Here are also points you should consider when writing your essay:
  • Some people prefer to write the introduction after they have written the essay itself – you should try both ways to see which one works better for you.
  • The introduction must always contain the thesis statement.
  • Any information which is needed for the essay, but doesn’t necessarily fit into any of the body paragraphs, should go into the introduction.
  • Don’t make any arguments in the introduction itself; save it for the body paragraphs.
  • The introduction should summarise the main arguments you intend to make.

Analysis Essay On An Advertisement, customessayorder.com

Now, you know the main rules of writing an introduction. Next, please find an example of the introduction.

Old Spice’s advertisement “How Your Man Could Smell Like” is an attractive phrase used to lure the audience to purchase the product. The advertisement meant to capture men’s attention through women. It presents an ideal image of how a man should smell. The advertisement used sexually themed strategy to grab the reader’s attention.

How to write a thesis statement

To write a thesis statement, make sure that you have done all the research you want to do, and that you know everything you want to when it comes to your essay. Try and boil down the ultimate point of the essay into a small amount of space – at the most two sentences. It should be clear enough that every part of your essay will be able to relate to it without much trouble.

The advertisement conveys a strong message about a strong personality where a man needs not only to be attractive but also to be confident by smelling like a real man. The advertisement uses emotional appeal to influence young women who value strong qualities in a man.

Any advertisement is meant for a specific audience, therefore, a good analysis should present the target audience. The body paragraphs should clearly present, which groups of people are being targeted, discusses how the intention presented work together to create a good impression. When writing an advertisement analysis essay, it is important to explain how popular and effective the advertisement is. Describe the rhetorical appeals, including pathos, ethos, and logo, these are concepts that provoke emotion among the target audience in an attempt to convince them to like the product.

Tips on body paragraph writing:

  • Each paragraph should only deal with one argument, to keep from being cluttered.
  • Each paragraph should have a topic sentence to introduce it, and a summary sentence at the end of both wind things up, and lead into the next sentence.
  • Each paragraph should reference the thesis statement in some way.
  • Each paragraph should fit into the essay in a way which makes it flow properly, leading readers through the essay to a similar conclusion.
  • Each paragraph should contain just the right amount of research – not so much as to confuse the issue, but not so little that it seems like there is nothing to say.

Below is an example of the body paragraphs for advertising analysis.

1st paragraph

The commercial appeals to women more than men. This is important because it does not rely on the attractiveness of the model and the setting, but on sensational, emotional responses presenting how perfect men should translate into the reality the ideal image of who a man should be and what he should smell like to attract a wider audience.

2nd paragraph

The advertisement uses an attractive man who seems to be physically fit, giving the product an image that men are appealing to women’s tastes. The advertisement also presents the notion that a man’s’ emotional needs to smell like a real man to attract a woman. The advertisement uses a reliable strategy of sexuality. Sexually themed advertisements appeal to not only men and women but to a wider audience. Using such themes is the surest way to attract more people to use the product.

3rd paragraph

Normally, these advertisements focus on men who are physically attractive to try and sell their products, with the implication that the product will give an entire lifestyle, not simply a way to smell good. This is one way in which the advertisements appeal to people – making it seem as though they too can aspire to be as ‘cool’ as the man presents, simply by purchasing the aforementioned product.

How to write a conclusion

After review, the advertisement giving appropriate evidence to support the claim the next step of the analysis is to wrap up by reviewing the key points of the analysis. The conclusion of the analysis should be a brief summary justifying if the advertisement has achieved its objectives.

Tips to remember when writing your conclusion

  • Remember to restate the thesis statement.
  • Round up the arguments made in the essay – do not make any original arguments in the conclusion.
  • The conclusion is your last chance to bring people round to your point of view, so make it count.
  • Remember that you can bring in the history or additional information which is used in the introduction, to remind people of anything that might be useful.
  • Your conclusion should mention every argument made in the essay.

Example of a conclusion is shown below.

The Old Spice ad is successful because it makes a good impression on people and makes the audience believe that smelling good can be attractive. The advertisement carefully uses sex appeal, making it attractive for both men and women. Mixing the right amount of humor makes it stand out because of its no offensive. Old Spice’s appeal to women makes men want to look and smells like a real man. The advertisement presents an ideal man as good looking, masculine and romantic. Any advertisement that arouses people’s emotions and people want to watch and remember their products can be termed as a successful advertisement.

Research paper revision

Revision is important since it gives you the opportunity to create the best essay you are capable of. Revision lets you check whether or not your essay flows correctly, whether it makes sense, as well as the smaller things like grammar and punctuation.

  • Do two revisions – one for spelling and grammar, and one for structure.
  • Check to make sure that the argument through the paper flows correctly.
  • Try and come to revision with fresh eyes, since this will help you see problems more easily.
  • If you can, ask someone else to read your essay, to point out any errors.
  • Make sure to specifically check things like thesis statements, topic sentences, etc.

Need a custom essay?

1.How to write an analysis essay on an advertisement? To analyze an advertisement, one needs first to figure out the objectives behind the Ad film. Then, the analysis will deal with weighting the theme of the Ad and how well it conveyed the message. However, several other aspects are also mentioned in an ad analysis. Discuss the brand’s values and beliefs? Elaborate on the Ad appeal, emotional or rational? Discuss the storyline, the big idea, overall execution of the Ad film.

2.Who can write an analysis essay on an advertisement? Advertisement analysis is best written by field experts available on customessayorder.com. The platform provides wiring help to students who face difficulty in completing their college assignments. The writing company is good with deadlines, free revisions, professional proofreading, and guaranteed high-quality paper delivered on time written by native English speakers.

3.How to conclude an analysis essay on an advertisement? The conclusion simply summarizes the objectives the ad aimed at and how well it conveyed the message to the audience. Mention both the wins and losses. Also, give a sneak preview of how well the persuasion appeal worked for the brand in the ad.

4.What should an analysis essay on an advertisement include? Ad Analysis should identify the rhetorical appeals—logos, pathos, and ethos in the ad. Analyze the ad’s target demography. Moreover, several points to be included in an advertisement analysis are: · The big idea · Type of advertisement campaign – thematic or tactical · Persuasion appeal – emotional or rational · Core brand values · Subliminal message · Testimonial · Production value · budgets · Cast · Locations

how to write an advertisement analysis essay

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Advertisement Analysis: Techniques, Importance, Examples & Tools

  • March 7, 2023
  • Essay Topics and Ideas , Sample Study Papers , Study Guides , Writing Guides

Understanding Advertisement Analysis

Advertisement analysis is critically examining and evaluating advertisements better to understand their content, meaning, and impact. This process involves analyzing an advertisement’s text, visuals, and overall design and considering the target audience and the context in which the ad appears. By conducting an advertisement analysis , businesses can gain valuable insights into the effectiveness of their advertising campaigns and make informed decisions about how to improve them.

Here's What You'll Learn

Techniques for Advertisement Analysis

Several techniques can be used to conduct a practical advertisement analysis:

1. Text Analysis

Text analysis involves examining the language and messaging used in an advertisement to understand its intended meaning and impact on the audience . This includes analyzing the ad’s headline, tagline, copy, and other written content.

a. Headline Analysis

The headline is often the first thing a viewer sees in an advertisement, and it plays a crucial role in capturing their attention and interest. Analyzing the headline can reveal necessary information about the ad’s purpose and target audience.

b. Language Analysis

The language used in an advertisement can convey various messages and emotions and can be analyzed to determine how the ad is trying to influence the audience. This includes examining the ad’s written content’s tone, style, and vocabulary.

c. Persuasive Techniques Analysis

Many advertisements use persuasive techniques to influence the audience’s beliefs or behaviors. These techniques include appeals to emotion, authority, and social proof, and they can be analyzed to understand how the ad is trying to persuade the viewer.

2. Visual Analysis

The visual analysis involves examining an advertisement’s design, layout, and overall visual elements to understand how they contribute to its message and impact on the audience.

a. Layout Analysis

The layout of an advertisement can be analyzed to understand how it guides the viewer’s attention and emphasizes some aspects of the ad. This includes examining the placement and size of visual elements and text.

b. Design Analysis

The design elements of an advertisement, such as color, font, and imagery, can be analyzed to understand how they contribute to the ad’s overall message and impact on the viewer.

c. Color Analysis

The colors used in an advertisement can convey various emotions and messages, and they can be analyzed to understand how the ad is trying to influence the viewer.

Advertisement analysis

Importance of Advertisement Analysis

Advertisement analysis is an essential process for businesses for several reasons:

1. Understanding Consumer Behavior

By analyzing advertisements, businesses can gain a deeper understanding of consumer behavior, including motivations, needs, and decision-making processes . This information can be used to develop more effective marketing campaigns and better meet the needs of their target audience.

a. Analyzing Motivations

Analyzing consumer behavior motivations can help businesses better understand what drives their target audience to purchase.

b. Identifying Consumer Needs

By understanding the needs of their target audience, businesses can develop more effective advertising campaigns that address those needs and solve their problems.

c. Understanding the Decision-Making Process

Understanding their target audience’s decision-making process can help businesses create more persuasive advertising campaigns that appeal to their interests and preferences.

2. Competitive Advantage

By analyzing advertisements, businesses can gain valuable insights into their competitors’ marketing strategies and identify gaps in the market that they can exploit. This information can be used to develop unique selling propositions that differentiate their products or services from their competitors.

Examples of Advertisement Analysis

1. coca-cola’s “share a coke” campaign.

Coca-Cola’s “Share a Coke” campaign was hugely successful in multiple countries worldwide. The campaign’s main concept was to personalize Coke bottles with popular names, encouraging customers to share their Coke bottles with friends and family. Here’s an analysis of the campaign:

 a. Text Analysis

The campaign’s “Share a Coke” tagline is short, memorable, and easy to understand. The use of personalized names on the Coke bottles made the campaign feel more personal, and the tagline encouraged people to share their Coke bottles, thus creating a sense of community.

b. Visual Analysis

The visual elements of the campaign were simple yet effective. The personalized Coke bottles with different names were eye-catching, and the images of people sharing their bottles were relatable and emotional.

c. Audience Analysis

The campaign’s target audience was young people aged 18-34 who were active on social media platforms . The campaign encouraged customers to share their personalized Coke bottles on social media using a specific hashtag, which helped to spread the campaign’s message.

 2. Nike’s “Just Do It” Campaign

Nike’s “Just Do It” campaign is one of the most iconic and successful ad campaigns ever. The campaign’s tagline has become synonymous with Nike and its brand message. Here’s an analysis of the campaign:

The campaign’s “Just Do It” tagline is short, memorable, and inspiring. It’s a powerful call to action, encouraging people to push themselves to achieve their goals .

The campaign’s visual elements were also powerful. Using black and white images with the Nike logo and tagline in bold letters was simple yet effective.

c. Brand Analysis

The “Just Do It” campaign helped position Nike as a brand about pushing boundaries and challenging oneself. The campaign’s message resonated with customers who wanted to feel empowered and motivated.

 Best Advertisement Analysis Tools

 1. google adwords.

Google AdWords is a powerful tool businesses can use to create and manage online advertising campaigns . Here are some of the features that make Google AdWords a great tool for advertisement analysis:

a. Keyword Planner

Keyword Planner helps businesses to find the right keywords for their advertising campaigns. It provides keyword search volume, competition, and cost-per-click data.

b. Display Planner

Display Planner helps businesses to create effective display ads by providing data on audience demographics, interests, and behaviors.

c. Ad Preview and Diagnosis

Ad Preview and Diagnosis help businesses preview their ads and diagnose any issues that might prevent them from appearing on Google search results.

SEMrush is an all-in-one marketing tool that provides businesses with valuable insights into their competitors’ advertising strategies . Here are some of the features that make SEMrush a great tool for advertisement analysis:

a. Advertising Research

Advertising Research provides data on competitors’ advertising strategies, including their ad copy, targeting, and display networks.

 b. Ad Builder

Ad Builder helps businesses to create effective display ads by providing templates, design tools, and targeting options.

AdSense helps businesses to monetize their websites by displaying targeted ads. It provides data on ad performance, revenue, and ad networks.

How to Conduct Effective Advertisement Analysis

Effective advertisement analysis involves several key steps:

1. Establishing the Purpose

To conduct an effective advertisement analysis, it is important first to establish the purpose . This involves identifying the ad’s objective, determining the target audience, and identifying the ad’s call to action.

a. Identifying the Ad’s Objective

This involves understanding what the ad is trying to achieve, such as increasing sales or building brand awareness .

b. Determining the Target Audience

It is essential to identify the intended audience for the ad to tailor the analysis accordingly.

c. Identifying the Ad’s Call to Action

The analysis should consider the ad’s call to action and evaluate its effectiveness in prompting the desired response from the audience.

 2. Gathering Information

The second step involves gathering information about the ad, including analyzing its text and visuals, researching its background, and understanding its context.

a. Analyzing the Ad’s Text and Visuals

This involves examining the ad’s language, images, and other visual elements to determine how effectively they convey the intended message.

b. Researching the Ad’s Background

Researching the ad’s background can provide insights into the target audience , the brand’s messaging, and placement.

c. Understanding the Ad’s Context

Understanding the ad’s context involves considering the cultural, social, and political factors that may impact the ad’s effectiveness.

3. Evaluation and Conclusion

The final step is to evaluate the ad’s effectiveness, provide recommendations, and summarize the analysis.

a. Assessing the Ad’s Effectiveness

This involves measuring the ad’s success in achieving its objectives and determining its impact on the target audience.

b. Providing Recommendations

Based on the analysis, recommendations can be made to improve the ad’s effectiveness or to inform future ad campaigns .

c. Summarizing the Analysis

The analysis should clearly and concisely summarize key insights and findings.

How do you analyze an advertisement?

To analyze an advertisement, you need to identify the ad’s objective , determine the target audience, analyze the ad’s text and visuals, research the ad’s background and context, and evaluate the ad’s effectiveness.

What are the five parts of an advertisement?

The five parts of an advertisement are the headline, subheadline, body copy, visual, and call to action.

What are the four elements of a successful advertisement?

The four elements of a successful advertisement are attention, interest, desire, and action. A successful ad captures the audience’s attention, generates interest, creates a desire for the product or service, and includes a clear call to action.

How do you write a good analysis?

To write a good analysis, you should understand the purpose of the analysis and the audience for which it is intended. You should then gather relevant information, organize your thoughts, and provide clear, concise, and logical explanations. Your analysis should be supported by evidence and examples and include improvement recommendations.

What are the eight advertising techniques?

The eight advertising techniques are emotional appeals, testimonials, endorsements, bandwagon, fear appeals, humor, sex appeals, and plain folks. These techniques persuade the audience to buy a product or service by appealing to their emotions, desires, fears, or values.

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Advertisement Analysis Essay Writing Guide

Advertising plays a huge role in modern life. It interrupts TV and radio programms, decorates (or defaces) the sides of buildings and sometimes it seems like it’s the main function of the internet. It’s estimated that over $450 billion is spent on advertising every year, nearly a third of it in the United States alone.

The advertising industry hasn’t always been measured in US dollars either, because it’s old; Roman sesterces used to pay for quite a lot of it (both political and commercial advertising materials have been found in the ruins of Pompeii) and archaeologists have discovered ancient Egyptian posters that they think were advertisements.

With all this history and money involved it’s no wonder that advertising is a much-discussed subject, and a common essay topic is the analysis of an advertising campaign. Most essay writers aren’t advertising professionals though, so what’s the best way to go about it?

Introduce the product or service being advertised

It doesn’t matter if it’s an insurance company, a political party or a new brand of salad dressing; don’t assume that your reader has heard of it. Make sure to give a short history, a description (and perhaps how it compares with some competitors) and an idea of its market share.

Discuss who the advertising is aimed at

It’s almost impossible to make an advert that’s going to appeal to everyone, unless you’re selling a tree that money really does grow on, so every advert has a target audience. The target audience will influence its style, so in turn the style can be used to work out the target audience. For example an advert that uses skateboarding images is aimed at teenagers; an offer of payday loans is aimed at people who can’t manage money and don’t look like learning any time soon.

Estimate how popular the advert has been

This used to be quite difficult to work out. Often it was a matter of seeing how many people bought a newspaper that the advert was in (or watched a TV programme that it interrupted) and guessing what percentage paid any attention. Now, though, the internet makes it much easier to track. Popular adverts, especially if they’re amusing, often go viral. When this happens social networking sites like Facebook and YouTube make it easy to see how often they’ve been viewed and forwarded. Just make sure it’s not being forwarded with a tag that says “Look at this dumb advert LOL!”

You can also look at the history of similar adverts, if any exist, as well as new techniques or media that have been pioneered. Before you start adding these refinements, though, make sure you’ve covered these three basics thoroughly.

How to Write an Advertisement Analysis Essay Like A Pro

How to Write an Advertisement Analysis Essay Like A Pro

Traditional selling tactics of using rational thoughts no longer work. Nowadays, an advertisement that motivates the reader or viewer to take intended action stimulates emotion. Thus knowing how to write an advertisement analysis essay is a skill that every business/marketing student must master before they graduate. So how do you write an advertising analysis? Use this comprehensive post as a guide. 

How to Write an Ad Analysis Essay

A teacher assigns an advertisement analysis essay because they want to gauge your ability to analyze a specific ad and how you give your opinion on its impact on the audience. The instructor will also use the essay to check your writing skills. 

High marks will only be awarded to students who produce content that meets the assignment's academic standards and grading criteria. Thus it’s essential to follow the correct structure and come up with an error-free task. Listed below are the steps to writing an ad analysis essay like an expert. 

Analyze a Specific Ad

While there are several ads to analyze for an essay, often, a teacher will allow the student to choose one. In such a case, you can look through a newspaper or your favorite magazine to find a specific ad to write about. The problem that comes with the freedom to choose one type is that you might find the process of sorting through hundreds of ads exhausting and intimidating. 

But if you choose from an ad publication from a brand you have known for many years or those you find interesting, it will make the writing process more manageable. So select an advertisement you understand and that which you have ample background information on as it will save time on the research process. Knowing the parts of an advertisement and advertising techniques will help produce a thorough analysis and write an informative essay. So what are the 5 parts of an advertisement?

  • A catchy headline
  • Relatable images, identifiable color scheme, and packaging to grab consumer interest
  • Selling the benefits
  • A clear call to action
  • A memorable slogan

When analyzing the ad, look at specific factors such as the Ads target audience, message, language, graphics, cultural significance, and characters. The advertisement techniques used should also be looked into. When looking at the ad, note everything that captures your attention and research to know the main idea behind the ad and any previously launched campaigns. 

Use the Introduction to Introduce the Ad

After choosing a specific ad:

  • Use the introduction to provide background information on the product or service presented in the advertisement.
  • Next provide a brief analysis of the ad history, state why the ad is better than others, and mention the target audience.
  • Mention the ad's prominent features.

If you’re having difficulties coming up with a catchy first paragraph, read a well-written ad analysis essay example from our experienced writers. The samples will give you a clue on which information to include in the introduction and the type of hooks appropriate for this type of essay.

Include a Thesis Statement 

Use the thesis to state what your essay will focus on and what the ad is doing in terms of how it functions or achieves its goal. Your thesis statement should include the message in the ad, whether it’s explicit or implicit. 

Ensure the thesis is the last sentence in the introduction. From the thesis statement, the reader should know your focal point before reading the rest of the essay. Not everyone will agree with the message for the ad you’ve chosen to analyze. However, ensure the claim made about the ad's message is arguable, then support it with credible sources throughout the body section. 

State One Point Per Paragraph

Each paragraph in the body section should represent one main point. For instance, you can use one section to talk about the creativity of the ad and another paragraph to discuss the techniques the ad uses to capture attention. 

Advertisers want to capture attention and ensure the ad is memorable. So use the body to discuss how the attention-grabbing techniques influence your view of the product and whether it motivates consumers to take a specific action. 

For example, did the sales rise that year, or did the company register a massive profit after unveiling the advertisement? Ensure each paragraph points back to the thesis statement. What are 4 advertising techniques can you talk about in your essay?

  • Storytelling
  • Endorsements or featuring celebrities
  • Emotional persuasion vs. appeal to reason

Overall, the body should analyze the advertisement and use facts, statistics, examples, or research to prove how the ad caused a particular outcome. For example, you can quote any emotional language used. The body of your analyzing advertisements essay should further elaborate on how the strategies used work and why it was chosen for a specific audience. Ensure the paragraphs use transitions to achieve a smooth flow and include examples.

The Conclusion Part of Your Essay

Summarize what you elaborated on in the body section. Mention the thesis statement without using the same words from the introduction. State whether the ad attained its goal of persuading, entertaining, or informing the target audience. Without adding new information, use one last sentence to give the reader something to think about.

Bottom Line

The elements to include in an advertisement analysis essay are similar to those of a standard essay. The essay will be structured to have an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Topic sentences will start every paragraph, and the introduction will end with a thesis statement. However, the content of the essay will primarily focus on the advertisement and analysis of it. 

When you are familiar with the advertised product or service it makes the writing process smooth. Use the steps given above, and your ad analysis essay will be a successful one. However, if you’re not good at writing an advertisement analysis essay, you might submit a low-quality task if you attempt it yourself. But if you allow our subject experts to work on your essay, you have a better chance of understanding the components to include and handing in a top-notch academic task.

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How to Write Good Essays on Advertisement

Writing essays is a sincere opportunity for writers to expose their prowess. While in college, the greatest worry for communication students is how to write good essays on advertisement. If you are among those wondering how to write good advertisement analysis essays, we have your back.

Now, essay writing is a gradual process. Mastery of excellent writing skills come with practice. An essay writing website like Gradecrest.com has writers who are masters in essay typing. To become one, you must possess excellent essay writing techniques.

Reading about how to write good essays on advertisements can mold you into a Jedi essay writer. You actually don?t need an advertisement analysis essay example. Instead, knowing what to put where really matters.  With our skills, you can handle both complex and simple essays on TV advertisements.

These insights are from our best writers . Yes, the ones we task with writing rhetorical analysis essays on commercials.  We are sure that in the end, you will become the best essay writer there is in your class. Basically, it is all about ad analysis essays. From how to criticize an advertisement to handling argumentative advertisement essays, we have you.

Let us begin with the outline.

Example of an Advertising Analysis Essay Outline

Before writing an essay on an advertisement, it is always important to draft an outline. Here is a sample:


  • The name of the advertisement and its purpose. Include the authors and the brand.
  • Summary of the context of the ad.
  • Background information about the company in the advertisement.
  • Your thesis statement.
  • The impact of the ad on the intended audience.

Body Paragraph

  • Evidence on the effectiveness of the advertisement on the target audience
  • Use examples, where applicable.
  • Describe the components of the advertisement
  • Explore the strategies employed by the advertisers
  • The impact of the ad on the audience
  • Ethos, pathos, and logos of the ad.
  • Textual and visual strategies in the advertisement.
  • If it is a comparison, explore the differences and similarities.
  • Reinvent the thesis of the essay on advertisement
  • Address what makes the advertisement tick
  • What was the intention of the ad?
  • Reflect on the ad and give your opinion.

Common Topics for Essays on Advertising

  • Analysis of Shampoo advertisement
  • Pater Philippe advertisement analysis
  • Old spice ad analysis essay
  • Marketing ad analysis
  • Sports marketing ad analysis
  • Print ad analysis
  • Critical evaluation of an ad
  • Automotive ad analysis
  • Pepsi advertisement analysis
  • McDonalds ad analysis essay
  • Victoria Secret ad analysis essay
  • Analyzing the strategies used by Victoria Secret advertisements
  • Dove ad analysis essay
  • Pepsi Halloween Ad analysis
  • Coca-Cola ad analysis essay
  • Cover girl ad analysis essay
  • Nike ad analysis essay
  • Power of advertising in today?s world
  • History of advertising essay
  • Advertisement campaign analysis
  • The evolution of advertisement

These are just but a few ad analysis topic ideas. The advertisement analysis essay prompt always has instructions. Sometimes, it is possible to come up with a list of argumentative advertisement analysis essay topics. Be sure to choose what fits the context and instructions.

Advertising Essay Introduction

When writing an introduction about advertising in essays, it is important to figure out what the ad is about. An essay writer always uses a hook and a good thesis statement to spice up their advertisement essay introduction.

Your introduction should also feature some history of the brand, the author of the ad, and where it was aired. Sometimes, it is good to go as deep as the media where it was first aired and at what time. Explore the audience of the advertisement as well, in the introduction.

Here is an example of an advertising essay introduction.

The old spice advertisement uses persuasion strategies such as emotional appeal and logical appeal to convince the audience to buy the product. The advertisement targets the attention of men through women. To grab the attention of the audience, it spices up the message and wraps it in a sexually themed strategy. As such, the old spice advert is one of its kind.

When writing the introduction ensure that you have a thesis statement. Besides, you should avoid deviating into matters, not in the essay.

Still, summarize the major arguments. The example above shows how to start an advertisement analysis essay.

Advertising Essay Conclusion

When writing an argumentative essay on advertising or just an advertisement analysis essay, how you write the conclusion matters.

If you do not get the paragraphs right, you will be asking how to add more to an ad analysis essay. Let us see how it is done.

When writing the essay conclusion, restate the thesis , not as it is in the introduction but in a reinvented format.

Sum up the arguments in the body paragraphs and use the words that denote a closing sentence. Your conclusion should make clear what your argument in the paper is. Reflect on how the advertisement was successful or how it failed.

Choosing Proper Words for the Essay

When writing, a good choice of words exposes your intelligence. As such, always ensure that your essay flows, is coherent, and is relevant to the topic.

Using language effectively can help build sound arguments and capture the main ideas in the ad.

We advise students to make it simple. If you must use a synonym, maybe to avoid plagiarism when paraphrasing, ensure it fits the context.

For logical flow, use some of the transition words and phrases.

Words such as moreover, besides, for example, furthermore, and however, to mention a few, should feature in often in your essay.

Quoting from other Sources

If there is one thing that makes writing sweet, it is using the right referencing skills. An essay is a chance for you to showcase your essay writing skills.

Thus, you should ensure that you are quoting opinions from other people or even copyrighted material to support ideas.

While using quotes from other people show the extent to which you did your research, be sure to use in-text citation and a reference list.

When writing about the history of the United States of America, you should borrow ideas from relevant materials written by authors on the same theme.

The same applies to when analyzing an advertisement about McDonald?s. You must find materials that talk about persuasive strategies in an advertisement, impacts of McDonald?s advertisements, and any relevant literature. if you master this, there is no need to worry about how to write good essays on advertisements.

Using Proper Vocabulary in an Essay on Advertisement

If there are one place writers err, it is the use of vocabulary. An essay written with the right vocabulary flows. It takes quite some patience and practice to master the use of vocabulary.

When you use rambling words in your essay, make sure you use lower cases to capture the attention of the readers.

You can also achieve modest clarity in your essay by using the right vocabulary. However, to avoid the trap of just throwing in words, always do proper research.

You can only express your ideas with clarity when you understand how the vocabularies fit.

The internet is fraught of learning avenues for one to master vocabulary. Use Online dictionaries such as Merriam Webster or Oxford Dictionary.

Also, you can use the thesaurus to master how to place and use vocabulary in your text.

Essay Tone and Good Grammar Equals Good Grades

A good essay writer maintains a good essay tone from start to finish. Talk about sentence structures; they count here.

A good tone makes it easy for readers. When writing advertising essays always arrange the points in a logical manner.

Avoid grammar errors at all cost when writing the essay. As soon as you are down, proofread the paper to correct any grammatical errors present.

Also, ensure that the punctuation use in your essay is excellent. Submit an essay on an advertisement that you are sure will bring great grades.

Get Help if you wish to

It takes time to develop good essay writing. With this article on how to write good essays on an advertisement, we explore every detail you need to know when writing ad analysis essays.

To recap, your introductory sentence has to present the concepts of the advertisement you are analyzing in the essay.

The body paragraphs should have the best sentence structures, exhibit good vocabulary use, be devoid of grammar errors, and develop the thesis in the introduction of your advertisement essay.

Your conclusion should summarize and restate the thesis statement.

Well, it is also possible that writing an advertising essay is not your thing! In this case, you need to hire essay writers to act on your paper. Gradecrest.com has the best essay writers to help with your essays. We can handle essays as urgent as the 3-hour deadline .

When you order from us, you get a paper that factors in all the parameters discussed in the article.

how to write an advertisement analysis essay

Gradecrest is a professional writing service that provides original model papers. We offer personalized services along with research materials for assistance purposes only. All the materials from our website should be used with proper references. See our Terms of Use Page for proper details.

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How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay–Examples & Template

how to write an advertisement analysis essay

What is a Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

A rhetorical analysis essay is, as the name suggests, an analysis of someone else’s writing (or speech, or advert, or even cartoon) and how they use not only words but also rhetorical techniques to influence their audience in a certain way. A rhetorical analysis is less interested in what the author is saying and more in how they present it, what effect this has on their readers, whether they achieve their goals, and what approach they use to get there. 

Its structure is similar to that of most essays: An Introduction presents your thesis, a Body analyzes the text you have chosen, breaks it down into sections and explains how arguments have been constructed and how each part persuades, informs, or entertains the reader, and a Conclusion section sums up your evaluation. 

Note that your personal opinion on the matter is not relevant for your analysis and that you don’t state anywhere in your essay whether you agree or disagree with the stance the author takes.

In the following, we will define the key rhetorical concepts you need to write a good rhetorical analysis and give you some practical tips on where to start.

Key Rhetorical Concepts

Your goal when writing a rhetorical analysis is to think about and then carefully describe how the author has designed their text so that it has the intended effect on their audience. To do that, you need to consider a number of key rhetorical strategies: Rhetorical appeals (“Ethos”, “Logos”, and “Pathos”), context, as well as claims, supports, and warrants.

Ethos, Logos, and Pathos were introduced by Aristotle, way back in the 4th century BC, as the main ways in which language can be used to persuade an audience. They still represent the basis of any rhetorical analysis and are often referred to as the “rhetorical triangle”. 

These and other rhetorical techniques can all be combined to create the intended effect, and your job as the one analyzing a text is to break the writer’s arguments down and identify the concepts they are based on.

Rhetorical Appeals

Rhetorical appeal #1: ethos.

Ethos refers to the reputation or authority of the writer regarding the topic of their essay or speech and to how they use this to appeal to their audience. Just like we are more likely to buy a product from a brand or vendor we have confidence in than one we don’t know or have reason to distrust, Ethos-driven texts or speeches rely on the reputation of the author to persuade the reader or listener. When you analyze an essay, you should therefore look at how the writer establishes Ethos through rhetorical devices.

Does the author present themselves as an authority on their subject? If so, how? 

Do they highlight how impeccable their own behavior is to make a moral argument? 

Do they present themselves as an expert by listing their qualifications or experience to convince the reader of their opinion on something?

Rhetorical appeal #2: Pathos

The purpose of Pathos-driven rhetoric is to appeal to the reader’s emotions. A common example of pathos as a rhetorical means is adverts by charities that try to make you donate money to a “good cause”. To evoke the intended emotions in the reader, an author may use passionate language, tell personal stories, and employ vivid imagery so that the reader can imagine themselves in a certain situation and feel empathy with or anger towards others.

Rhetorical appeal #3: Logos

Logos, the “logical” appeal, uses reason to persuade. Reason and logic, supported by data, evidence, clearly defined methodology, and well-constructed arguments, are what most academic writing is based on. Emotions, those of the researcher/writer as well as those of the reader, should stay out of such academic texts, as should anyone’s reputation, beliefs, or personal opinions. 

Text and Context

To analyze a piece of writing, a speech, an advertisement, or even a satirical drawing, you need to look beyond the piece of communication and take the context in which it was created and/or published into account. 

Who is the person who wrote the text/drew the cartoon/designed the ad..? What audience are they trying to reach? Where was the piece published and what was happening there around that time? 

A political speech, for example, can be powerful even when read decades later, but the historical context surrounding it is an important aspect of the effect it was intended to have. 

Claims, Supports, and Warrants

To make any kind of argument, a writer needs to put forward specific claims, support them with data or evidence or even a moral or emotional appeal, and connect the dots logically so that the reader can follow along and agree with the points made.

The connections between statements, so-called “warrants”, follow logical reasoning but are not always clearly stated—the author simply assumes the reader understands the underlying logic, whether they present it “explicitly” or “implicitly”. Implicit warrants are commonly used in advertisements where seemingly happy people use certain products, wear certain clothes, accessories, or perfumes, or live certain lifestyles – with the connotation that, first, the product/perfume/lifestyle is what makes that person happy and, second, the reader wants to be as happy as the person in the ad. Some warrants are never clearly stated, and your job when writing a rhetorical analysis essay is therefore to identify them and bring them to light, to evaluate their validity, their effect on the reader, and the use of such means by the writer/creator. 

bust of plato the philosopher, rhetorical analysis essay

What are the Five Rhetorical Situations?

A “rhetorical situation” refers to the circumstance behind a text or other piece of communication that arises from a given context. It explains why a rhetorical piece was created, what its purpose is, and how it was constructed to achieve its aims.

Rhetorical situations can be classified into the following five categories:

Asking such questions when you analyze a text will help you identify all the aspects that play a role in the effect it has on its audience, and will allow you to evaluate whether it achieved its aims or where it may have failed to do so.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline

Analyzing someone else’s work can seem like a big task, but as with every assignment or writing endeavor, you can break it down into smaller, well-defined steps that give you a practical structure to follow. 

To give you an example of how the different parts of your text may look when it’s finished, we will provide you with some excerpts from this rhetorical analysis essay example (which even includes helpful comments) published on the Online Writing Lab website of Excelsior University in Albany, NY. The text that this essay analyzes is this article on why one should or shouldn’t buy an Ipad. If you want more examples so that you can build your own rhetorical analysis template, have a look at this essay on Nabokov’s Lolita and the one provided here about the “Shitty First Drafts” chapter of Anne Lamott’s writing instruction book “Bird by Bird”.

Analyzing the Text

When writing a rhetorical analysis, you don’t choose the concepts or key points you think are relevant or want to address. Rather, you carefully read the text several times asking yourself questions like those listed in the last section on rhetorical situations to identify how the text “works” and how it was written to achieve that effect.

Start with focusing on the author : What do you think was their purpose for writing the text? Do they make one principal claim and then elaborate on that? Or do they discuss different topics? 

Then look at what audience they are talking to: Do they want to make a group of people take some action? Vote for someone? Donate money to a good cause? Who are these people? Is the text reaching this specific audience? Why or why not?

What tone is the author using to address their audience? Are they trying to evoke sympathy? Stir up anger? Are they writing from a personal perspective? Are they painting themselves as an authority on the topic? Are they using academic or informal language?

How does the author support their claims ? What kind of evidence are they presenting? Are they providing explicit or implicit warrants? Are these warrants valid or problematic? Is the provided evidence convincing?  

Asking yourself such questions will help you identify what rhetorical devices a text uses and how well they are put together to achieve a certain aim. Remember, your own opinion and whether you agree with the author are not the point of a rhetorical analysis essay – your task is simply to take the text apart and evaluate it.

If you are still confused about how to write a rhetorical analysis essay, just follow the steps outlined below to write the different parts of your rhetorical analysis: As every other essay, it consists of an Introduction , a Body (the actual analysis), and a Conclusion .

Rhetorical Analysis Introduction

The Introduction section briefly presents the topic of the essay you are analyzing, the author, their main claims, a short summary of the work by you, and your thesis statement . 

Tell the reader what the text you are going to analyze represents (e.g., historically) or why it is relevant (e.g., because it has become some kind of reference for how something is done). Describe what the author claims, asserts, or implies and what techniques they use to make their argument and persuade their audience. Finish off with your thesis statement that prepares the reader for what you are going to present in the next section – do you think that the author’s assumptions/claims/arguments were presented in a logical/appealing/powerful way and reached their audience as intended?

Have a look at an excerpt from the sample essay linked above to see what a rhetorical analysis introduction can look like. See how it introduces the author and article , the context in which it originally appeared , the main claims the author makes , and how this first paragraph ends in a clear thesis statement that the essay will then elaborate on in the following Body section:

Cory Doctorow ’s article on BoingBoing is an older review of the iPad , one of Apple’s most famous products. At the time of this article, however, the iPad was simply the latest Apple product to hit the market and was not yet so popular. Doctorow’s entire career has been entrenched in and around technology. He got his start as a CD-ROM programmer and is now a successful blogger and author. He is currently the co-editor of the BoingBoing blog on which this article was posted. One of his main points in this article comes from Doctorow’s passionate advocacy of free digital media sharing. He argues that the iPad is just another way for established technology companies to control our technological freedom and creativity . In “ Why I Won’t Buy an iPad (and Think You Shouldn’t, Either) ” published on Boing Boing in April of 2010, Cory Doctorow successfully uses his experience with technology, facts about the company Apple, and appeals to consumer needs to convince potential iPad buyers that Apple and its products, specifically the iPad, limit the digital rights of those who use them by controlling and mainstreaming the content that can be used and created on the device . 

Doing the Rhetorical Analysis

The main part of your analysis is the Body , where you dissect the text in detail. Explain what methods the author uses to inform, entertain, and/or persuade the audience. Use Aristotle’s rhetorical triangle and the other key concepts we introduced above. Use quotations from the essay to demonstrate what you mean. Work out why the writer used a certain approach and evaluate (and again, demonstrate using the text itself) how successful they were. Evaluate the effect of each rhetorical technique you identify on the audience and judge whether the effect is in line with the author’s intentions.

To make it easy for the reader to follow your thought process, divide this part of your essay into paragraphs that each focus on one strategy or one concept , and make sure they are all necessary and contribute to the development of your argument(s).

One paragraph of this section of your essay could, for example, look like this:

One example of Doctorow’s position is his comparison of Apple’s iStore to Wal-Mart. This is an appeal to the consumer’s logic—or an appeal to logos. Doctorow wants the reader to take his comparison and consider how an all-powerful corporation like the iStore will affect them. An iPad will only allow for apps and programs purchased through the iStore to be run on it; therefore, a customer must not only purchase an iPad but also any programs he or she wishes to use. Customers cannot create their own programs or modify the hardware in any way. 

As you can see, the author of this sample essay identifies and then explains to the reader how Doctorow uses the concept of Logos to appeal to his readers – not just by pointing out that he does it but by dissecting how it is done.

Rhetorical Analysis Conclusion

The conclusion section of your analysis should restate your main arguments and emphasize once more whether you think the author achieved their goal. Note that this is not the place to introduce new information—only rely on the points you have discussed in the body of your essay. End with a statement that sums up the impact the text has on its audience and maybe society as a whole:

Overall, Doctorow makes a good argument about why there are potentially many better things to drop a great deal of money on instead of the iPad. He gives some valuable information and facts that consumers should take into consideration before going out to purchase the new device. He clearly uses rhetorical tools to help make his case, and, overall, he is effective as a writer, even if, ultimately, he was ineffective in convincing the world not to buy an iPad . 

Frequently Asked Questions about Rhetorical Analysis Essays 

What is a rhetorical analysis essay.

A rhetorical analysis dissects a text or another piece of communication to work out and explain how it impacts its audience, how successfully it achieves its aims, and what rhetorical devices it uses to do that. 

While argumentative essays usually take a stance on a certain topic and argue for it, a rhetorical analysis identifies how someone else constructs their arguments and supports their claims.

What is the correct rhetorical analysis essay format?

Like most other essays, a rhetorical analysis contains an Introduction that presents the thesis statement, a Body that analyzes the piece of communication, explains how arguments have been constructed, and illustrates how each part persuades, informs, or entertains the reader, and a Conclusion section that summarizes the results of the analysis. 

What is the “rhetorical triangle”?

The rhetorical triangle was introduced by Aristotle as the main ways in which language can be used to persuade an audience: Logos appeals to the audience’s reason, Ethos to the writer’s status or authority, and Pathos to the reader’s emotions. Logos, Ethos, and Pathos can all be combined to create the intended effect, and your job as the one analyzing a text is to break the writer’s arguments down and identify what specific concepts each is based on.

Let Wordvice help you write a flawless rhetorical analysis essay! 

Whether you have to write a rhetorical analysis essay as an assignment or whether it is part of an application, our professional proofreading services feature professional editors are trained subject experts that make sure your text is in line with the required format, as well as help you improve the flow and expression of your writing. Let them be your second pair of eyes so that after receiving paper editing services or essay editing services from Wordvice, you can submit your manuscript or apply to the school of your dreams with confidence.

And check out our editing services for writers (including blog editing , script editing , and book editing ) to correct your important personal or business-related work.

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How to Analyze an Advertisement

Last Updated: August 10, 2022 References

This article was co-authored by Christine Michel Carter . Christine Michel Carter is a Global Marketing Expert, Best-Selling Author, and Strategy Consultant for Minority Woman Marketing, LLC. With over 13 years of experience, Christine specializes in strategic business and marketing consulting services including market analysis, organizational alignment, portfolio review, cultural accuracy, and brand and marketing review. She is also a speaker on millennial moms and black consumers. Christine holds a BS in Business Administration and Art History from Stevenson University. She is a leader in multicultural marketing strategy and has written over 100 articles views for several publications, including TIME and Forbes Women. Christine has worked with Fortune 500 clients such as Google, Walmart, and McDonald’s. She has been featured in The New York Times, BBC News, NBC, ABC, Fox, The Washington Post, Business Insider, and Today. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 166,613 times.

Christine Michel Carter

Breaking Down a Television Commercial

Step 1 Ascertain who the target audience of the commercial is.

  • For example, if the commercial appears on a TV channel that mainly shows children’s programming, then you can deduce that the advertisers are trying to appeal to children or maybe the parents of young children.
  • If you see a commercial in a movie theater, you may be able to determine its target audience based on the nature of the movie. For example, commercials that appear before R-rated movies are probably intended for adult audiences.

Step 2 Examine how the commercial tries to get your attention.

  • How a commercial seeks to grab your attention can also say a lot about its target audience. For example, a commercial that uses explosive special effects may be aimed at teenagers and young adults.
  • Advertisers don’t just want their commercial to grab your attention; they also want you to remember it. Consider how their attention-grabbing techniques are meant to stick in your mind and influence your view of a product over the long term. [4] X Research source

Step 3 Determine what sort of mood the advertisement seeks to create.

  • For example, a commercial might prominently feature upbeat music, smiling faces, and sunny weather to create a generally happy feeling that you then direct towards the product the commercial is advertising.
  • Advertisers will usually try to make commercials that put their product in a positive light. Determining how they go about doing this will also reveal what unspoken beliefs or values the commercial is attempting to appeal to.

Step 4 Listen to the soundtrack and ask how it affects your reaction.

  • For instance, may accompany depictions of a generic product with sad music to make you feel that products other than the one being advertised are not as good.
  • Ask yourself if your feeling towards the commercial would change if it used a particular genre of music versus another, then think about why different music styles elicit different responses from you.

Step 5 Consider how the actors chosen to star in the commercial influence you.

  • For example, if a commercial pairs a particular beer brand with women in bikinis, the advertisers may be trying to appeal to teenage and adult men through sex appeal.
  • Think about why an actor or actors of a certain race or gender were selected, and ask yourself if the perception of the product would change if different actors were used in the commercial. This may indicate certain biases or subconscious motives at work in the ad.

Step 6 Analyze the language used in the ad.

  • If you’re analyzing one or more commercials for a marketing class, you may find that certain words are used more frequently than others. For example, words like “tasty” and “sensational” are commonly used in ads because they tend to make products seem more desirable.
  • Pay particular attention to words that aren’t used to directly describe the product, and think about why those words have been included in the commercial. If words aren’t overtly being used to inform the audience, they’re being used to covertly influence viewers.

Evaluating Advertisements in Print Media

Step 1 Determine who the target audience is for the advertisement.

  • For example, an ad that appears in Cosmopolitan magazine is probably meant to appeal to women, while an ad featured in the newspaper is probably aimed at a wider general audience.
  • Think about how a person from a particular demographic might respond to an ad targeted at a different demographic, and why they might have a different reaction. This will help you to determine some of the hidden social meanings that the ad is incorporating.

Step 2 Examine what action or activity is taking place in the ad.

  • For example, if an ad for a watch features a man wearing it while on a cruise with his family, you may come to associate the watch with the excitement of going on a cruise and the positive feelings of having a family.
  • Note that the ad’s plot may not seem relevant to the product itself. This is an example of an advertisement intentionally manipulating their audience’s feelings.

Step 3 Consider what words are used in the text of the ad.

  • Think as well about how the language in the ad describes the benefits of buying the product. For example, does the ad say the product will make you happier, cooler, or sexier?
  • The typeface used is also an intentional design choice. Ask yourself how you might react to the ad if the words were printed in a different typeface and why that might be. [15] X Research source

Step 4 Analyze the images used in the ad.

  • For example, ask yourself what sort of images of people or objects are included in the advertisement and how these images influence your reaction to the product. Consider whether your reaction would change if different people or objects were used.
  • If you’re analyzing the ad from an artistic perspective, you should also note which colors are used and where in the ad those colors are placed. You may find there are certain colors that are matched with particular emotional responses.
  • The ad may feature images that reflect a certain lifestyle (e.g., a two-story home in a wealthy neighborhood) and use these images to associate the product with particular values and beliefs in your mind.

Step 5 Think about the background and what sort of reaction it’s meant to elicit.

  • For example, a background of a sunny beach and palm tree might be trying to elicit feelings of calm and relaxation, while a busy city street might bring to mind feelings of activity or people in motion.

Step 6 Take note of how everything in the ad is spatially situated.

  • For example, an advertisement that seeks to leave its audience excited and energized about its product might feature a large amount of overlapping words and images and leave very little blank space in the ad.
  • An ad with lots of empty space might want to make people think of feelings like “quiet” or “understated.” [19] X Research source

Expert Q&A

  • Advertisements can be analyzed in much the same way that books can (i.e., interpreting symbols, determining the motives of the creator, examining the use of particular themes, etc.). Thanks Helpful 4 Not Helpful 2

how to write an advertisement analysis essay

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  • ↑ Christine Michel Carter. Global Marketing Expert. Expert Interview. 30 September 2020.
  • ↑ http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ml_lit_gr12/resources/pdfs/media_analysis/HS_15_Ad_Techniques2.pdf
  • ↑ http://www.understandmedia.com/topics/media-theory/110-how-to-analyze-a-television-commercial
  • ↑ https://www.forbes.com/sites/marketshare/2012/10/19/what-makes-a-tv-commercial-memorable-and-effective/#4dc553633079
  • ↑ http://www.understandmedia.com/topics/media-theory/108-how-to-analyze-a-print-advertisement
  • ↑ http://www.medialit.org/reading-room/how-analyze-advertisement
  • ↑ http://www5.csudh.edu/ccauthen/350S12/ad-questions3.htm

About This Article

Christine Michel Carter

Advertisements are all around you, and once you know what to look for, you can analyze them to see how they work. Every ad is designed for a specific target audience, like children, young professionals, or women. An ad for children might use bright colors and big text, while an ad for young adults might feature twenty-something models. The goal of an ad is to grab its target audience's attention and make them feel or want something. Some ads might use flashy visual effects to draw people in, while others will rely on happy or sad music to play on people's emotions. If an ad has a famous person in it, the company that made the ad is probably trying to influence that celebrity's fan base to buy their products. The main thing to consider when looking at any ad is how all of the different elements are being used to sell you something. For more tips, including how to analyze TV commercials, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Advertisement Analysis Essay: Writing Tips

Let's first define the analysis essay to understand what it is. Analysis essays imply examination and evaluation of a particular work like books, newspapers, journals, articles or advertisements. No matter what you analyze, your purpose is going to be the same:

  • break your subject into components;
  • examine each part separately;
  • find the connection between those parts.

For instance, if you are assigned to analyze a poem, you will have to find a relation between the content of the poem and its form. If you have to interpret a play, you might need to find a link between the plots and subplots, and follow the character development by discussing their acting during the performance. There might be different goals when it comes to analysis. It's always important to understand clearly what your professor wants you to highlight.

Ad analysis essay is aimed to study a particular advertisement, provide its main points and give your opinion on its impact on the audience. Advertising has played and continues to play a tremendous role in our lives. We face it everywhere: television, the Internet, roads, shops etc. It doesn't matter whether the advertisement is aimed to sell the product or raise the awareness of the audience about something - it's still has a powerful influence. Therefore, it's imperative to analyze advertisements and understand how they work. If you are wondering how to write an ad analysis essay which can impress the readers, then you came to the right place! Check out the guideline below and write an eye-catching ad analysis essay or get custom online essays from professional writers.

Ad analysis essay guidelines for students

Just as every kind of academic writing, an ad analysis essay has a standard structure which should be strictly followed. Before we start discussing this basic structure and its component, we want to give a list of questions related to the advertisement, which you should work on before writing the essay.

  • First of all, make an introduction to the subject which is advertised. Your readers might not be familiar with the service or the product advertised in your case. The earlier you introduce the advertisement, the easier it is to comprehend. No matter what your ad discusses or how popular it is - give a small description for everyone to have a clear understanding of what they are going to read in your essay.
  • You should also try to understand what "the audience" is. You should realize who you are going to work with because this will help you focus on the right things and highlight those aspects which are interesting for your readers.
  • It's also critical to understand the purpose of the advertisement and why you write the essay on this ad. Why are you telling your readers about the mechanism of this particular advertisement? A clear understanding of the purpose will let you write a well-structured paper.
  • Another thing you should pay attention to is the thesis. It's an overall point which you discuss in the rest of the essay.
  • Take some time to organize your task. There should be a certain order of the things you want to present in your analysis, and you should come up with this sequence before writing.

Your analysis essay should be simple and challenging at same time. Of course, it tries to show what the creator of the advertisement wanted to convey to everyone but you should also help the reader realize all the positive and negative influences of this advertisement. In most cases, the executives try to sell their products to as many people as possible. They might spend fortunes on commercials. The psychological techniques used to convince people are very intricate because they influence our way of thinking subliminally. They alter our preferences and make us buy things we would have never bought. Your readers should get a broader picture of the advertisement and be aware of all the pitfalls it poses. In short, you should describe how effective the ad is or was.


Every essay writing dilemma can be solved right now!

Useful structure tips, and topic examples

We offer a basic structure you can apply while writing an analysis essay. If you want to write a high-quality advertising analysis essay - just follow these simple steps:

  • Come up with the title and thesis statement.
  • Write the introduction. The introduction aims to capture your readers' attention. As it has been stated before, you should give some background information relevant to your advertisement and indicate your opinion on it to show the position you are taking. In this part of the essay, you should include your thesis statement and description of the topic.
  • The body part of the essay. In this section, you lay out the main paragraphs (at least 3 paragraphs for a 500-700-words essay) which support your thesis. Provide the evidence, facts and examples. This will assure the reader that your viewpoint is backed by solid proof. You can use textual evidence which includes a summary, paraphrasing, specific details and quotations. Try to take as much information from the advertisement as you can. Don't miss any details and discuss every single aspect of the ad.
  • Conclusion for an advertisement analysis essay. It is the culmination of your whole work. You should summarize all main points and give your final comment about the ad.

Create an advertisement analysis essay outline. Many people skip this part despite the fact that it helps the author organize all their ideas and thoughts. When it comes to outline writing, you should mention what your topic is, why it caught your attention and what your opinion is. What is more, you should include short names for all paragraphs of the essay and a brief description of what you are going to write in each of them.

Take your time to choose the most suitable topic for your advertisement analysis essay. Select what is interesting for both you and the audience. Here are some examples of ad analysis essay topics:

  • What is the message behind the Burger King's advertisement "BK Super Seven Incher"?
  • Does the new Coca-Cola commercial convince people that they are going to "Open Happiness"?
  • Does Bud Light's "drinkability" have "viability"?
  • How the military commercials influence our mind

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how to write an advertisement analysis essay

Advertisement Analysis Essay: Example and Tips

how to write an advertisement analysis essay

Analysis of advertisement is usually written by students while taking a course of marketing. Advertisement is a big part of marketing and understanding of the rules of its use is essential for students.

Advertising is one of the most important and effective ways to promote products / services of the company. And although this tool is not always the main one, very often it is the most costly element of the marketing budget.

That is why the question of how to evaluate the effectiveness of advertising concerns many business executives and marketers. If you don’t think about it, the result could be wasted advertising money. What if advertising doesn’t work? How to increase the economic effect? The solution may be thorough preparation and planning of the advertising campaign before it starts and control in the process, and not just an attempt to evaluate the result after the campaign.

Advertising campaign analysis is an in-depth study of how advertising works with web analytics in order to increase the number of orders within a limited budget.

  • 1 Writing introduction to advertisement analysis essay
  • 2 Example of introduction of advertisement analysis essay
  • 3 How to write main part of advertisement analysis essay
  • 4 Main part of advertisement analysis essay example
  • 5 How to write conclusion of advertisement analysis essay
  • 6 Conclusion of advertisement analysis essay example

Writing introduction to advertisement analysis essay

In the intro part, prepare the reader to what he is about to learn from your essay. Point out the direction if your thoughts. Name the ad, about which you are going to talk in the essay. You can tell couple words about the company or product from the advertisement and point out your attitude.

Explain why you’ve chosen that advertisement. If you have taken it as an example of bad ad campaign, tell it. If as a good one – explain why. In any case, already in the introduction the reader should understand 3 main things:

  • What advertisement you are going to talk about;
  • Why you have chosen this particular ad;
  • Is advertisement good or bad.

Example of introduction of advertisement analysis essay

The company was founded by Karl Friedrich Rapp in October 1913, initially as a manufacturer of aircraft engines, Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke. In 1916, the company signed a contract for the production of V12 engines for Austria-Hungary. In need of additional funding, Rapp gets the support of Camillo Castiglioni and Max Fritz, the company is being re-established as Bayerische Motoren Werke.

After Second World War in 1951, BMW produced its first post-war car, the 501. In 1955, the BMW Triebwerk GmbH division returned to life. The company focuses on the tradition of manufacturing aircraft engines. BMW in order to popularize its products with the middle class produces the first mass car in the postwar years BMW Isetta. The idea of ​​creating a miniature machine of the Italian company Iso, and the prototype of the body created by it was bought by the Germans. In 1959, Model 700 became the first big serial success for BMW cars. BMW company put up for sale.

How to write main part of advertisement analysis essay

Analysis itself is written in the main part of the essay. The effectiveness of advertising campaigns on the Internet can be assessed using statistical tools that are used in advertising systems like Google Adwords. However, the analytical capabilities of these tools are very limited. They allow you to make only indicative conclusions without taking into account the details and, most importantly, without taking into account what is happening on the site.

Imagine that in order to evaluate how magazine advertising works, you assigned an analyst to each magazine, who looks at how the reader looks through the pages; does he stop looking at your ad, and how much time he spends reading it. However, this analyst does not accompany the buyer if he went to your store. That is, he does not even know whether the buyer reached the store, what he was doing there, what goods he looked at, whether he had bought something. It turns out that advertising analytics is only half of the information that needs to be obtained. The same thing happens on the Internet. If you advertise, but do not analyze your advertising campaign using web analytics, you have only half the data.

Main part of advertisement analysis essay example

Bmw advertising campaign. The brand value is estimated at $ 26.3 billion. In the consumer perception rating, the concern ranked 5th in the overall standings and 1st among car brands. Officially, the industrial company BMW was registered on July 20, 1917. The source of production of the BMW Group can be called a factory in Munich. “Holds the road … Holds records”

Type of product: The company produces not only cars, but also, motorcycles, engines, and surprisingly, bicycles.

Distribution: Currently, BMW manufactures its vehicles at five factories in Germany and twenty-two subsidiaries located throughout the world. This is one of the few automotive companies that does not use robotic production. All assembly on the conveyor goes only manually.

Slogan: “happy to drive”;

Main competitor: Audi

Types and functions of advertising used in the advertising campaign of “BMW”

  • By Territory: International
  • By means of transmission: The advertising campaign was presented on television, in movies, in print, on the Internet and in outdoor advertising.
  • By way of impact: emotional.

Stimulating – this ad creates a need for this product, encourages people to purchase it. So in the end, fully satisfies the need of the buyer.

Marketing – the goal is to stimulate sales of the product.

Place of this advertising campaign in society (social functions) and marketing system

Social functions:

  • affects the formation of values ​​and lifestyle
  • After viewing this advertisement, many drivers will want to buy such a car.
  • Through this advertisement, the illusion is fixed that any person who purchases a BMW car will ride on the highest comfort and safety.

Place of the BMW advertising campaign in the 4P system

  • Product. An advertising campaign aimed at selling cars, bicycles, motorcycles, engines.
  • Price. The average price for a car is 40000 euro.
  • Place. Promotion occurs around the world:.
  • Promotion. The BMW advertising campaign was presented on television, in print, on the Internet and on outdoor advertising.

Example of inappropriate advertising

Inappropriate advertising can be unfair, unreliable, false, unethical and hidden. In my work, I will give an example of unfair advertising on the example of advertising “Audi – BMW”. The advertising campaign of auto giants has been going on for more than five years. It all started with a BMW sprint: auto giant “nicely” congratulated Audi on winning the “Machine of the Year 2006” competition in South Africa by signing “Winner of the 2006 Machine of the World” competition.

Plagiarism is the obvious, most often exact repetition of someone else’s advertising appeal (or the active link of the plot, script, slogan) to advertise their product often different from the original product group, sometimes in a different mass communication channel. This is a blatant borrowing of someone else’s advertising creation in violation of the copyright and related rights of primary developers.

How to write conclusion of advertisement analysis essay

The last part of the essay, conclusion, is likely to check your vocabulary rather than your knowledge or creativity. Here you do not need to present new information or give new arguments in favor of your point of view. In the conclusion, author of advertisement analysis essay needs to sum up the ideas and repeat the main ones in other words.

Make sure your ideas are understood by readers and are supported by convincing arguments. Read your essay again making sure that there are no mistakes and the logical flow of the essay goes in right direction.

Conclusion of advertisement analysis essay example

We can see that during the analysis of the advertising campaign, BMW managed to solve several important tasks set at the beginning. The types and functions of advertising used in this advertising campaign were identified. On a territorial basis, it covers the whole world, and uses many means of transmission, such as advertising on television, in movies, in print, on the Internet, and in outdoor advertising.

Some of the important functions that this advertising campaign performs: stimulating, marketing and informational. In addition to the basic functions, social is also presented, which contributes to the formation of certain standards of thinking and behavioral patterns in the consumer. By means of advertising, channels such as the Internet, advertising in points of sale, the press and television are used.

Most of the budget is allocated to television advertising, because the rollers need to be visualized. The target audience of the brand is men and women 19-50 years old. These are mainly people with higher education, leading a dynamic and active lifestyle. Among the marketing research to identify the effectiveness of an advertising campaign, specialized field-quality qualitative research was conducted: focus groups, and specialized field research using a telephone survey.

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Advertisement Essay: Writing Tips and Topics

how to write advertisement essay

Advertisements are everywhere, from the streets to your mobile phone. On average, people get to see up to 5,000 advertisements and brands in a day. More than 153 of these advertisements get registered in our minds. Advertisements are not just popular, but subconsciously, they form some of our thinking patterns.

Considering the popularity of ads and their importance, it would not be out of place if you are asked to write an advertisement analysis essay. It is commonplace for college essays . This advertisement essay will help you know more about how to write an essay on advertisement.

With advertisement analysis essay examples, you get to learn more about the world of advertisement. There are several ways to write an advertisement essay, from a rhetorical analysis of an advertisement essay to a visual analysis essay advertisement. You can learn about how to write them from our tips on how to write an advertisement analysis essay.

Tips On How To Write An Advertisement Analysis Essay

You do not need an advertisement analysis essay sample to write an advertisement analysis essay. With these tips outlining how you should write an advertisement essay, you can write a good essay. Follow these steps carefully and you will be able to familiarize yourself with these types of essays.

The advertisement analysis introduction is very important. You need to catch the attention of your audience from the first word. Assume your reader has never seen the ad or know the product and include a description of the product and its history.

The introduction of the advertisement analysis should be focused on the subject matter which is the advertisement. You should also point out how the advertisement paints the product as being better than any other product in the market. If the ad doesn’t contain any such description, it is not so effective. After you have done justice to the introduction, your next paragraph should contain the thesis statement.

This part of the essay embodies the description of your point of view on the advertisement. The thesis of an advertisement essay tells you the message the advertisement conveys and how it conveys it. Your thesis should include the aim of the advertisement, whether to improve sales or to make customers carry out a particular action. You want to keep the part of the essay as short and as simple as you can. It should not be longer than a paragraph.

The body of your analysis should build upon your thesis statement, elaborating on various points of the advertisement and how they are used to achieve the aim of the advertisement. One of the details that would be included in the paragraphs of the essay is the set of people or group for which the advertisement was intended.

You should also highlight the popularity and effectiveness of the ad. Why the advertisement was able to become popular and draw people is important in your analysis. The analysis of an advertisement will also have examples of the rhetorical appeals which are ethos, pathos, and logos. The ethos pathos logos advertisement essay part consists of how the rhetorical appeals are used to draw the attention of the audience.

Logos pertains to the logical appeals of the ad, ethos describes its ethical appeal and pathos illustrates its emotional appeal. Any rhetorical analysis essay example advertisement should contain an analysis of the appeals. After writing all the points that you be reviewed while writing an analyzing advertisement essay, you can move on to the last point in the essay.

Your conclusion is the last paragraph after you have written all your relevant points in your analyze advertisement essay assignment. This paragraph should restate the key points you raised in your analysis in summary form. You should also state if the objective of the advertisement was achieved or not.

Following these steps and tips will help you write a great analysis of an advertisement even if it is a print advertisement analysis essay. Now that you know how to write an analysis essay on an advertisement, let’s look at advertisement essay topics that you can practice your prowess on.

Examples of Advertisement Essay Topics

You don’t have to wait until you have an assignment on advertisement analysis before you understand how to write it. You can practice with these topics and other sample advertisement analysis essay. Once you have seen an advertisement analysis essay example and practised the writing of advertisement analysis essays, you will not find it difficult when you have an assignment on it.

Some of the topics you can practice with are:

  • Analysis of a TV Advertisement
  • Selling Women on a King’s Length Advertisement Analysis
  • Advertisement Analysis of a Mermaid Advertisement
  • Advertisement Analysis on the Use of Women in Sport Advertisements
  • Accessing the Company Motive in Media Advertisements
  • Analysis of Vice Principals on HBO Advertisement
  • Advertisement Analysis of Coca-Cola Advertisements

Using the outlined tips and these advertisement essay examples, you can write an advertisement essay sample. You can also check an advertisement analysis essay sample online if you get stuck.

Difference Between An Advertisement Essay and An Advertisement Project

An advertisement project is quite different from an advertisement essay. A school advertisement project could mean in-depth research into an aspect of advertising. These projects are book advertisement projects. Advertisement projects in this regard are longer than an advertisement essay will be.

Advertisement projects could also be the practical execution of an advertisement. You can also be asked to do these projects in the form of coming up with creative advertisement project ideas. These ideas could be implemented in fun ways like the sales of a school play ticket.

Now that you know the difference between advertisement essays and projects, let’s look at how you can make your project ideas stand out above the rest.

How Your Advertisement Project Ideas Can Stand Out?

Devising great project ideas is not as difficult as you might think it is. You just have to put your imagination to it and keep the following tips in mind.

  • Incorporate the pop culture influence
  • Put cute animals in your ads
  • Do funny advertisements; everyone loves a good laugh
  • Freebies, Freebies, Freebies; not only will they help people remember the brand but it could also get their loyalty
  • Use puns; It stays in people’s memories
  • Add some street art to your buildings
  • Think outside the box. Do something unusual
  • Try jingles; those songs and words never really get old
  • Make use of innuendos; give people something to think about for a few minutes after seeing your ad.

Do not worry too much about how you can create an advertisement project. Put one or more of these ideas into good use and you will be able to do so without stress. Contact a writing service and ask for hep. Professionals surely know how to do it properly. Now you know how to write an essay on advertisements and create a great advertisement project.

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A Semiotic Analysis of an Advertisement Report (Assessment)

Introduction, semiotic analysis, further study: faq.

The chosen piece is a ‘No 5 Chanel’ perfume advertisement. It is a relatively recent poster that offers a great platform for semiotic analysis. Questions such as “How does body language convey the intended meaning of the advertisement?”, “Is facial expression an important part of the sign system?”, “What concept is signified by the clothes worn in this advert?”, and many more must be examined in order to know how meaning is created.

Meaning making in semiotics occurs through a combination of signs and codes. Signs include signifiers and the signified; that is, forms shown and concepts represented respectively.

However, since codes are derived from particular societies, then social and cultural patterns must be well understood before creating a certain message (Danesi, 2002). Advertisements in general tend to reflect societal values, and this particular ad is no exception. The advertiser who was responsible for its creation clearly knew the predominant cultural codes in his or her target audience.

He or she was acting as a transmitter of these sign systems to consumers. The poster depicts particular values that operate in society today. In this perfume ad, the manufacturer needs to reach out to consumers regardless of the competition out there. The image in the poster has been created so that the concerned product can act as signifier. At first glance, one is instantly struck by the beauty and the elegance of the female model.

If one has a western background, then one immediately recognises that this is the face and body of a famous actress – Nicole Kidman. The advertisers wanted to convey the message that their product represents those same values of beauty and elegance. It can be said that the No 5 Chanel is a signifier of these ideals. Elegance and beauty now become ‘the signified’ concepts (Metz, 2005). Customers are supposed to buy the product in the hope that they will acquire those characteristics.

The primary signifier in this advertisement is a chic woman. The clothes she has on are intended on conveying a particular message about her social status and class. One can deduce that she is an upper class lady merely from the dress she is wearing. This is something such women wear to corporate functions or elegant dinners. Her jewellery is subtle; yet another status symbol. She is wearing a bracelet, earrings and a necklace with “No 5” engravings placed on it.

The necklace acts as a link between this model and the product she is endorsing. Nonetheless, the woman’s clothing also has a sexual element in it. It is a low cut dress that exposes a significant portion of her back. People who may be looking at the ad will instantly be drawn to her body’s flawlessness as revealed through the dress. Indeed most advertisers tend to use sexuality as an audience captivator, and this piece’s creator was one of them.

She exudes confidence through her facial expression, but has not overdone this. It is likely that the advertisers wanted to portray a strong feminine figure. Societies tend to be more accepting of women who convey subtle strength rather than outright aggression (McDonald, 1995). Members of the intended audience are likely to admire this woman and many may actually want to ‘be her’.

Creators of the piece have solidified that message even more by using a celebrity. Nicole Kidman is an award winning actress; western audiences associate her with wealth and prosperity. Consequently, if someone as affluent as she is can endorse the product, then she is illustrating that the product is for people just like her. Targeted audiences are likely to think of themselves as being special because a celebrity has approved the perfume that they have chosen.

The manner in which the model has posed in the photograph can also be viewed as another signifier. She has given the audience a profile of herself and tilted her head in order to look into the camera. It is almost as if she wants to seduce onlookers without being too direct about it. This body language is symptomatic of the product’s qualities. Perhaps the manufacturers wanted to tell consumers that their perfume is seductive but not too ‘loud’.

Generally speaking, this advertisement has international appeal. The image of a rich, attractive and classy lady is not intended to reach audiences who possess these same qualities; it is meant to create a fantasy for consumers to look up to (McDonald, 1995). In other words, there is a contradiction in the piece because the regular consumer can never really look like or be Nicole Kidman, but through the use of No 5 Chanel, one can escape into a fantasy that will allow one to coexist with one’s imagined self.

Owing to globalisation, many people are likely to identify with the clothing, body language and expressions worn by this model. However, not all international audiences will immediately recognise that the photographed woman is a celebrity. This may take away the intended effect of such an endorsement. Nonetheless, women around the world are likely to recognise and appreciate intended meanings in the advertisement through other attributes.

The ad under analysis constructs meaning through the images portrayed (i.e. the woman and a bottle of perfume) and the conventions put across. Essentially the message being promoted is classy femininity, which many women desire. It has made use of a stereotypical woman (in terms of gender expectations) in a non stereotypical role (that of a celebrity or a person living a glamorous lifestyle) to show audiences that they also deserve to be treated like celebrities.

Danesi, M. (2002). Understanding media semiotics . London: Arnold.

Metz, C. (2005). The Imaginary signifier. Apparatus theory , 3,408-439.

McDonald, M. (1995). Representing women . London: Hodder.

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IvyPanda. (2023, October 31). A Semiotic Analysis of an Advertisement. https://ivypanda.com/essays/a-semiotic-analysis-of-an-advertisement/

"A Semiotic Analysis of an Advertisement." IvyPanda , 31 Oct. 2023, ivypanda.com/essays/a-semiotic-analysis-of-an-advertisement/.

IvyPanda . (2023) 'A Semiotic Analysis of an Advertisement'. 31 October.

IvyPanda . 2023. "A Semiotic Analysis of an Advertisement." October 31, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/a-semiotic-analysis-of-an-advertisement/.

1. IvyPanda . "A Semiotic Analysis of an Advertisement." October 31, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/a-semiotic-analysis-of-an-advertisement/.


IvyPanda . "A Semiotic Analysis of an Advertisement." October 31, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/a-semiotic-analysis-of-an-advertisement/.

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  • How to write a literary analysis essay | A step-by-step guide

How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay | A Step-by-Step Guide

Published on January 30, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 14, 2023.

Literary analysis means closely studying a text, interpreting its meanings, and exploring why the author made certain choices. It can be applied to novels, short stories, plays, poems, or any other form of literary writing.

A literary analysis essay is not a rhetorical analysis , nor is it just a summary of the plot or a book review. Instead, it is a type of argumentative essay where you need to analyze elements such as the language, perspective, and structure of the text, and explain how the author uses literary devices to create effects and convey ideas.

Before beginning a literary analysis essay, it’s essential to carefully read the text and c ome up with a thesis statement to keep your essay focused. As you write, follow the standard structure of an academic essay :

  • An introduction that tells the reader what your essay will focus on.
  • A main body, divided into paragraphs , that builds an argument using evidence from the text.
  • A conclusion that clearly states the main point that you have shown with your analysis.

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Table of contents

Step 1: reading the text and identifying literary devices, step 2: coming up with a thesis, step 3: writing a title and introduction, step 4: writing the body of the essay, step 5: writing a conclusion, other interesting articles.

The first step is to carefully read the text(s) and take initial notes. As you read, pay attention to the things that are most intriguing, surprising, or even confusing in the writing—these are things you can dig into in your analysis.

Your goal in literary analysis is not simply to explain the events described in the text, but to analyze the writing itself and discuss how the text works on a deeper level. Primarily, you’re looking out for literary devices —textual elements that writers use to convey meaning and create effects. If you’re comparing and contrasting multiple texts, you can also look for connections between different texts.

To get started with your analysis, there are several key areas that you can focus on. As you analyze each aspect of the text, try to think about how they all relate to each other. You can use highlights or notes to keep track of important passages and quotes.

Language choices

Consider what style of language the author uses. Are the sentences short and simple or more complex and poetic?

What word choices stand out as interesting or unusual? Are words used figuratively to mean something other than their literal definition? Figurative language includes things like metaphor (e.g. “her eyes were oceans”) and simile (e.g. “her eyes were like oceans”).

Also keep an eye out for imagery in the text—recurring images that create a certain atmosphere or symbolize something important. Remember that language is used in literary texts to say more than it means on the surface.

Narrative voice

Ask yourself:

  • Who is telling the story?
  • How are they telling it?

Is it a first-person narrator (“I”) who is personally involved in the story, or a third-person narrator who tells us about the characters from a distance?

Consider the narrator’s perspective . Is the narrator omniscient (where they know everything about all the characters and events), or do they only have partial knowledge? Are they an unreliable narrator who we are not supposed to take at face value? Authors often hint that their narrator might be giving us a distorted or dishonest version of events.

The tone of the text is also worth considering. Is the story intended to be comic, tragic, or something else? Are usually serious topics treated as funny, or vice versa ? Is the story realistic or fantastical (or somewhere in between)?

Consider how the text is structured, and how the structure relates to the story being told.

  • Novels are often divided into chapters and parts.
  • Poems are divided into lines, stanzas, and sometime cantos.
  • Plays are divided into scenes and acts.

Think about why the author chose to divide the different parts of the text in the way they did.

There are also less formal structural elements to take into account. Does the story unfold in chronological order, or does it jump back and forth in time? Does it begin in medias res —in the middle of the action? Does the plot advance towards a clearly defined climax?

With poetry, consider how the rhyme and meter shape your understanding of the text and your impression of the tone. Try reading the poem aloud to get a sense of this.

In a play, you might consider how relationships between characters are built up through different scenes, and how the setting relates to the action. Watch out for  dramatic irony , where the audience knows some detail that the characters don’t, creating a double meaning in their words, thoughts, or actions.

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Your thesis in a literary analysis essay is the point you want to make about the text. It’s the core argument that gives your essay direction and prevents it from just being a collection of random observations about a text.

If you’re given a prompt for your essay, your thesis must answer or relate to the prompt. For example:

Essay question example

Is Franz Kafka’s “Before the Law” a religious parable?

Your thesis statement should be an answer to this question—not a simple yes or no, but a statement of why this is or isn’t the case:

Thesis statement example

Franz Kafka’s “Before the Law” is not a religious parable, but a story about bureaucratic alienation.

Sometimes you’ll be given freedom to choose your own topic; in this case, you’ll have to come up with an original thesis. Consider what stood out to you in the text; ask yourself questions about the elements that interested you, and consider how you might answer them.

Your thesis should be something arguable—that is, something that you think is true about the text, but which is not a simple matter of fact. It must be complex enough to develop through evidence and arguments across the course of your essay.

Say you’re analyzing the novel Frankenstein . You could start by asking yourself:

Your initial answer might be a surface-level description:

The character Frankenstein is portrayed negatively in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein .

However, this statement is too simple to be an interesting thesis. After reading the text and analyzing its narrative voice and structure, you can develop the answer into a more nuanced and arguable thesis statement:

Mary Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on. While he initially appears to be a naive but sympathetic idealist, after the creature’s narrative Frankenstein begins to resemble—even in his own telling—the thoughtlessly cruel figure the creature represents him as.

Remember that you can revise your thesis statement throughout the writing process , so it doesn’t need to be perfectly formulated at this stage. The aim is to keep you focused as you analyze the text.

Finding textual evidence

To support your thesis statement, your essay will build an argument using textual evidence —specific parts of the text that demonstrate your point. This evidence is quoted and analyzed throughout your essay to explain your argument to the reader.

It can be useful to comb through the text in search of relevant quotations before you start writing. You might not end up using everything you find, and you may have to return to the text for more evidence as you write, but collecting textual evidence from the beginning will help you to structure your arguments and assess whether they’re convincing.

To start your literary analysis paper, you’ll need two things: a good title, and an introduction.

Your title should clearly indicate what your analysis will focus on. It usually contains the name of the author and text(s) you’re analyzing. Keep it as concise and engaging as possible.

A common approach to the title is to use a relevant quote from the text, followed by a colon and then the rest of your title.

If you struggle to come up with a good title at first, don’t worry—this will be easier once you’ve begun writing the essay and have a better sense of your arguments.

“Fearful symmetry” : The violence of creation in William Blake’s “The Tyger”

The introduction

The essay introduction provides a quick overview of where your argument is going. It should include your thesis statement and a summary of the essay’s structure.

A typical structure for an introduction is to begin with a general statement about the text and author, using this to lead into your thesis statement. You might refer to a commonly held idea about the text and show how your thesis will contradict it, or zoom in on a particular device you intend to focus on.

Then you can end with a brief indication of what’s coming up in the main body of the essay. This is called signposting. It will be more elaborate in longer essays, but in a short five-paragraph essay structure, it shouldn’t be more than one sentence.

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is often read as a crude cautionary tale about the dangers of scientific advancement unrestrained by ethical considerations. In this reading, protagonist Victor Frankenstein is a stable representation of the callous ambition of modern science throughout the novel. This essay, however, argues that far from providing a stable image of the character, Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on. While he initially appears to be a naive but sympathetic idealist, after the creature’s narrative Frankenstein begins to resemble—even in his own telling—the thoughtlessly cruel figure the creature represents him as. This essay begins by exploring the positive portrayal of Frankenstein in the first volume, then moves on to the creature’s perception of him, and finally discusses the third volume’s narrative shift toward viewing Frankenstein as the creature views him.

Some students prefer to write the introduction later in the process, and it’s not a bad idea. After all, you’ll have a clearer idea of the overall shape of your arguments once you’ve begun writing them!

If you do write the introduction first, you should still return to it later to make sure it lines up with what you ended up writing, and edit as necessary.

The body of your essay is everything between the introduction and conclusion. It contains your arguments and the textual evidence that supports them.

Paragraph structure

A typical structure for a high school literary analysis essay consists of five paragraphs : the three paragraphs of the body, plus the introduction and conclusion.

Each paragraph in the main body should focus on one topic. In the five-paragraph model, try to divide your argument into three main areas of analysis, all linked to your thesis. Don’t try to include everything you can think of to say about the text—only analysis that drives your argument.

In longer essays, the same principle applies on a broader scale. For example, you might have two or three sections in your main body, each with multiple paragraphs. Within these sections, you still want to begin new paragraphs at logical moments—a turn in the argument or the introduction of a new idea.

Robert’s first encounter with Gil-Martin suggests something of his sinister power. Robert feels “a sort of invisible power that drew me towards him.” He identifies the moment of their meeting as “the beginning of a series of adventures which has puzzled myself, and will puzzle the world when I am no more in it” (p. 89). Gil-Martin’s “invisible power” seems to be at work even at this distance from the moment described; before continuing the story, Robert feels compelled to anticipate at length what readers will make of his narrative after his approaching death. With this interjection, Hogg emphasizes the fatal influence Gil-Martin exercises from his first appearance.

Topic sentences

To keep your points focused, it’s important to use a topic sentence at the beginning of each paragraph.

A good topic sentence allows a reader to see at a glance what the paragraph is about. It can introduce a new line of argument and connect or contrast it with the previous paragraph. Transition words like “however” or “moreover” are useful for creating smooth transitions:

… The story’s focus, therefore, is not upon the divine revelation that may be waiting beyond the door, but upon the mundane process of aging undergone by the man as he waits.

Nevertheless, the “radiance” that appears to stream from the door is typically treated as religious symbolism.

This topic sentence signals that the paragraph will address the question of religious symbolism, while the linking word “nevertheless” points out a contrast with the previous paragraph’s conclusion.

Using textual evidence

A key part of literary analysis is backing up your arguments with relevant evidence from the text. This involves introducing quotes from the text and explaining their significance to your point.

It’s important to contextualize quotes and explain why you’re using them; they should be properly introduced and analyzed, not treated as self-explanatory:

It isn’t always necessary to use a quote. Quoting is useful when you’re discussing the author’s language, but sometimes you’ll have to refer to plot points or structural elements that can’t be captured in a short quote.

In these cases, it’s more appropriate to paraphrase or summarize parts of the text—that is, to describe the relevant part in your own words:

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The conclusion of your analysis shouldn’t introduce any new quotations or arguments. Instead, it’s about wrapping up the essay. Here, you summarize your key points and try to emphasize their significance to the reader.

A good way to approach this is to briefly summarize your key arguments, and then stress the conclusion they’ve led you to, highlighting the new perspective your thesis provides on the text as a whole:

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.

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Ad Analysis Essay Example With Outline

Published by Boni on October 31, 2022 October 31, 2022

An ad analysis essay is a type of academic essay whereby the writer is required to examine an advertisement. The aim of the essay is to find any hidden messages which may be deceptive or misleading in the ad. Writing a quality ad analysis essay can be hectic to most students especially when it is not your thing! In this case, you need to hire a research paper writer online  to act on your paper.

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Fructis Shampoo Advert Analysis Essay Outline


Thesis: The Garnier Fructis Shampoo advert seeks to appeal to the intended market through the use of audience targeting, implicit messages, graphics, language, and cultural significance.

Body: The Elements of Appeal

Paragraph 1:.

Women aged between 18 and 40 make up the majority of Cosmopolitan magazine’s target audience.

  • The majority of readers are enthusiastic about love, fashion, and beauty.
  • Women read the magazine to be informed about current events and to solve their relationships and appearance problems.

Paragraph 2:

By addressing issues with beauty the advert appeals to the ladies in this target group through implicit messaging.

  • In American culture, women place a lot of importance on how their hair looks.
  • The advertisement tries to capitalize on any worries a lady might have about her hair.

Paragraph 3:

The graphics used in the ad utilize pathos by emotionally appealing to the target audience.

  • The long-haired model depicted on the page is the major subject of the advertisement.
  • She tends to exhibit the qualities that many ladies aspire to possess.

Paragraph 4:

The language used conveys ideas about strength and confidence and furthers the promotion of beauty ideals.

  • The ad reads “Sleek & Shine” in bold type.
  • Women often associate these terms with good things.

Paragraph 5:

In terms of cultural significance, this advertisement tends to accentuate the value of physical attractiveness in American culture.

  • It appears to suggest that a woman may only be considered attractive if she possesses the same features as the woman in the ad.
  • It appears to suggest that a woman can only feel secure if they have a particular external appearance.
  • The Garnier Fructis shampoo advert uses specific elements of appeal.
  • This creates a significant appeal to prospective buyers.
  • However, some of the elements portray an exaggerated value of outer beauty.
  • The advertcould be modified to take inner beauty into account and provides factual product information.     

Cyberbullying essay example , with outline that will give you brilliant insights.

Fructis Shampoo Advert Analysis Essay Example

Fructis shampoo is a hair maintenance product offered by the American company Garnier. In one of its promotional activities to market the product, the company posted an ad for the product in an issue of Cosmopolitan magazine. The focus of the advert is on a woman’s beauty and how significant her hair is to her overall appearance in society. The goal of this advert, like any other advertisement, is to persuade consumers to purchase the product. As such, the Garnier Fructis Shampoo advert seeks to appeal to the intended market through the use of audience targeting, implicit messages, graphics, language, and cultural significance.

The Elements of Appeal

Women aged between 18 and 40 make up the majority of Cosmopolitan magazine’s target audience. The majority of readers are enthusiastic about love, fashion, and beauty even though these ladies could be single or married. The magazine features articles on weight reduction, romance, and well-known female celebrities. Adult females read the magazine to be informed about current events and to find solutions to their problems with relationships and their appearance.

By addressing issues with beauty, particularly issues with a woman’s hair, this Fructis advert appeals to the ladies in this target group through implicit messaging. In American culture, women place a lot of importance on how their hair looks, and they are continuously looking for services and goods that will enable them to shape their hair to align with the newest fashion trends (Zahra et al., 2022). This advertisement, like so many others for hair care products, tries to capitalize on any worries a lady might have about her hair by promising her a solution that will boost her self-esteem and enhance her beauty. Thus, the implicit messages in this advertisement promise a lady strength, confidence, and beauty.

The graphics used in the ad utilize pathos by emotionally appealing to the target audience. The long-haired model depicted on the page is the major subject of the advertisement. She tends to exhibit the qualities that many ladies aspire to possess, just like most models who appear in advertisements for beautification products do. She is slim, with beautiful skin, an oval, flawlessly aligned face, long, shining hair, and a tiny body. She appears to be giving the reader a seductive, enigmatic stare. She is a woman that consumers of the magazine imagine is coveted by men and admired by women because she resembles numerous other women featured in television commercials, shows, and movies. Since the readers are used to watching these gorgeous women in Hollywood star roles and being admired by movie lovers and fictional male suitors (Johnson, 2012), the model tends to fulfill the criterion of society’s definition of “beautiful.” As a result, the advertisement tends to give the reader ideas about what a lady should look like to be deemed attractive and desirable by American culture.

The language used in this advertisement conveys ideas about strength and confidence and furthers the promotion of beauty ideals. The ad reads “Sleek & Shine” in bold type. Women often associate these terms with good things because American society values having “shiny” and “sleek” hair. However, it should be noted that the definitions of “sleek” and “shining” might vary from person to person. The advertisement is vague about how much “shine” a customer’s hair will get after using the shampoo. The ad also does not define “sleek.” Although these adjectives are appealing, they are almost useless because the advertisement makes no mention of the level of “shine” and “sleek” a customer should anticipate. Noteworthy, most women may not wish their hair to be thought of as “dull.” While the wording of the advert is a logical appeal (Elfhariyanti et al., 2021), it appears to communicate unsubstantiated information about the product. Sadly, many readers do not pause to consider the significance of these words.

In terms of cultural significance, this advertisement tends to accentuate the value of physical attractiveness in American culture, much like many advertisements, television programs, and movies do. It appears to suggest that a woman may only be considered attractive if she possesses the same features as the woman in the ad, including a flawless complexion, a trim build, and long, lustrous hair. This goes beyond just informing women that appearance matters. The advertisement appears to suggest that a woman can only feel secure if they have a particular external appearance. While some people would think that a woman should be strong, this advertisement emphasizes the strength that a woman might enjoy if she is “beautiful” as per societal standards for beauty (Dzyabura & Peres, 2021). Like other beauty adverts, this one uses women’s concerns about themselves to have them buy a cheap product, implying that if they do not possess these attributes, they are not beautiful. In the end, it appears that advertising like this continues to emphasize a woman’s outward attractiveness while ignoring her interior traits, such as intelligence, compassion, and tenacity.

The Garnier Fructis shampoo advert is keen to use specific elements of appeal that would hopefully attract the interest of the target audience. These include audience targeting, implicit messaging, the use of graphics and language, and cultural significance. While the use of these elements creates a significant appeal to prospective buyers, some of the elements portray an exaggerated value of outer beauty at the expense of inner beauty. They also appear to convey unsubstantiated “facts” about the product. Thus, while the advert does well in appealing to the target audience, it could be modified to take inner beauty into account and provides factual product information.      

Dzyabura, D., & Peres, R. (2021). Visual elicitation of brand perception. Journal of Marketing , 85 (4), 44-66.

Elfhariyanti*, A. A., Ariyanti, L., & Harti, L. M. (2021). A multimodal analysis: Construing beauty standard in shampoo advertisement. Pioneer Journal of Language and Literature , 13 (1), 134-147.

Johnson, F. L. (2012). Imaging in advertising: Verbal and visual codes of commerce . Routledge.

Zahra, G. E., Rehan, M., Hayat, R., & Batool, A. (2022). Construction of beauty concept by beauty product advertisements: A critical discourse analysis. Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 19 (3), 789-804.

Learn how to write a good literature review that not only does it summarize sources alone but also synthesizes, analyzes, and critically evaluates to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the subject.

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The Anti-Abortion Endgame That Erin Hawley Admitted to the Supreme Court

Somewhat lost in the debate around abortion pills and oral arguments that took place at the Supreme Court in FDA v. Alliance for Hippocratic Medicine on Tuesday was one deeply uncomfortable truth: The very notion of what it means to practice emergency medicine is in dispute, with anti-abortion doctors insisting upon a right to refuse treatment for any patient who doesn’t meet their test of moral purity. Indeed, the right asserted is that in the absence of certainty about which patients are morally pure, the doctors want to deny medication to all patients, nationwide.

In public, the plaintiffs in this case—a group of doctors and dentists seeking to ban medication abortion—have long claimed they object to ending “unborn life” by finishing an “incomplete or failed” abortion at the hospital. But in court, they went much further. Their lawyer, Erin Hawley, admitted at oral argument that her clients don’t merely oppose terminating a pregnancy—they are pursuing the right to turn away a patient whose pregnancy has already been terminated . Indeed, they appear to want to deny even emergency care to patients whose fetus is no longer “alive,” on the grounds that the patient used an abortion drug earlier in the process. And they aim to deploy this broad fear of “complicity” against the FDA, to demand a nationwide prohibition on the abortion pill to ensure that they need never again see (and be forced to turn away) patients who’ve previously taken it. This is not a theory of being “complicit” in ending life. It is a theory that doctors can pick and choose their patients based on the “moral distress” they might feel in helping them.

It should come as no surprise that the same judge who tried to ban mifepristone in this case, Matthew Kacsmaryk, has also attempted to legalize anti-LGBTQ+ discrimination in health care nationwide. This is the ballgame: weaponize subjective religious beliefs against secular society to degrade the quality of care for everyone. If you can’t persuade Americans to adopt hardcore evangelical views, exploit the legal system to coerce them into it anyway.

Alliance for Hippocratic Medicine is at once embarrassingly frivolous and existentially important. Don’t let the jokes about how silly the Comstock Act seems , or how speculative the theory of standing is, get in the way of taking a serious look at the claims on offer. The plaintiffs say they are terrified that one day, a patient may walk into their emergency room suffering complications from a medication abortion prescribed by some other doctor. This patient may need their assistance completing the abortion or simply recovering from the complete abortion, which these plaintiffs deem “complicity” in sin. And they say the solution is either a total, nationwide ban on mifepristone, the first drug in the medication abortion sequence, or a draconian (and medically unnecessary) set of restrictions that would place mifepristone out of reach for many patients. (The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5 th Circuit ruled to reinstate those restrictions at their behest.)

It is a twisted line of logic, one that should never have reached the Supreme Court in the first place. But it is also a product of the court’s past indulgence of outlandish claims about moral “complicity.” As was made plain in the oral arguments and briefing, activist doctors are no longer satisfied with personal conscience exemptions already granted under state and federal law; they now insist that nobody, anywhere, should have access to the abortion pill, in order to ensure that they themselves won’t have to treat patients who took one. At a minimum, they say, they should be able to radically roll back access to the pill in all 50 states to reduce the odds that one of these handful of objectors might someday encounter a patient who took it. This extremist argument lays bare the transformation of the idea of “complicity” from a shield for religious dissenters to a sword for ideologues desperate to seize control over other people’s lives and bodies.

At oral arguments, several justices pressed Hawley, who argued on behalf of Alliance for Hippocratic Medicine, with an obvious retort: Why can’t her clients simply refuse to treat these hypothetical someday patients on the grounds that they cannot help end the “life” of a fetus or embryo? After all, federal law guarantees doctors the right not to have to provide an abortion if doing so is “contrary to his religious beliefs or moral convictions.” Justices Amy Coney Barrett and Brett Kavanaugh secured assurances from Solicitor General Elizabeth Prelogar, early in the arguments, that under no circumstances could the government force any health care provider to ever participate in an abortion in violation of their conscience. Justice Elena Kagan asked Prelogar: “Suppose somebody has bled significantly, needs a transfusion, or, you know, any of a number of other things that might happen.” Would the plaintiffs object to treating them? Prelogar said the record was unclear.

Hawley, who is married to far-right Republican Sen. Josh Hawley, then approached the lectern and cleared up any confusion: Yes, she insisted, treating a patient who has undergone a medication abortion violates the conscience of the plaintiff physicians even if there is no “live” fetus or embryo to terminate anymore. “Completing an elective abortion means removing an embryo fetus, whether or not they’re alive, as well as placental tissue,” Hawley told Kagan. So the plaintiffs don’t object just to taking a “life.” They also object to the mere act of removing leftover tissue, even from the placenta.

Of course, these doctors must remove “dead” fetal tissue and placentas all the time—from patients who experienced a spontaneous miscarriage. By their own admission, the plaintiffs regularly help women complete miscarriages through surgery or medication. Those women they will gladly treat. Other women, though—the ones who induced their own miscarriage via medication—are too sinful to touch. Before the plaintiffs can administer even lifesaving emergency treatment, they need to know the circumstances of this pregnancy loss: Spontaneous miscarriages are OK; medication abortions are not.

Justice Ketanji Brown Jackson, too, zeroed in on this admission. She told Hawley that she had thought the objection was to “participating in a procedure that is ending the life [of the fetus].” Hawley told her no: Any participation in an abortion, even through the indirect treatment of a patient without a “live” fetus, violated the doctors’ conscience. So, wait. What about “handing them a water bottle?” Jackson asked. Hawley dodged the question, declining to say whether helping a patient hydrate would constitute impermissible complicity in sin.

All this is reminiscent of Little Sisters of the Poor , a case about a Catholic charitable group that was afforded an exemption from the Affordable Care Act’s contraception mandate. The Little Sisters were asked to check a box signaling to the government that they could not comply with the mandate, at which point the government would step in to cover their employees. But the Little Sisters refused, viewing this action—the checking of a box to opt out of coverage—as “complicity” in abortion because it would in turn trigger government payment for contraception (which they viewed as abortifacients). The Supreme Court and the Trump administration ultimately indulged the Little Sisters’ claim .

Here, we have emergency room physicians asserting that they will not participate in lifesaving medical intervention unless they approve of the reason for the pregnancy loss. Presumably, if the pregnant patient is an unwed mother, or a gay or transgender person, the doctor would be similarly complicit in sin and decline service. Seen through this lens, since one can never know which sins one is enabling in the ER, each and every day, a narrow conscience exemption becomes a sweeping guarantee that absolutely nobody in the country can ever have access to basic health care, let alone miscarriage management. (Of course, these plaintiffs might focus only on one set of “sins” they see as relevant.) In a country effectively governed by Kacsmaryk and his plaintiff friends, a gay person suffering a stroke could be turned away from any hospital because of his sexual orientation, all to spare a doctor from a glancing encounter with prior sin. As Tobias Barrington Wolff, a professor of law at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, put it to us in an email, this unbounded view of complicity “is part of enacting the social death of people and practices you abhor, which in turn can contribute to the material death of people and practices you abhor.”

One of the most exhausting lessons of post- Roe America is that being “pro-life” definitively means privileging the life of the presumptively sin-free unborn—or even their “dead” remains—over the life of the sin-racked adults who carry them. This is why women are left to go septic or to hemorrhage in hospital parking lots; it is why C-sections are performed in nonviable pregnancies, at high risk to mothers; it’s why the women who sued in Texas to secure exceptions to that state’s abortion ban are condemned by the state as sinners and whores . And it’s why—in the eyes of the Alliance for Hippocratic Medicine — it is a greater hardship for a physician to “waste precious moments scrubbing in, scrubbing out” of emergency surgery, as Hawley put it, so long as they don’t believe that the emergency warrants their professional services, than it is for a pregnant person, anywhere in the country, including in states that permit abortion, to be forced to give birth.

At oral argument, Hawley explained that her clients have “structured [their] medical practice to bring life into the world. When they are called from their labor and delivery floor down to the operating room to treat a woman suffering from abortion drug harm, that is diametrically opposed to why they entered the medical profession. It comes along with emotional harm.” The emotional harm alleged here is that unless these doctors approve of the specific circumstances of the ER visit, they violate not only their own medical preference but also their religious convictions. But they will never truly know enough about the sins of their patients to be able to shield themselves against being a link in a chain of subjective lifelong sin. And to be a doctor, especially an emergency physician, should be to understand that your patients’ private choices and spiritual life are not really open to your pervasive and vigilant medical veto. This deep-rooted suspicion of patients deemed insufficiently pure for lifesaving treatment didn’t begin with the availability of medication abortion. It will assuredly not end there.

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