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Free Juvenile Delinquency Essay Sample
The issue of juvenile delinquency has existed in the whole world for a long time. Children often go beyond the limits and boundaries set by parents and other authoritative personnel. Rebellious character in adolescents has always existed because of their exploration and ignorant nature. However, some children constantly participate in disruptive and problematic behaviors that affect them and their family negatively. These children present problems for their family and sometimes for the whole community. The behaviors that children get involved result into crimes because of lack of guidance. This paper looks at the causes of juvenile delinquency and the strategies and interventions that can help prevent juvenile delinquency.
Juvenile delinquency refers to the condition where children commit crimes. The term juvenile refers to people who have not attained adulthood or the age considered legally as an adult in the legal systems of countries. Mostly, the law determines the age of the majority or adulthood. This happens especially in the case of minor crimes. Major crimes can force the court system to try a juvenile as an adult. This happens when a juvenile has committed crimes, such as murder or violence with robbery. This happens in significant situations that may require the judge to sentence the juvenile for life imprisonment. Delinquency refers to committing offences that the state considers as crimes.
When a child commits crime, their trial happens in a different court system separate from those that try adults who have committed crimes. After the court has proved that a juvenile has committed a crime, the court confines juveniles in prisons specifically created for juveniles. These detention centers are referred to as juvenile detention centers. The court has the responsibility of ascertaining the risk and danger that the juvenile poses to the society. This influences the duration that the court will decide to incarcerate the juvenile. Juvenile court judges possess a greater responsibility especially when it comes to children of a younger age. They have the responsibility of finding the appropriate ways that will help the child not to engage in the same crime or delinquency behavior.
Juvenile delinquency comes because of many factors. Social, economic and cultural conditions influence the severity or juvenile delinquency occurrences. The causes of juvenile crime occur at each level of the social structure, including the society, social groups, social organizations and interpersonal relations that people share in families and in the society.
Economic factors have become the major cause of juvenile delinquency in the modern-day world. Most juvenile delinquency cases occur in instances where the children suffer from poverty. They engage in crimes because they try to get food or money that can enable them gets their basic needs. The widening of the gap between the rich and the poor has weakened major institutions including the family, public education and public assistance. These have opened ways for children to engage in crimes. Sometimes parents encourage their children to commit crimes so that they can get food and other necessities.
Cultural factors also cause delinquent behavior. It occurs in settings where the norms for societal values and acceptable behavior have broken down. Under these circumstances, many of the rules that the society has set to control crimes from occurring or to deter people from committing crimes may fail and lose their relevance in the society. In situations like these, children respond to threatening and disparaging changes in the social certainty by engaging in insubordinate and criminal activities because of failure in the legal systems.
The likelihood of juvenile delinquency occurring in such situations depends not only on the failure of the legal opportunities but also on access to illegal opportunities.
Urbanization has also caused juvenile delinquency. Research evidence shows that urbanized countries register high-crime rates juvenile delinquencies included. This attributes to the differences in social control and social cohesion. The process of urbanization in developed countries contributes to the rate of juvenile involvement in crime. The features that exist in the urban environment foster the establishment of new forms of social behavior that occur mainly from weakened social relations and the increase of reliance on media.
Urbanization has made parents busy with work an issue that does not give them time to spent with their children and teach them morality. In most cases, children remain at home with their elder siblings or with house helps. Therefore, children grow without the advice and guidance that they require in life. Because of this failure in the parent to child relationship, children may engage in crimes and unwanted behavior because of lack of morality. They may also do this to attract the attention of their parents.
Individual risk factors also cause juvenile delinquency. A child who has a low intelligence and who has not received education has high chances of getting involved in delinquent behavior. Impulsive behavior and uncontrolled aggression can lead to juvenile delinquency. When a child does not know the ways of controlling their anger, they can engage in delinquent behavior as a form of revenge. Uncontrolled anger can make a child kill. Therefore, children who have no knowledge on the effects of uncontrolled aggression can engage in juvenile delinquency.
Inability to delay gratification among juveniles has also become one of the common causes of juvenile delinquency. Whenever the child feels that, he or she needs to satisfy their aggression they can do anything to ensure that happens. This may make them steal or rob to get what they desire. Therefore, multiple individual risk factors make juveniles involve themselves in harmful and illegal activities that may attract detention.
Substance abuse also causes juveniles to engage in illegal activities. With the spread of drug and substance abuse and the availability of drugs and substances, have increased cases of juvenile delinquency. In the current world today, the number of children abusing substances and drugs has increased considerably. This increase can be attributed to the failure of family institutions, availability of drugs and parental influence. The use of substances and drugs motivate children to engage in illegal activities that may help them get access to the drugs. The people providing the children with drugs and substances ay force the children to steal something for them so that they can get the drugs. The children may also engage in illegal activity, for instance, stealing so that they can get money to buy the drugs and substance. Sometimes when the children abuse drugs and substances, they get the motivation to do anything that their mind tells them to do. It makes them careless and thus engages in delinquent behaviors.
The search for identification can also lead to juvenile delinquency. This happens especially in the adolescent age. Many teenagers in the adolescent stage try new things and strive to please others and prove that they have worth. When peer pressure combines with the search of identification, juvenile delinquency becomes obvious. Adolescents can do anything to belong to certain groups or feel a part of a group. When their counterparts engage in delinquent behaviors, they can accept to participate as long as they attract the attention of their peers. This makes teenagers engage in delinquent behaviors for the personal gain they get out of the experience. Teenagers can break rules and regulations at this point without thinking of the detrimental consequences that may come out of it. They think of the things they gain out of that experience as essential than the consequences.
Juvenile delinquency causes suffering to the child, the family of the offender, as well as the victims of the act. When juveniles get incarcerated in juvenile detention centers, they go through mental and psychological torture. When in detention, they do not get to see their parents, siblings and friends often. Every child needs the love and care of their parents and the attention of friends and siblings. Freedom plays a significant role to the development of children. Therefore, when they miss these essential aspects in their early lives, they suffer.
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Parents suffer the agony of leaving without their children knowing that the actions that their children got into made them get into jail. Parents suffer because of the shame that the child has put them through and the fact that their child may experience a difficult time in the detention center. This makes some parents plead with the court judges to let their children serve their term through home detention. Some opt for split sentencing, so that their children can serve part of their term in detention centers and part of it at home.
The victims of juvenile delinquency suffer the effects of the act. Victims suffer the effects of injuries that the juveniles might have inflicted on them. This may make them spent a lot of money in hospital bills. Victims of juvenile delinquency loss their property and incur many losses. This happens especially when juveniles engage in robbery and stealing activities. They can steal money or property worth a lot of money. Juvenile delinquency can also cause deaths. This happens because juveniles can use guns or other objects that can injure victims and even kill them.
The history of juvenile justice in America traces back to the late nineteenth century. By 1909, much had changed with regard to juvenile justice. It marked the period when Julian mark, a judge in Harvard proposed that juvenile offenders be treated the way a father treats his children when they engage in the wrong behavior. In 1960s, the rehabilitative model started to thrive. In 1967, the Supreme Court gave youths the permission to have an attorney during their trial. In 1968, the congress passed the juvenile delinquency prevention act that got strength from the juvenile and delinquency act in 1974. However, this progress met a blow when conservative politicians ridiculed the system citing the increase in juvenile and youth crimes.
In the 1990s, legislators enacted tough policies in various legislative structures that could apply in juvenile courts. These legislatures reduced the age of juvenile transfer to allow prosecution of children of about fourteen years and younger. Some legislation resulted to the transfer of youths to adult prisons involving specific cases. However, the contemporary juvenile justice system law attracted politics that do not offer a sound regime. The fact that law reforms have been flawed which made the policies anomalous, as a form of legal regulation has not answered the question of whether criminalization of juvenile justice should be seen as a deficient or efficient legal activity.
The stakeholders involved in the juvenile justice system include juvenile court judges. They make the final decision whether a juvenile has committed a crime. A judge also incarcerates a juvenile incase he is found guilty. Attorneys have the responsibility of helping juveniles to prove their innocence. Sociologists and legislators have the responsibility of making major changes to juvenile laws and legislation. Sometimes psychologists and counselors can function as stakeholders in juvenile courts to decide whether the child who has committed a crime has the right mental capacity.
Several strategies and interventions formulated to prevent juvenile delinquency exist. Violence against children imperils their human rights. Therefore, it requires that communities put aside, time, resources and expertise in order to address the issue of juvenile delinquency.
A number of United Nations instruments that address juvenile delinquency issues advocate for a social way of addressing juvenile delinquency rather than the judicial system. Early phase intervention represents the best measure to prevent juvenile delinquency. This involves making individuals, groups and organizational effort that can prevent children and teenagers from breaking the law. Different ways of preventing children and teenagers from breaking the law exist. Some measures focus on punitive ways of preventing juvenile crime. This involves scaring potential law offenders by making them aware of the possibility of a severe punishment in case they commit crimes. It may also involve taking action to prevent recurrent crime by explaining to juveniles the negative aspects of committing an offence. It may also involve reconciling offenders with their victims.
Early phase prevention may entail offering adolescents with more ways of generating money. This might involve offering them professional training, education, assistance in starting and organizing businesses and arranging new workplaces for them. These strategies can help prevent teenagers and youth from engaging in delinquent behavior. The disadvantage with this strategy involves the fact that it necessitates a lot of capital and commitment. It also requires that the youth receive regular advice on how to manage their work or businesses.
Recreation and youth assistance and development activities that interest the youth can help them move away from delinquent behavior. These activities make them active and offer them a chance to participate in self-building activities that give them no time to think about committing crimes.
Another way may involve changing an urban environment. This involves altering the physical features and the architectural design and providing opportunities to engage the interest of young people. People can do this by establishing more leisure and recreational activities and introducing a number of positive evening activities for the youth. Despite the fact that this option could help solve the issue of juvenile delinquency remarkably, it requires a lot of money and support. If people do not have money and cannot offer assistance to the youth, it can fail considerably.
Another way of preventing juvenile delinquency requires the involvement of the whole society. This means that all members of the society should work together to restore the failed social institutions and the values of the community. This may call for involvement of religion and advice from the elderly. People may decide to incorporate values to the societal system that prevents juveniles from engaging in crime. The disadvantage with this intervention strategy involves the fact that it requires a lot of obligation and investment in terms of duration and personal interest.
The society can also initiate institutional programs that provide social and psychological support for the youth that gives them hope to avoid getting in to crime. The most essential thing that the youth and teenagers need so that they do not engage in juvenile delinquency involves advice, support, education and economic empowerment. All these help the youth not to engage in juvenile delinquency actions.
Juvenile delinquency affects the society in many ways. It comes mainly because of failure in the social and economic systems, in the society. Juvenile delinquency requires that people in the society join forces to prevent it from happening. Provision of advice and economic empowerment can really help to prevent occurrences of juvenile delinquencies.
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- Essay on Juvenile Delinquency
In this essay we will discuss about Juvenile Delinquency. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Juvenile Delinquency 2. Meaning of Juvenile Delinquency 3. Incidence 4. Causes 5. Variables 6. Treatment.
- Treatment of Juvenile Delinquency
Essay # 1. Introduction to Juvenile Delinquency:
Delinquency has always been considered as a social problem over and above the fact that it is a legal problem. It is also a psychological problem. Hence to avoid this social evil one has to tackle the complex problem of delinquency from the social psychological and to familial angles.
Although laws regarding Juvenile delinquencies have been formed long since, they are also being changed from time to time. Currently, in all the progressive and civilized countries of the world the laws with regard to the Juvenile delinquents have been changed.
Special courts are established with specially trained Magistrates for the trial of the delinquents. Today delinquency is being considered as a misbehaviour, a social nuisense than a crime. So, in every state the children’s Act (1944) required custody, control and punishment of young offenders.
It also provides for the establishment of reformatory schools for them. But the revised Bombay children’s Act of 1948 provided not only for custody and control but also for treatment and rehabilitation of young offenders.
Essay # 2. Meaning of Juvenile Delinquency:
Crime committed by children and adolescents under the age of 18 years, is called delinquency. The maximum age limit and also the meaning of delinquency varies from country to country. But it is always below 18 years of age which is the statutory age for delinquency.
In India any person between the age of 7 and 18 years, who violates the provisions of the children’s Acts, the IPC and the CPO will be considered as delinquent. Persons above this age are considered as criminals.
Juvenile delinquency is defined by the Pensylvania Juvenile Court Act as “A delinquent child is one who violated any laws of the common wealth ordinance of the city, a child who by reasons of being way ward or habitually disobedient is uncontrolled by his parents, guardian, custodian or legal representative, a child who is habitually trunt from school or home or child who habitually so deports himself is to injury or endanger the moral or health of himself or others”.
Delinquency in the view of the Coleman (1981) refers to “behaviour of youths under 18 years of age which is not acceptable to society and is generally regarded as calling for some kind of admonishment punishment or corrective actions”.
Delinquency includes all sorts of crimes committed by children. Starting from the business and use of illegal drugs and homicide murder, it may include various types of dangerous criminal offences.
Delinquency undoubtedly is a social evil. It is a socially unacceptable behaviour committed by boys and girls below the age of 18 years. Instead of giving these delinquents punishment, they are kept in Juvenile jail and correction homes where various corrective measures are taken to change their behaviour in the positive direction.
It is observed that crime and delinquency are increasing day by day with the increase in population and complexity of culture. As population increases the small societies become bigger ones and are found in the form of mass society.
In mass societies there is less scope for mutual interaction and face to face contact. The family bonds and community bonds thus become weak to weaker. Now a days no one knows or cares to know who is staying next door. Parents and children do not meet.
While motivation is derived from the Latin word “Movere” which means move, social motivation refers to those social factors and situations which influence the person to behave in a particular style in a society. To eat is a biogenic need, but what to eat and how to eat is influenced by social forces and social interaction.
One feels hungry, it is a biogenic need but how to satisfy these hunger need and where to ask for food is determined by socialization process.
A child who has gone to a neighbour’s house to play, feels hungry, but he has been taught not to ask for food from outsiders. He is taught only to ask for food at his own house. This is a case of biological motive being influenced by socialization process.
Most of our needs and motives, attitudes and aspirations regarding food, dress, style of living are determined by our cultural values and norms of the society. The process of socialization puts a strong stamp mark on the behaviour of an individual in the society.
Essay # 3 . Incidence of Juvenile Delinquency :
Coleman’s Study (1981) indicates that the rate of delinquency increased by 100 per cent within seven years i.e., between 1968-1975. Though, mainly boys are involved in delinquency, now a days it is found that girls are also actively engaged in this antisocial work.
During these 20 years delinquency has further increased. One may not believe, but it is true that almost half of the serious crimes in U.S.A. are committed by juveniles.
Common delinquent acts in females are sexual offences, small thefts, drug usage, running away from home etc. Among the males delinquents are more engaged in stealing, drug usage, robbery, aggravated assaults, sexual abuses etc. Particularly, now a days, the incidence of delinquency is increasing alarmingly in large metropolitan cities and this has become a matter of great concern for the public and country.
While evidences from some studies show that children from lower class families and those residing in slum areas are more engaged in delinquency, other studies do not support this view. In an important study, Heary and Gold (1973) found significant relationship between social status and delinquent behaviour.
In another significant study, it was noticed that the rate of delinquency in case of socially disadvantaged youths appears about equal for whites and non-whites.
Like any other country, as reports of the Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt, of India, shows, there is a steady rise in the percentage of delinquency in India. While it was 16,160 in 1961, it was, 40,666 in 1974. Thus, in 13 years the increase in the incidence of delinquency, as reports show, has the highest percentage of Juvenile crimes (24.8%).
Second place goes to M.P. (20.5%) and third place to Gujarat (10.9%). Kerala has an incidence rate of only 0.2%.
Essay # 4 . Causes of Delinquency :
In many under-developed and developing countries including many parts of india, criminal tendency of a person is looked upon as the results of evil deeds in the past life of the parents. this is undoubtedly a misconception and prejudice., in the other extreme of the case, when a child develops delinquency many believe that it is due to the fault actions, omissions and commissions of his parents during his childhood..
Delinquents lack ethical standards and emotional ties. They are very impulsive and indulge in acts at the spur of the moment. They are socially insensitive and lack guilt feeling. Delinquents, inspite of their socially unacceptable behaviours, created difficulties for the self as well as for others.
Considered as a learned behaviour, delinquency was found to be highly correlated with low life styles with lack of recreational facilities and lack of permanent residence.
Essay # 5. Variables of Juvenile Delinquency:
The variables of delinquency may broadly be divided into:
(A) Personality characteristics of individual factors
(B) General socio-cultural factors indulging family pattern and interaction, delinquent gang and subculture.
(A) Personality Characteristics/ Individual Factors:
No social factors alone-can contribute to the causation of delinquency though social and cultural factors contribute their share to delinquency. Personality characteristics and individual factors also contribute a lot to the causation of delinquency.
(i) Brain Damage:
As per the reports of Caputo and Mandell (1970), Kiestor (1974) in about one per cent of the delinquents brain damage leads to lower inhibitory controls and a tendency to show violent behaviour. The genetic theorists argue the presence of an extra ‘Y’ chromosome in delinquents.
(ii) Psychopathic Personality :
Large number of persistent delinquents have been found to possess the traits and characteristics of antisocial and psychopathic personalities. A number of studies conducted in UK and India using Eysenck’s personality inventory show delinquents to be more extroverts, more neurotic, more psychotic and to have more criminal tendencies than the control group.
They seem to be quite impulsive, callus, and socially insensitive, they do not have the feelings of sorrow, guilt and repentance. They are not able to establish suitable interpersonal relationship and they do not learn anything from experience in a constructive way.
The persistent delinquents also do not seem to have any reality control or inner conscience or morality. So, they indulge in whatever they wish, which give them pleasure and satisfy their ego with assessing its impact upon the society and their final consequence.
For example, they may steal a very little money actually they do not need or they may steal a scooter, a car or snatch a golden chain without any need or necessity.
Just to fulfil their aggressive and sadistic tendency they may drive their car to a small distance, break some parts of the car and leave it there. They just want to satisfy their destructive tendency, which gives them pleasure. Many psychopathic delinquents are found to cut the brand new cushions in theaters and movie halls.
This author has also observed many delinquents of 10-12 years age who are in the habit of breaking the electric bulb in every lamp post on the road without any reason, in the presence of other people in broad day light. They just did not care, use abusive language and again repeat their aggressive behaviour with more vigour.
Actually, the delinquents do not involve themselves in such nuisance for personal gain, but it really reflects their underlying resentment and hostility towards the outer world, the world for which they have no feeling of involvement or belongingness.
There are others who just move around in a gang aimlessly and get pleasure in eve teasing, in passing filthy remarks whenever a member of the fair sex passes by. Such people are really at the mercy of their uncontrolled, uninhibited impulses.
It would be interesting to note that currently the incidence of psychopathic personality in female delinquents has increased quite rapidly as reports suggest. Fine and Fishman (1968) conducted a study on 155 girls in a State Correctional Institution in Kentuky to know their general personality characteristics.
They found rebelliousness, inadequacy, impulsiveness, instability and immature characteristics commonly found in the psychopathic personality.
It was also found by Ganzer and Sarason (1973) that females more frequently come from personally and socially disorganised families than did males. The theories of both sheldon and Eysenck stress genetic aspects along with environmental aspects to explain delinquent behaviour.
(iii) Drug Abuse :
Quite a large number of delinquents particularly those who are engaged in theft, prostitution and physical assault are found to be addicted to drugs, like heroin, secobarbital and alcohol. Drug addicted females are usually engaged in stealing and prostitution.
(iv) Mental Retardation/Mental Deficiency :
Various studies have been conducted to find out the relationship between intelligence and delinquent behaviour to solve the controversy whether delinquency is environmental or genetic. Long ago, an Italian Scientist Lumbroso made certain empirical studies on crime, and held that criminals have defective physical structure and defective intelligence.
Therefore, various steps have been taken to measure the I.Q. of Juvenile delinquents to verify this view. The study conducted by Healy, Burt and others have demonstrated clearly that delinquents are not mental defectives.
But, nevertheless, the average intelligence of the delinquent group is lower than the average intelligence of the normal group. It is also found that compared to the normal children a larger proportion of mental defectives are found in the Juvenile group.
Various investigators have reported different percentage of average I.Q. for the delinquents, compared to the average I.Q. of the normal as 100. Healy and Bronner (1926) found it to be 90, Burt (1925) found it to be 85, Merril (1947) found it to be 92.5.
The above data of different investigators reveal that the average intelligence of delinquents happen to be lower than the average I.Q. of normals. These data also give clear signal that the Juvenile delinquents as a group, at large, are not mentally defective though they are below average.
However, a low intelligence and mental retardation among 5% of the delinquents may be accounted to delinquent behaviour. Such people have no foresight to the consequences and significance of their action.
That is why, they commit various impulsive behaviour, like small aggressive acts, petty stealing and various other sexual offences. Even more intelligent psychopaths and gangs exploit them and include them in their group. In some cases, mental retardation is associated with serious brain damage and leads to a combination of features of both the organic and the mentally retarded delinquents.
The above facts lead one to conclude that Juvenile delinquents differ from normal persons in degree and not in kind so far, as their I.Q. is concerned. Hence, Juvenile delinquents cannot be looked upon as a group of mental defectives.
Some other studies also show that below 70 I.Q. there are only about 3% of the children who are mental defectives in an unselected population of children. But in the delinquent groups there are 12 to 15 per cent mental defectives.
Thus, the number of mentally defective children among the delinquents is about 4-5 times larger than in a normal population says Kupuswamy. Uday Sankar (1958) conducted a study 011 the mental ability of the delinquents and found that the proportions of mentally defective children is very high among the 140 Juvenile delinquents he has studied. 27.4% of them are below 70 I.Q.
Merril made a comparative study of the average intelligence of the delinquents and non-delinquents. It was found that the average intelligence of juvenile delinquents from socially and economically handicapped group is low.
While those coming from higher socio economic groups was higher. The average intelligence of children from the non- delinquent, but lower groups is also low. Merril took a controlled group and an experimental group, each group with 300 boys and girls.
In the experimental group, the 300 boys and girls were delinquents while in the control group they were non-delinquents. The socio-economic status of both the groups were kept constant. Results showed that while the average I.Q. of the 300 delinquents children was 86.7, the average I.Q. of the 300 non-delinquent children was 89.3.
The results, thus, did not show any significant difference between the I.Q. of the controlled and the experimental group though there was some obtained difference. So, Merril held that it is not justified to assume that larger proportion of the delinquents have lower I.Q. However, it is possible that the higher I.Q. delinquents and criminal may utilize the lower I.Q. children for their criminal purpose and gang work.
In case, they are caught by the police, the intelligent juveniles escape while the less intelligent juveniles arc trapped. Such incidents are not rare in our society. The innocent ones are caught easily because of their lack of understanding and lack of capacity to solve the immediate problems facing them.
(v) Neurosis :
About 3 to 5 per cent of delinquent behaviour, seems to be directly associated with psychoneurotic disorders. Here, the delinquent act is mainly tinged with compulsive behaviour, such as stealing things which one actually does not need, or compelled to do.
He will not be stable and remain at peace unless he does these acts. This type of compulsive acts also lead to sexual deviant behaviour because of the sexual restrictions and beliefs that masturbation and other forms of overt sexual behaviour are very much undesirable and a sin.
(vi) Psychosis :
In a limited number of cases, i.e. about 3 to 5%, delinquent, behaviour is associated with psychotic disorders. In Bandurar’s opinion (1973) often this involves prolonged emotional and social withdrawal arising out of long standing frustration.
Then, there is an explosive outburst of violent behaviour like volcanic eruption. Here, the delinquent act is the function of terrible personality, maladjustment and disturbances rather than a consistent antisocial orientation.
(vii) Emotional Problems :
Delinquency as an antisocial personality is the function of certain pathological and ill developed social environment. Wrong handling and faulty upbringing of the child lead to several emotional problems in the child. Various observations, case histories and interviews have indicated that quite a high percentage of the delinquents displayed emotional disturbances.
Heally and Bronner found that 92% of the delinquents showed emotional disturbances. Feeling of inadequacy, inferiority etc. were frequently found in them. In about 50% of the group, they were persistently present.
The feeling of insecurity, rejection of the parents and other members of the family were next important factors causing delinquent behaviour. About 33% of the group experienced strong feeling of being thwarted. Disharmony and problems of discipline were found in one third of the delinquents.
Quite a number of them also expressed sibling rivalry and jealousy. All these data lead to show that various emotional problems like insecurity, inferiority, jealousy, feeling of being neglected and let down were very common among the delinquent children.
The need for recognition and resentment against the sense of insecurity provides enough scope for a person to be delinquent. Rebellious feeling in oneself makes one antisocial and delinquent.
Because of these emotional problems which are created by dehumanised social conditions the person becomes a delinquent and tries to take action, against others. It is a fact that by their antisocial, sadistic and aggressive action they try to get pleasure and mental satisfaction.
Because of their emotional problems, they should be considered as maladjusted personalities and not as peculiar human beings, who differ from other human beings not in degree but in kind. They should not be considered as abnormal human beings.
Their needs and desires are very much normal, but they have become so because of faulty family upbringing. They become hostile and aggressive because they feel threatened and insecured.
According to Friedlander, delinquent character is the result of three factors:
(i) The strength of the unmodified instinctive urges,
(ii) The weaknesses of the ego and
(iii) The lack of independence and strength of the super ego. He is not able to control his impulsive needs. In his case neither realistic considerations, nor moral considerations operate to check his impulsive actions. Stott (1950) holds that delinquent breaks down is an escape from emotional situation which for the particular individual with the various conditioning of his background becomes almost temporarily invariable.
(viii) Faulty Discipline and Child Rearing Practice :
When the parents or one of them use rigid discipline, it increases hostility in the child. Why? Because of rigid discipline all his wishes and desires are suppressed and restrained. This leads to the development of an antisocial, rebellious and hostile personality in the growing child.
By constant suppression of desires the child never feels free and clear. Conflicting views of parents and teachers regarding discipline also contribute.
If the child rearing practices are faulty and are based on rigid, dictatorial principles, if the child is always left to cry and cry, if the child is not handled with due love and affection, if the discipline is harsh, inconsistent and irrational, his suppressed and repressed aggression is vented through anti-social and delinquent behaviour.
Prolonged parental deprivation particularly at the early age of life, between 1-5 years is extremely adverse for the normal personality development of the child. The affectionless and loveless life due to proper parenting and judicious child rearing practices lead to several maladjustments and in some cases juvenile delinquency.
Bowlby (1946) compared 44 children who committed various thefts and hence were kept in the London child Guidance Clinic for treatment with 44 normal children of the same age and Socio-economic status, who came to the clinic for treatment but who did not steal.
Results showed that 17 of the 44 thief’s had suffered from prolonged separation from their mothers. But in the control group only 02 were separated from their mothers.
Of course, the question why the remaining 27 thief’s of the experimental group inspite of being with their mother took recourse to thefts has not been explained by this factor. But there are other factors besides parental deprivation which influence the development of delinquency.
Stott is of opinion that security, affection, love and proper attention from the parents are basically required for the proper growth of personality of the child. Those children who do not get this from their parents become susceptible to delinquency.
By becoming delinquents they try to get attention from their parents. Further they with an attitude of revolt try to teach their parents a lesson. Some also become vindictive and develop antisocial, reactionary, negative behaviour. They get sadistic satisfaction by giving pain to their parents and causing them worry. They get pleasure by seeing them suffering.
Lower socio-economic status parents usually remain absent from home for earning their bread. Both the father and mother work from morning to evening outside. So the child is deprived from parental care and is neglected.
They also cannot provide a baby sister to take care of the baby because of their poverty. Since the parents of low S.E.S. are not properly educated and properly trained, they cannot take proper care of their children. To add to this the school going children do not get scope for going to good school for their educational and social development. All these factors either separately or in combination pave the way for delinquency.
(ix) Broken Homes :
Studies show that children coming from broken homes, where parents are separated or divorced, lead to delinquent behaviour, than those children coining from broken homes where the home is broken by the death of the parents or one of the parents. In Western countries, where separation and divorce of parents are more common, this is a major cause of delinquency.
But in India, though currently separation and divorce cases are increasing day by day, they are not so rampant like their Western counterparts and hence, is not a major cause of delinquency.
In a study of institutionalized delinquents in the State of Colorado, Barker and Adams (1962) found that only about one-third of the boys and girls come from complete home setting, i.e. where they live with both their original parents. British and American Investigations reveal that nearly 50 per cent of the delinquents come from broken homes.
(x) Socio-pathic Parental Models :
Glueck and Glueck (1969), Ulmar (1971) and Bandura (1973) have found high presence of socio- pathic traits in the parents of the delinquents. Socio-pathic traits include alcoholism, brutality, antisocial attitudes, failure to provide unnecessary frequent absences from home, lack of communication with the child etc. All these traits make the father an inadequate and unacceptable model for the child.
According to Scharfman and Clark (1967) the chief variables of the delinquent behaviour of girls were:
(a) Broken homes combined with emotional deprivation,
(b) Irrational, harsh and inconsistent parental discipline,
(c) Patterns of only aggressive and sexual behaviour modelled by psychopathic parents.
(xi) Parental Absenteeism :
In studies on juvenile delinquency, Martin (1961) and others have emphasized the feeling of unrelatedness and detachment from the family and society as a key cause of delinquency. Communication gap with one or both parents leads to the failure to learn appropriate social values. This finally leads to a tendency to act out inner tension in hostile and destructive manner.
The question is why this feeling of unrelatedness or insecurity arises in young people who differ vastly in age I.Q., personality make up and socio-economic standard. A key source of this feeling appears to be parental absenteeism.
When parents are too much absorbed in their own occupations and activities and do not provide the youth optimum attention, necessary support and encouragement during the crisis period of the growing age, they turn to peers and others as models who might be lacking the qualities of ideal models for the child.
(xii) Mother Dominance :
When the father is mostly busy with his own work and commitments or in other works, and if he plays a submissive role in the family, the mother takes over the function of providing affection and discipline of the boy.
In certain cases, it is found that by nature the mother because of her aggressive personality pattern or earning capacity plays a dominant role compared to the father. When the child grows up with a mother dominance atmosphere in the family, he starts identifying with the mother and greatly depends upon him as a role model.
With this type of attitude when he reaches adolscence, it becomes difficult for the boy to develop a masculine self concept. Thus, now he tries to express his masculanity, independence courage and finally the so called male ego in rebellious and proving offences. By being engaged in such anti-social acts, he gets the satisfaction that he is really masculine.
(xiii) Father Rejection :
Andry, on the basis of the findings of his studies, concluded that the delinquent boys felt rejected by their fathers but loved by their mothers. Non-delinquent boys on the other hand felt to be equally loved and cared by both the parents. A child who is rejected by his parents day in and day out, develops, naturally, an inner feeling of hostility towards him.
The gap in communication and lack of understanding between the father and the child paves the way for anti-social behaviour in the form of anguish, aggression and hostility. When he finds that a large part of his world is unable to deal with him properly, he in turn does not like to understand the world either.
This hostility is transformed in the form of anti-social and delinquent behaviour. He, infact, lacks normal inner controls. He does not have the basic values of life. So, he tends to act out his aggressive impulses.
(xiv) Undesirable Peer Relationship :
Delinquency is said to be a gang experience. In support of this view, Haney and Gold (1973) found that about 66 per cent of the delinquent behaviours are committed in association with other persons. Usually it is a homogenious group so far, as sex is concerned. But in selected cases, as found now a days girls and boys also form gangs and delinquent groups.
(B) General Socio-Cultural Factors:
(i) Alienation and Rebellion :
Many ego psychologists view that the modern youth is only a bundle of confusions as far as his values of life is concerned. Most surprisingly, it is common in youths coming from all socio-economic levels. There is a communication gap and a generation gap.
They do not accept the values of their parents or grandparents and they are even confused of their so called own values and sense of identity. There is also identity crisis in many of them. Thus, in short, they are all in a mess.
They do not know what to accept and what to reject. They always experience a feeling of alienation from family as well as society. This lack of identification and development of clear values turn them to the outer world to peers gangs and friends for guidance and approval. They may take drugs and engage in illegal antisocial activities like thefts, pick pockets, violences etc.
There are innumerable instances where many modern youths who run away from home as a sort of reaction to their rebellious feeling, tend to join gangs indulged in delinquent behaviour, prostitution etc. In the same manner, socially disadvantaged youths, such as belonging to lower income groups, lower caste groups and having very little education, having lower status in the society may turn to delinquency also.
(ii) The Social Rejects :
With the increase in urbanization and industrialization, family ties grow weaker. Joint family systems are gradually disintegrating. People prefer to have their own family of husband and wife and children.
With the formation of mass society, influence of technology on society and erosion of values, social disintegration is increasing day by day. Joint family system has now become a dream. Tolerance and sense of sacrifice and feeling of cooperation is decreasing day by day.
Divorce and remarriage are quite common in the Western countries and urban areas. Though some decades back in India the public opinion was very strong against divorce and remarriage, now it has changed to some extent with the increase in industrialization and urbanization.
The effect of social disintegration, erosion of values, lack of sense of social sacrifice and commitment for the society may make many children social rejects. Young boys and girls who lack the motivation to do well in school because of various familial and social factors and become drop outs who are social isolates as soon as they can.
Normally, they do not qualify for any job. Irrespective of class, sex social status and wealth, they generally feel useless and unneeded by the society. This lack of hope, feeling of uselessness and that they are rejected by the society, lead them to show undesirable anti-social behaviour.
Many of them remain unemployed. Those who somehow get some employment are funnily unable to hold the job, and so, they shift from job to job, engage in delinquent behaviour, partly as a result of frustration and partly due to confusion and hopelessness.
(iii) Delinquent Gang Subculture :
This includes the rebellion with the norms of the society. If a person is rejected by the society, his inner tension is often revealed in serious delinquent acts beating and fighting leading to serious physical injury.
As Jenkins has put it, the socialized delinquents represent not a failure of socialization but a limitation of loyalty to a more or less pedatory peer group. The basic capacities for social relationship has been achieved. What is lacking in an effective integration with the larger society as a contributing member.
(iv) Gangs and Companions :
In addition to other important causes of delinquency, those who feel inadequate and rejected by the group and society join gangs, peer groups and companions and indulge in anti-social activities. As a child grows, he mixes with the members of the neighbourhood and always becomes an important member of their play group. The norms set up for the child at home may not be similar to the norms set up by the play groups.
Because of such differences there may be conflict of values, ideas and norms. Even in the school these norms may be different. He has to conform and adjust with one set of norms at home and another set of norms in the play group and another in the school.
Various studies indicate that secondary groups, like neighbourhood, playmates, peers and school, and others in the society which the child comes in contact more often than not all have tremendous effects on the personality of the child. All these agents of socialization play important role in the process of socialization of the growing child.
Overcrowding of cities, lack of space at home, residence at slum areas, location of various shops and business centres in various residential areas of the city, environmental pollution create a lot of social problems. Such problems have an adverse effect on the social development of the child. Children of such areas do not have a park to play, do not have many recreational facilities.
Some of these children of the slum areas invade the industrial belts nearby for some occasional job and are sometimes thrown out because of their inefficiency. Being frustrated and finding no way out, they mix with other children of the similar category and form gangs. Street corner gangs have tremendous contribution to Juvenile delinquency.
Initially, the gang starts as a play group. In the absence of play ground facility, the children start playing in the streets and eventually organise themselves in to gangs. Various groups of the same or nearby area then start fighting.
Very recently one incident occurred in my residential colony. There is one ‘paan’ (bettle) shop in front of my house. Two days before the last Ganesh Puja when I reached home from market, I found that the two boys of the paan shop along with some outside teenagers are constructing a pendal adjacent to the paan shop.
On enquiry, my orderly peon told me that these boys belong to another nearby colony and they are going to celebrate Ganesh Puja here. They decorated the pendal and also started playing film songs using a mike two days before the Puja.
We were very much disturbed by these unnecessary loud sounds. But nobody dared to object with the apprehension of being misbehaved and malhandled by them. On the night prior to the Puja day this gang of 10 to 12 boys prepared a feast near the pendal and ate to their heart’s content.
At about 2 A.M. we heard loud noise of fighting and shouting in front of our house. We got up from sleep and saw that two gangs are fighting with each other. Some of them broke the image of Ganesh and broke the mike.
Consequently one members of a gang fell down on the ground with severe blows and head injury. After this incident immediately the culprits lied from the spot leaving the injured boy there. After ten minutes two persons came and took away the injured boy in a rickshaw.
After 3-4 minutes Police came to the spot and after necessary enquiry booked the culprits. Members of both the gangs were kept under the custody of the Police for the whole day.
Alas! the Puja could not be performed in time. Why the two gangs fought? Gang No. 1 did not want gang No.2 to celebrate a separate Ganesh Puja. Gang No. 1 wanted Gang No. 2 to contribute to their Puja. So there was conflict and quarrel between the two gangs.
Numerous such quarrels, violence’s and conflicts occur every day between the street corner and Zhopodi gangs. Some members of these gangs are involved in petty theft and anti-social behaviour. They are famous for creating social nuisense.
Why a person becomes a member of a gang? Gang membership provides them a sense of status and approval and a sense of belongingness which they did not get from their family and other social agents. In a gang, the responsibility or blame of threat is not shouldered by any individual member, but by the gang as a whole just like in a mob.
Thus, some prefer to steal or booze and do other illegal acts in the name of gang. Studies have indicated that the groups outside the home have a tremendous impact on the personality of the adolescent. The gang starts as a play group.
In the absence of play ground facility, the children start playing in the streets and eventually form a gang and the behaviour of the person is mostly influenced by the gang and so he develops delinquent tendencies.
Though the gang has all the qualities of an in group like cooperation, unity, fellow feeling and belongingness, it is also associated with crimes, like stealing, eveteasing, rioting, homicide, rape, murder, boozing, taking various drugs and abusing them, dacoity, assault and murders etc.
Thus, they form a racket and in an organised way they create terror in the area. Studies have indicated that these children are roughly between 10-16 years age. They also come from poor families with constant friction between parents and family members. Those children who usually become the members of the gang have often little or no parental guidance.
Studies also indicate that delinquency is committed in groups and in companies. Shaw analysed 6,000 cases of crime and observed that in 72 per cent of the cases two or more companions were involved.
Healy reported that companionship was a single factor causing delinquency in 34 per cent of the cases while Burt gives the figure at 18 per cent. Uday Sankar gives the figure at 23 per cent. Sometimes parents are seen complaining that their child became a delinquent by mixing in bad company.
But bad companionship is not the only cause of delinquency unless there are some defects in the character formation of the individual. However, bad companionship is never the less an important factor which lead to delinquency, since delinquency is also a learnt behaviour.
In a gang or a restricted group the influence of social norm is there, sense of responsibility is divided and a boy feels that cinema and various electronic medias, like TV, Video films of violent and sexual nature lead children to delinquency by being helped through various techniques of delinquency shown in the screen.
However, it is quite reasonable to assume that early childhood training and parental attitude, how the child is reared up, all these have tremendous impact in deciding delinquent behaviour. These predisposing characters are precipitated in a gang thus leading to delinquency.
Recently female delinquents have also formed their gangs with a purpose to protect and defy themselves. They find a sense of acceptance, belongingness and give and take, sympathy, understanding, companionships, loyalty, power and authority which they do not find in a socialized world which they consider to be an out group.
(v) Poverty :
Ample evidences are there to hold that a large percentage of the delinquent children come from poor homes. It is found that even 50 per cent of the delinquents come from lower strata of the society with very poor economic background and hand to mouth living standard. Glueck’s (1934) study revealed that only 28.8% of the children came from comfortable homes with good economic status of parents.
Those who are disadvantaged and under privileged due to their poverty had to take recourse to some anti-social action for their living also.
Hence, keeping all other factors constant, a child coming from a comfortable home has relatively less chance for becoming a delinquent than a child coming from a poor under privileged family, Glueck’s study also showed that 37% of the fathers of delinquent children were skilled labourers while 23% were semi-skilled labourers and 40% were unskilled labourers.
Findings of his study showed that not a single parent of the delinquent children came from the clerical services. Glueck’s study, thus, brings the fact to light that the nature of job of parents is also an important determinant of delinquency.
Of course, Glueck’s study was conducted about sixty four years back and much changes have taken place during these six to seven decades. Children of some well to do highly educated parents doing very good jobs in government and non-govt.
Offices also, now a days, are engaged in delinquency and the percentage is growing up day by day. But compared to their lower SES counterparts the percentage is very low. According to Uday Sankar’s Study 83% of the Juvenile delinquents came from poor homes, 13% from border line (neither poor nor rich) homes and only 4% came from comfortable homes.
But poverty cannot be the role cause of delinquency. Had it been so, in India where poverty is found in most homes, the number of delinquents would have been more than the rich and better off countries which is not a fact. In India the percentage of Juvenile delinquency is very low and most people are peace loving and disciplined unlike other developed and developing countries.
A study conducted by the Ministry of Education (1952) Govt, of India indicates that 32,400 children were awarded sentences for delinquency in 1949. But in 1950 it was noticed that 40,119 children of all the states of India except U.P. were put up for trial in the Juvenile courts. But besides these recorded cases, there might have been some unrecorded cases also.
Poor parents have to leave their children and go for work. Thus, the mother is not available to take proper care of the child. They are neglected and the child becomes wayward. Children from poor homes also do not get scope for education as they have to supplement the earning of their parents. Poverty is, therefore, a contributing cause of delinquency, although it is not the sole cause.
(vi) Stress :
Serious traumatic experiences may lead one to become a delinquent. Clark (1961) found that one- third of the cases studied by him were found to be suffering from trauma. These traumatic experiences may range from death of parents, children husband or wife, broken homes, disorganised families etc.
Burks and Harrison (1962) have also stressed the function of stresses which directly threaten the adolescent feeling of inadequacy and worth as precipitating events in some cases of aggressive antisocial behaviour. Finkelstein (1968) holds that accumulation of emotional tensions also lead to a final outbreak the form of delinquency.
(vii) Delinquent Areas :
Studies of Burt in England indicates that there are certain localities from which majority of delinquent children come. In these areas, there are poor housing overcrowding and lack of recreational facilities. Most delinquents also come from the areas where cinema houses and hotels are located.
Burt found a high correlation of 77 between delinquency and density of population. Shaw in a similar study found that the majority of the Juvenile delinquents came from the centres of Chicago and the number of juveniles decreased from centre to periphery. But this is not applicable to all children staying in the crowded localities.
Essay # 6 . Treatment of Juvenile Delinquency :
What is a crime after all? An act which is a crime in one society may not be a crime in another society as crimes are acts which violate the rights of a person or property as envisaged by law or tradition. But never the less certain acts are considered as criminal in every society like murders, theft etc.
Inspite of the cultural variations in different parts of the world, criminals are always punished by the society or law, although the degree of punishment may vary from society to society. Many in the society believe that punishment should be exemplary so that others will not dare to commit it.
This purpose of giving punishment to the culprit in a major way is to prevent criminal acts. But the question arises whether Juvenile delinquents who are below 18 years of age should be punished like the convicts and criminals or not.
Rehabilitation of delinquents has been a great social issue. Delinquency is an anti-social behaviour and it creates unrest and indiscipline in the society. It makes social life hazardous and dangerous. It also affects the peace and prosperity of the nation. It is, therefore, imperative that the readjustment problem of delinquents should be dealt very sincerely and effectively.
Many people in the society feel that Juvenile delinquents should be given severe punishment so that not only they, but others will not dare to repeat such illegal, anti-social action in future. But sociologists and psychologists strongly hold that since Juvenile delinquency refers to the cases of young minds and children at their tender age, one has to deal with such cases very cautiously and carefully.
Juvenile delinquency being a social disease the child or the adolscent has to be treated in such a manner, so that he can readjust with the society. His maladjustment with the society has to be changed.
Since delinquency is mainly caused in the society under social conditions mostly because his basic needs are not fulfilled, efforts should be made first to fulfil the basic needs of every child in a socially approved manner whether delinquent or non-delinquent and extra care should be taken of the delinquent child.
Each delinquent child tries to fulfil his needs in an anti-social manner. But it would be the job of the social reformers and psychologists dealing with the care of the delinquents, to fulfil their needs in a socially accepted manner according to the norms of the society and legal sanctions.
Further, each delinquent has to be considered individually focussing attention on the fulfillment of his needs for power, prestige and recognition. Each individual case of delinquency has to be studied separately keeping in view his specific problems. Then only, it will be possible to rehabilitate, recondition and readjust the individual in the society.
In recent years there has not only been any transformation in the past attitude of the society and social thinkers towards delinquency there has also been change in law with regard to Juvenile delinquency. The outlook is now more progressive and dynamic. Special courts have been established with specially trained Magistrates to handle the cases of delinquents.
They are also sheltered in special homes instead of jails and special care is taken so that they can be rehabilitated in the society. Remand homes are established by law to which the young offenders are sent. Trained social workers are also engaged to study each case. For each case a separate file is built up with the detailed case history, type of crime committed and further improvement in behaviour.
Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists are also engaged in many remand homes to reform these anti-socials. Instead of giving physical punishment to the offenders, constant efforts are made to bring change in their outlook and attitude towards society, towards themselves. In short, the aim of everyone involved is to rehabilitate the individual in the society as a normal individual.
Special schools are also established otherwise known as ‘Reformatory Schools’ with specially trained teachers to help the delinquents to overcome the deficiencies in their socialization and develop the right kind of attitude towards themselves. The teachers of such schools gradually try to become substituted parents and help the children in generating a sense of security, self confidence, right attitude towards society.
They are given various craft and other vocational training to earn their livelihood, once they are rehabilitated in the society. The schools also develop a number of group activities to change the ego and super ego of these children.
In Western countries delinquents in small groups are brought up in residential areas and given individual treatment, to have in them a feeling that they are part and parcel of the society. Thus, they are removed from the aversive environment and allowed to learn about the world of which they are a member.
If required, they are given individual therapy, group therapy and psychological counselling. Here, their behaviour is resocialized by the help of group pressure. Counselling with the parents in the rehabilitation centre is also of great help for the rehabilitation of the Juvenile delinquents.
Institutionalization may not be quite successful in case of Juvenile offenders, i.e. youths whose offenses have involved acts that world not be considered criminal, if committed by an adult such as running away from home or engaging in sexual relations. If such types of delinquents are kept with those who have committed serious crimes, they would in turn learn these from them.
It may, therefore, aggravate their behavioural problems instead of correcting them. The teachers of reformatory schools should also keep in mind to act as substitutes of good, warm and understanding parents and help the children to generate a sense of security and involvement. They should give up the idea that their life is meaningless and their birth is useless.
The school also should make efforts to develop a number of group activities in debate, sports, various social functions, picnics, exhibitions and study tours to change the ego of the delinquent child, to create a feeling of togetherness, belongingness, we feeling, sense of sacrifice and cooperation along with healthy competition.
Positive human values like honesty, sociability, amiability, truthfulness etc. are to be developed through teaching and action. One has to remember that changes are to be made from negative to positive outlooks and values of life.
Parents have also tremendous role to play in the rehabilitation of their delinquent children. They, therefore, must be helped to develop insight to their own behaviour and analyse their own behaviour which might have led to the maladjustment in the child.
They should, therefore, try to rectify their own behaviour so that in future there is no problem from the side of parents when the child returns from the reformatory home to be rehabilitated in the society. Since a lot depends upon parental behaviour and attitude, they should be very cautious.
Finally, the society and public should also change their outlook and attitude towards delinquency in general. They should not hate or distrust the delinquents. The delinquents must be dealt with sympathy, understanding and good behaviour.
They should not be hurt emotionally. Society as a whole should give up its fear and hostility towards the delinquents and anti-socials. It should develop a flexible attitude so that proper analysis of the causes of delinquency is made and adequate steps are taken both with respect to the prevention and treatment of delinquency.
Mentally retarded children should be specially and cautiously, dealt with parents and teachers. Otherwise, they may become susceptible to delinquency. They should be handled with proper care and should be taught in such a way so that their attention can be sustained.
The psychopathic and neurotic children should be given the opportunities of necessary therapeutic measures and prevent the development of delinquent behaviour.
All kinds of delinquents should not be treated identically, in a group or and should not be given similar rehabilitation facilities. For this purpose, differential diagnosis of the delinquents is essentially required. This can be possible by the, services of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists.
Increase of population without proportionate increase of space and other living conditions is one of the major causes of rise in delinquency. Particularly people migrate to cities from villages and the cities, semi-urban and urban areas for earning their livelihood.
So they are overcrowded. Various difficulties crop up and so problems of socialization are also experienced. Slum areas in cities create more problems leading to the growth of anti-social feelings in children.
Therefore, vast programmes are now being undertaken to clear the slum areas and for providing educational and recreational facilities for the slum children like parks, gardens, play grounds, doll house. As a result, the children need not play in street corners and constitute consciously or unconsciously street corner gangs.
Large amount of money are being spent in Western countries to rehabilitate the delinquents through various remedial measures. Various steps are also being taken at different quarters to prevent the rise of delinquents. But since delinquency is a very complex problem being caused by multifarious factors, it is difficult, though not impossible, to control it and prevent it.
Inspite of the various rehabilitation programmes developed by different countries of the world, they do not appear to be sufficient to reduce the percentage of delinquency from the society or prevent it significantly.
The inadequacies of the correctional system are being changed as and when necessary. Effective rehabilitation programmes, long range programmes to prevent delinquency should also be prepared to combat the rise of delinquency in the society.
This can be made possible by improving the conditions of the slum areas, providing suitable educational facilities for children staying in slum areas, near railway station, bus stand, market etc.
Along with this minimum education, vocational training and training in different trades should also be provided. By being engaged in work and earning some money during the training period, they can be normalized and can also adjust with the main stream.
The manual training will not only encourage their creative abilities, but also would give them satisfaction. When a child or an adolscent produces a bag or a basket, a toy in mud or a painting he gets immense satisfaction. This sense of achievement produces in him a sense of security and confidence, a sense of adequateness.
Orphanage and destitute homes are not sufficient to rehabilitate the juvenile delinquents in view of their increasing numbers during the recent years. Hence, these along with recreational centres should be increased.
In the school the teacher should show sympathetic treatment to the Juveniles. They should not hate them. Their approach should be different from what they show to the normal children and each Juvenile delinquent should be given individual attention. Mentally handicapped and retarded children should not be ridiculed by class mates and peers. The teacher should give special attention to this.
The rehabilitation programmes are not enough keeping in view the rapid growth of Juvenile delinquency in the entire world. The inadequacies of the correctional system are being changed. Besides effective rehabilitation programmes, long range programmes to prevent delinquency should be prepared.
This can be made possible by improving the conditions of the slum areas, provision for suitable educational and recreational facilities, education of parents disciplined and organised society with role relationship defined, development of proper ego identity and etc.
Odell (1974) has developed a programme that combined educational development and job placement facilitating entry in to the opportunity structure more effective than traditional case work methods in preventing Juvenile recidivision. Finally, it can be said that the emphasis should be more on rehabilitation than punishment.
Juvenile delinquency cannot be curbed fully from the society. No society can ever completely prevent or eliminate crime, practically speaking. However, delinquency and crime can be reduced social scientists and psychologists can plan to reduce delinquency and crime.
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Essay On Juvenile Delinquency
Introduction: There are many theories that attempt to explain the phenomenon of juvenile delinquency and the factors that cause it. There is, and has been, a great amount of young people who engage in delinquent behavior throughout the nation and worldwide. What exactly is the catalyst that incites these young people to commit crime and stray from the ethical norm established in society? Are all youth susceptible to the temptation of deviant behavior or is it just some? Theories suggest different possible etiologies, which include: social factors, biological factors, psychological factors and physiological factors, among other things that may mold a child into a juvenile delinquent. There is no one certain theory, regarding juvenile delinquency, that can completely distinguish all the determining factors that makes youth turn to crime; although, the study of all these theories and ideas can bring criminologist one step closer to uncovering the truth about juvenile delinquency. Only the further understanding of juvenile delinquency can help the prevention of future juvenile offenders. This paper will focus on the individual factors of delinquency, as well as the social elements, and provide an explanation of how the combination of the two elements may cause children to engage in criminal activity. Background: Juvenile delinquency is not by any means a new phenomenon, although the way that juvenile offenders are treated when apprehended is constantly changing. Changes in family structure and urbanization have influenced the way that children act, as well as the way that they are viewed by members of society. Today, juvenile offenders are usually not treated like criminals, but rather given a lighter penance than adults and a ch... ... middle of paper ... ...play a role in the creation of a juvenile delinquent. One side is not complete without the other; both social and individual elements take part in the forming of delinquents. Every juvenile delinquent has a unique circumstance with its own mitigating factors. There is no theory that will cover the full array of why the children commit crimes, although the use of several theories may make it clearer. Conclusion: Juvenile delinquency is a problem in today’s society. The problem has created a broad spectrum of both social and individual factors. The more that society learns about delinquency the more capacity it will have to combat against it. The youth are the future of this world, a corrupted juvenile body will ensure great hazard over time. Rehabilitating juvenile offenders into conventional members of society should be the goal of the criminal justice system.
In this essay, the author
- Explains that juvenile delinquency is not a new phenomenon, although the way juvenile offenders are treated is constantly changing.
- Explains that social elements and individual factors perpetuate a juvenile's criminal behavior. biological traits, social interaction, and personal choice influence the behavior of the juvenile.
- Explains that all the theories created by philosophers infer that both social and individual factors play a role in the creation of juvenile delinquents.
- Opines that rehabilitating juvenile offenders into conventional members of society should be the goal of the criminal justice system.
- Explains that there are many theories that attempt to explain the phenomenon of juvenile delinquency and the factors that cause it.
- Explains the biosocial theory and the psychological theories of criminology.
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Jordan Brown Case Study
The study of Juvenile delinquency and the theories pertaining to it are vital for several reasons. In order to more effectively engage with youths and foster positive behavior and schemas, the individuals must first be understood. The study of theory provides a means of understanding adolescents and the factors that lead to or detract from delinquent behavior. In the case of juvenile delinquent, Jordan Brown, theory helps to provide insight into why an eleven-year-old boy murdered his stepmother.
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The youth justice system’s functions are to not only regulate the laws and ramifications of crime in the youth population, but to rehabilitate and reintroduce these juveniles into society. Of the three criminological explanations that can shape a juvenile justice system; individual, situational and social structural, social structural implications is by far the most effective ideology in shaping a modern youth justice system. Shaw and McKay (1942) emphasize in their studies that youth deviance is strongly linked to the social structure they belong to. In support of this theory, Cunneen and White (2011) state that crime is a social phenomenon that can not be directly connected to a person’s individual or personal biology. With that being said, there are a number of theories that can be best used to construct a youth justice system from a social structural angle, including; social strain or social disorganization, social bonds and differential association theories. Each of these theories, from their own theoretical angle, can provide framework and ideologies on how to better the youth justice system in a number of facets in order to target modern youths’ social structural and delinquency struggles.
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There are many issues with crime and violence in the United States, but very few are more controversial than the issue of juveniles in crime. How are juveniles getting involved in crime? What is causing America’s youth to do things that their parents should’ve instilled as morally wrong? What are ways to control and possibly eliminate these issues that affect the way we live? For the past century, criminologists have been studying juvenile related crime and a few theories have come up. These theories have, in the mid to late 20th century, been shaped into models. There are three main models dealing with juvenile crime and violence that will be gone over in pages to follow of this paper: Noninterventionist Model, Rehabilitation Model, and Crime Control Model. In this paper, the reader will see what each model discusses, and how they apply to today’s youth. At the end each model’s description, the reader will learn what I personally think about how the specific model would work. Being a recently turned 20 year-old, I feel I can give an accurate view of how, or if, the crime model would work. Living in both extremely rural(Mokane Missouri), and very urban(St Louis) has taught me a great deal about what really goes on in a juvenile’s head, and what sorts of actions would truly help to decrease crime rates among juveniles. I will give examples from the readings of chapter 13 of Making Sense of Criminal Justice: Policies and Practices, and I’ll conclude with my opinion of which model I believe works best to cope with juvenile crime.
Delinquency and Children´s Behavior: The Choice Theory
“Children are a product of their environment”, is something I constantly hear when a either a young person is acting out or a young person doesn’t look “socially acceptable”. Delinquency and children’s behavior was something I have grown to become interested in during our class; thus leading me to analyze different theories on youth and the factors that prompted the onset of delinquent and how they continue to sustain their negative behavior. I personally do not completely agree with any one theory that applies to youth and child delinquency, yet there are points within each theory that I can agree with. In the following pages I will describe theories such as Choice Theory, Biosocial Theory, and Differential Association Theory.
Restorative Justice Approach Essay
As discussed in depth, there are all types of crimes that are committed by young offenders these days and the offenders possess a number of different characteristics. There have been many theoretical crime explanations that have been formed over the years that attempt to explain the reasoning behind the question of why certain individuals, both young and old, are more prone to commit crimes. The discussion of punishment practices are also important because it displays the many approaches that have been taken to ensure that juvenile delinquents are being treated fairly, but punished and rehabilitated all simultaneously. Many methods fall under this kind of approach referred to as the restorative justice approach such as neighborhood conference committees, victim impact panels, sentencing circles, and community impact panels which all attempt to rehabilitate the offender, but also to involve members of society including the victims/survivors of crimes (Siegel, 2009). It is believed and hoped with the continuation of processes, practices, and programs in place such as these that juvenile crime will eventually decrease bringing more order to our society as a whole. Overall, this paper strives to bring awareness to juvenile delinquency by
Is Crime a Biological or Learned Behavior?
Thompson, W. E. and Bynum J. E. (2010). Juvenile Delinquency: A sociological Approach Eighth Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Juvenile Justice System Essay
The future of the juvenile justice system is promising. The methods and approaches utilized should continue to improve in the next twenty years in the same way that they have improved over the past twenty years. Addressing the main factors that contribute to juvenile offending will help to solve the problem of delinquency in the United States. Juveniles in the present system do have the ability to straighten out their lives. This might be less challenging for them than it has been in the past, but hopefully the future will make the road to reform easier for them.
The Cause Of Juvenile Delinquency
Many in the juvenile justice field have tried to understand the cause of juvenile delinquency. There are many different theories describe the cause and effect of variables and how they react. However, through much research, we have concluded there is not just one single path or journey that determines the fate of the juvenile. There are many different risk factors that build in order to increase a youth's chance of becoming an offender. This is kind of like a domino effect. Risk factors are described as the characteristics that present themselves to determine if the individual or youth will become a delinquent. These factors may include; home life, income status, gender, and social. It can either be one or all that play a part in the way the
The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory
Onwediwe, I. (2004). “Theoretical Perspectives on Juvenile Delinquency: Root Causes and Control.” ProQuest Criminal Justice, 66, 153-156.
Theories Of Criminal Behavior
This paper looks at the different theories of criminal behavior that explain why people commit crimes. It goes deeper to analyze the specific theories in a bid to determine why a person may commit a certain crime and another person under the same circumstances may not. The paper focuses on key factors that motivate unruly behavior among people and why such factors are present in some people and not in others. In doing so, the paper leans more on children in order to determine how delinquency behavior is progressively imparted on them as they undergo developmental trajectory.
Linking Body Type and Criminal Behavior
Analysis of juvenile delinquency.
Juvenile delinquency is a serious problem and leads to negative outcomes for youth, families, and society as a whole. Adolescents under the age of 18 who are arrested for committing a criminal act are processed through a juvenile justice system. The juvenile justice system is grounded on the principle that the youth have different needs than adults. During adolescence, youth are forming their identities and still developing mentally, physically, socially, and emotionally. Due to their early stages of development, juveniles who violate the law should be treated differently than adults.
Juvenile Delinquency: Is there a solution?
Juvenile delinquency is one of the major social issues in the United States today. Juvenile delinquency, also known as juvenile offending, is when “a violation of the law committed by a juvenile and not punishable by death or life imprisonment” (Merriam-webster.com). Although we have one justice system in America, the juvenile system differs from the adult juvenile system. Most juvenile delinquents range from as low as the age of seven to the age of seventeen. Once the delinquent or anyone turns the age of eighteen, they are considered an adult. Therefore, they are tried as an adult, in the justice system. There are many different reasons why a child would commit crime, such as mental and physical factors, home conditions, neighborhood environment and school conditions. In addition, there are a variety of effects that juvenile justice systems can either bad effects or good effects. Finally there are many different solutions that can reduce juvenile delinquency. As a result, juvenile delinquency is a major issue and the likeliness of it can be reduced. In order to reduce juvenile delinquency there has to be an understanding of the causes and the effects.
Youth Crime Essay
...why youth engage in criminal activity Research suggests delinquent peers are a proximate cause than family/parental; family/parental may only be a slight cause of involvement in crime. Some research suggests that criminal propensities can be inherited through genes. Unfortunately, the media portrayals of crime aren’t a true representative of the actual crime trends, or accurately reflecting the level of crime perpetrated by youth. There are many different variables that could cause youth to engage in criminal activity, some of these major variables have been discussed throughout this essay.
The Causes of Juvenile Delinquency and Crime
The social environment of teens holds an enormous influence on how the teens act and behave. Teens are easily influenced by their surroundings and they look to others for guidance. Their behavior results from that of the parent and peer influences. Parents play a particularly influential role in their child’s life and it is up to them to make sure that they are leading their sons or daughters in the right directions. A teen’s peers also play a large role in how the teen behaves when the parents are not around. A teen’s social environment, consisting of family and peers, plays a vital role in their life, therefore becoming the ultimate cause of juvenile delinquency.
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Juvenile Delinquency Essay | Essay on Juvenile Delinquency for Students and Children in English
Juvenile Delinquency Essay: “In our country, children are considered a gift from heaven and if the child is a boy then nothing could be more soothing for the family as from the very beginning children are exempted from severe punishment for any wrong commitment on their part irrespective of the gravity of the act.” This one statement itself says and justifies for the social evil, our society is facing today: Juvenile Delinquency.
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Long and Short Essays On Juvenile Delinquency for Kids and Students in English
Given below are two essays in English for students and children about the topic of ‘Juvenile Delinquency’ in both long and short form. The first essay is a long essay on the Juvenile Delinquency of 400-500 words. This long essay about Juvenile Delinquency is suitable for students of class 7, 8, 9 and 10, and also for competitive exam aspirants. The second essay is a short essay on Juvenile Delinquency of 150-200 words. These are suitable for students and children in class 6 and below.
Long Essay on Juvenile Delinquency 500 Words in English
Below we have given a long essay on Juvenile Delinquency of 500 words is helpful for classes 7, 8, 9 and 10 and Competitive Exam Aspirants. This long essay on the topic is suitable for students of class 7 to class 10, and also for competitive exam aspirants.
In ordinary terms, a child roughly between the age of 7 to 16/18 years who is involved in some kind of a ‘status offence’ such as vagrancy, immortality, truancy and ungovern ability is a juvenile delinquent. Thus, juvenile delinquency is not just about under-aged criminals, who get involved in criminal activities. In fact, the term ‘juvenile delinquency’ refers to the violation of a code of conduct or a regular occurrence of certain patterns of disapproved behaviour of children and adolescents. The well accepted age at present for juvenile delinquents is 16 years for boys and 18 years for girls.
Juvenile delinquents are mainly classified on the basis of their behavioural patterns. They range from the escapers, who keep away from school and get involved in petty thefts and armed robberies, destruction of property, violence and sexual offences. They are also classified according to the type of violation they commit.
Thus, psychologists have grouped juvenile delinquents on the basis of their personality traits as mentally defective, psychotic, neurotic, situational and cultural delinquents. According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report, the trend of children committing crime has an alarming echo across the country.
It is extremely hard to trace and keep a check on juvenile delinquency as of all the delinquencies committed by juveniles, only a small percentage come to the notice of the police and the courts. Traditionally, surveys suggest that delinquencies like theft, burglary, robbery, dacoity and other such offences are most commonly committed by juveniles. But recent statistics reveal that juveniles have also been found actively involved in riots, murder, rape, kidnapping and abduction as well.
Reason being that courts and juvenile rights advocates believe that second chance should be given to youth who commit crimes, so criminals are walking in the streets, living as our neighbours and in many cases committing additional crimes.
The delinquency rates are comparatively much higher among boys than in girls. Children from broken homes or disturbed families who are either homeless or living with guardians are more likely to indulge in criminal activities. Low education or illiteracy and poor economic background are major features of juvenile delinquents. But now-a-days, it’s not only street children who take to crime, even children from well-off middle and upper middle class families are turning to crime due to peer pressure and crime thrill the hunger of adolescents to be heroes among their friends, the need to portray class and style, effect of cinema have propelled the rate of juvenile delinquency in the society.
The media plays a major role in creating bogus desires and images in the minds of the youth, for which they are willing to do anything. Moreover, unmonitored access to the internet is another reason for growth in these crimes, as many are caught swindling money from bank accounts. Children belonging to the elite class, who are either sons or daughters of politicians, businessmen are also found involved in criminal acts. This largely attributes to criminals going scot-free in high-profile criminal cases, so the fear barrier no longer exists.
Increased exposure combined with isolation is the root cause of these behavioural issues. Children are growing up much faster, but their conscience and ability to distinguish between right and wrong isn’t developing at the same rate and they don’t feel the need to think things through. In most cases, the cause behind juvenile delinquency is defective upbringing or no upbringing, faulty or no family interaction. Children are not born criminals.
It’s the situations and circumstances that lead them into delinquencies. Mostly all juvenile offences have deeper roots and serious situational factors which are responsible for a child behaving in a particular way. Family plays a vital role in structuring the mental, emotional and behavioural patterns of a child. Other factors that are responsible for the rise in juvenile delinquency are unhealthy neighbourhood, cinema, pornographic literature and bad company.
In UK, child between 10 to 18 years become criminally responsible for his action and be tried by the youth court or could be tried in an adult court as per the gravity of the offence committed. In our country too, the time has come to bring some reforms in the Juvenile laws. There is a steep rise in serious crimes involving youth of 16 to 18 years of age as they very well know that below 18 years is the ‘getaway pass’ for them from criminal prosecution. The punishment should be made a big deterrent in order to inject the feeling of fear in the mind of the criminals.
Short Essay on Juvenile Delinquency 200 Words in English
Below we have given a short essay on Juvenile Delinquency is for Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. This short essay on the topic is suitable for students of class 6 and below.
In the recent 2012 Delhi gang rape case, media too highlighted that ‘Most Brutal’ of all the accused person was the juvenile. For the brutalising act, he has been sentenced to imprisonment for the period of 3 years where others have got the death sentence. The principle that should have been followed for trying juvenile offenders is that Juvenility should be decided as per the state of mind and not just the state of body.
Juvenile Justice Act, 1986 was enacted by our Parliament in order to provide care, protection, treatment, development and rehabilitation of neglected or delinquent as a uniform system of juvenile justice mechanism throughout our country. These days we have observation homes, reformatory schools, custody institutions, probation homes etc., to help juvenile delinquents reform themselves so that they can be gradually absorbed into the mainstream society.
Moreover, we need to pay greater attention to improving the average condition in a society so that no child confronts such situations that force them to adopt unacceptable behavioural patterns. We need to find ways and means to pool the youthful energy of the children in a constructive and desired direction.
11 Lines to Remember Essay on Juvenile Delinquency
- Exempted – to free from an obligation or liability to which others are subject
- Vagrancy – a person without a settled home or regular work who wanders from place to place and lives by begging
- Truancy – the action of staying away from school without good reason; absenteeism
- Psychotic – mentally unstable; intensely upset, anxious, or angry
- Neurotic – abnormally sensitive, obsessive, or anxious; disturbed; irrational
- Echo – a sound heard again and again, any repetition of the ideas or opinions
- Burglary -theft, robbery, illegal entry of a building with intent to commit a crime
- Propelled – drive or push something forward, to urge onward
- Bogus – false, fake, not genuine
- Swindling – to obtain money by fraud, to cheat for money
- Deterrent – a thing that discourages or is intended to discourage someone from doing something
Juvenile Delinquency Causes and Effects
Causes and effects of juvenile delinquency: essay abstract, effects and causes of juvenile delinquency: essay introduction.
- Juvenile delinquency statistics
- Causes of juvenile delinquency
- Effects of juvenile delinquency
- Prevention of juvenile delinquency
- Solutions to juvenile delinquency
Effects and Causes of Juvenile Delinquency: Essay Conclusion
Given the widespread family, societal, community, and individual costs that come with high rates of juvenile delinquency, one cannot help to wonder what the government is doing about it. It is also everybody’s concern that the government may not be doing enough to make a difference.
At this point, it is important to note that one can effortlessly appear non-delinquent after a correctional program while the delinquent characteristics are intact deep inside him/her. Delinquency programs for the youth have continually focused on individual behavior while ignoring community, family, and neighborhood factors, which are the most critical factors contributing to delinquent behavior.
It is common knowledge that the problem of juvenile delinquency is immense in society, and thus a change of tact is critical if society is to overcome this problem. This paper will explore other factors that lead to juvenile delinquency and propose solutions to this problem.
Delinquency refers to the violation of a law by a child. It is analogous to the commitment of a crime by an adult. Juvenile delinquency is an issue of great concern in law enforcement and correctional circles.
Every state in the U.S. aims to reduce the number of juveniles being recruited to delinquency and the number of juvenile delinquents recidivating.
Despite the efforts taken in a bid to reduce the number of delinquents and recidivists, the U.S. continues to record high numbers of juvenile offenders in juvenile correctional facilities. This situation, therefore, calls for a nuanced approach to the issue of juvenile delinquency.
It is critical to understand the extent of the growth of juvenile offending. Statistics released by bureaus in various states indicate that the rate of juvenile offenses is increasing. Offending patterns among groups previously described as risk groups for juvenile delinquency are worsening or, at least, unchanging.
There is, therefore, the need to analyze the causes of juvenile delinquency, evaluate the effects that delinquency has on society, and develop interventions that can lead to a reduction in the rate of delinquency and recidivism among juveniles. This paper describes the problem of juvenile recidivism and suggests ways to reduce the delinquency rate.
Juvenile Delinquency Statistics
A substantial percentage of arrests made each day in the U.S. comprises people below the age of 18. It is estimated that the percentage of violent crime arrests currently stands at about 17 % (Barker 1). “Juveniles accounted for 16% of all violent crimes arrests and 32% of all property crime arrests in 1999. They accounted for 54% of all arson arrests, 42% of vandalism arrests, 31 % of larceny arrests, and 33% of burglary arrests” (“Juvenile Justice” 1).
The number of juveniles engaging in delinquent behavior in various states depends on racial disparities. Currently, black juveniles constitute the highest number of youths being held in residential custody. Their number is almost twice the number of Hispanics held in residential custody and five times the number of white juveniles held in residential custody in the United States (“Juvenile Justice” 1).
In several cases, Juveniles are tried in adult courts. In fact, the Kansas and Vermont states in the U.S. have statutory provisions that allow the trial of juveniles as young as 10 years of age in adult courts. This situation may need review. It is because youth held in adult prisons tend to have a higher recidivism rate than those in juvenile systems (“Juvenile Justice” 1).
More than 1.7 million juvenile delinquency cases in the United States were disposed of in 1997. Two thousand of the aforementioned cases were criminal homicides. Forcible rape constituted 6,500, while aggravated assault cases totaled 67,900. Out of the 1.7 million, 180,000 cases were drug-related (“Juvenile Justice” 1).
The statistics outlined above show the seriousness of the issue of delinquency in the United States. Given the effects of delinquency on society, it is vital to understand the causes of delinquency. It is also critical to develop solutions and prevention strategies for delinquency.
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
There have been heated debates among criminologists, psychologists, and sociologists concerning the possible causes of juvenile delinquency. The causes included in the following discussion have been proven through practical research.
One of the leading causes of delinquent behavior among juveniles is peer influence. Research shows that young people who form relationships with positive individuals and groups that pursue positive commitments tend to shun delinquent behavior. However, juveniles can engage in activities that do not have concrete objectives and commitments.
These activities will likely lead to volatile relationships that may encourage delinquent behavior. Examples of these behaviors include drinking and smoking. Other behaviors without commitment that juveniles may engage in include watching television and spending too much time watching movies.
Although most people attach no harm to these activities, research has proven that the more time peers spend watching television, the more likely they are to engage in delinquent behaviors (Mandel 1).
Family influence is another factor that has been proven to contribute to juvenile delinquency. It is even suspected that family influence contributes to delinquent behavior more than peer pressure. Research has proven that families in which there is no strong emotional bonding tend to have juveniles who turn out to be delinquent.
The reason is that the juveniles may develop psychological problems like rejection and low self-esteem, leading to delinquent behavior. Other causes of psychological problems like trauma and low self-esteem are also linked to delinquency. The two can originate from sources outside the family.
Children abused or exposed to family violence are likely to be delinquents. Some studies have linked genes to delinquency, arguing that children whom criminals and drug addicts raise are likely to become delinquent. Another risk is a family in which there are no effective communication channels. Children raised in this kind of family may have issues they want to address, but they may lack an audience.
This cause is likely to make them result in delinquent behavior. Non-traditional families like reconstituted families and single-parent families may also be a factor. Research has shown that children raised by single parents or divorcees tend to be more delinquent than their counterparts raised in traditional families (Mandel 1).
Race is a significant factor in predicting delinquent behavior. The main reason why race is a determinant factor for delinquency is that minority groups are not accorded the same treatment as other races. This makes them live disgruntled lives, which may make them have delinquent behavior.
Once the delinquency trend is set in a certain race, peer influence fuels recidivism and fresh offense. It is important to note that numerous scholars argue that race is not the factor, but racism is (Mandel 1).
Effects of Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile delinquency is a big problem that affects not only the victims of the delinquents but also the juvenile delinquents themselves, their families, and even society as a whole. Juvenile delinquents may not be able to predict the effect of their crimes on themselves, but, as stated, they are seriously affected by these crimes.
Most of these crimes make the juvenile lose his/her freedom because he/she may be placed on probation or even incarcerated. This will also affect the academic welfare of the juvenile because he or she will miss academic activities that will take place during probation or incarceration.
In cases where the juvenile is placed in a residential center for the detention of juveniles, he/she may be influenced by more experienced juvenile delinquents (Barker 1). It will make the juvenile more likely to recidivate and suffer re-offense consequences. The delinquency of the minor may even dictate his or her career choices in the future.
The trauma of having a juvenile delinquent in a family can create instability for other family members. The family has to meet the needs of the juvenile in trouble and raise lawyer’s fees. The family also has an ethical obligation to the victim of the delinquent. Families are required to attend counseling sessions as a group. This is usually costly and disruptive (Barker 1).
Juvenile delinquency is closely related to sexual behavior, drug use, gang involvement, etc. All these negatively affect the community because it makes the community unsafe and makes the government spend colossal sums of money on school safety and law enforcement.
As stated, juvenile delinquency has severe effects on some societal groups. It, therefore, affects society negatively by affecting the community, families, individuals, etc. The problem also challenges government agencies, organizations, educators, faith communities, and politicians (Barker 1).
Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency
Due to the contribution of family influence to juvenile delinquent behavior, it is vital to ensure that families positively impact children. This can be achieved by ensuring strong emotional bonding in the family and by laying out effective strategies for communication.
Children raised by families that do not conform to the traditional family should be closely watched to curb the development of delinquent behavior. Schools should also ensure that they know the backgrounds of children in order to fill the gaps that may be left by the parents (Saminsky 1). For instance, teachers can help to counsel a child who witnesses violence at home or a child whose parent is a criminal.
Parents should ensure that they closely monitor the kind of company that their children keep. They should ensure their children engage in productive social activities (Saminsky 1). These measures will help reduce the chances of their children becoming delinquents. In school, teachers should keep a close eye on pupils to ensure that they know their activities.
Pupils should be appropriately searched in school to ensure they do not carry guns and drugs. This step will ensure that delinquent pupils do not influence others. It will also help identify delinquent children so they can be counseled or even sent for correctional services.
Although controversial, another way of preventing delinquency is reducing or eradicating racism. This method will target delinquents in minority groups. It will help reduce the number of juveniles in these minority groups who commit offenses because they will not commit racism-inspired crimes.
It will also help boost teenagers’ self-esteem in these minority groups. Thus instances of offenses caused by low self-esteem will be limited in these minority groups (Saminsky 1).
Solutions to Juvenile Delinquency
The best way to reduce the number of delinquency cases is by using the preventative measures outlined in the paragraph above. The preventative measures should be holistic in the sense that they should include all the people in the lives of the juveniles.
The juveniles should be monitored and guided while at home and counseled and monitored while in school. Juveniles who are at high risk of developing delinquent behavior should be watched closely and given special treatment so that they do not end up offending (Rose 1).
Another way of reducing the number of delinquency cases is by reducing the rates at which juvenile delinquents recidivate. It can be achieved by having legislation that ensures that juveniles are corrected differently and in facilities different from the ones used for adult correction.
The reason is that, from the statistics section, juveniles corrected in the same facilities as adult offenders are more likely to recidivate than their counterparts in juvenile facilities. The recidivism rates of young offenders can also be reduced by having a program to correct delinquents. This is most appropriately implemented while the delinquents are in custody.
The program should be holistic, and thus it should consist of counseling services offered by a psychologist, recreational facilities, and training (Rose 1). The counseling services will give a platform in which the juveniles can freely share their experiences, and thus their healing process can be sped up.
The recreational facilities will give the juveniles alternative hobbies that will occupy their time after they are released from custody. Thus they will have less time to consider re-offending. Lastly, the training will equip the juvenile who may have quit school with entrepreneurial skills that they can utilize to make money after they are released from custody. It will, therefore, help to reduce the number of cases where juveniles re-offend due to financial problems.
Juvenile delinquency can also be reduced by effective policing that will ensure that community criminals do not recruit juveniles into crime. It is common to hear of gangs using schoolchildren to market drugs and carry assault weapons. This practice should be discouraged by vigilance from parents and teachers and effective community policing.
From the discussion above, it is clear that delinquency is an enormous societal problem. Juvenile delinquency is caused by several factors, including peer influence, influence by the juvenile’s family, race, and other related factors like low self-esteem and trauma.
The effects of delinquency are far-reaching, and they, therefore, affect the community, victims of the delinquent, society as a whole, and even the delinquents themselves. Therefore, it is vital to address this issue to reduce the rates of offense and re-offense.
Several interventions can be used to prevent and reduce delinquency and recidivism. These interventions can be implemented in the family, school, or even correctional facilities. School and family-level interventions are mainly aimed at preventing recidivism, while the interventions implemented at correctional facilities are aimed at reducing recidivism.
Thus, these interventions must be taken seriously to reduce the number of delinquents in society. This will, in turn, reduce the number of delinquency victims, the number of affected families, and the amount of resources that the government will spend on law enforcement and correctional services. Therefore, it will lead to a better society.
Barker, Leslie. “ The Effects of Juvenile Delinquency ”. Ehow.com . 2011.
Juvenile Justice. “Basic Statistics”. Pbs.org . 2011.
Mandel, Sharon. “ What Causes Juvenile Delinquency? ” Filthylucre.com . 2008.
Rose, Nancy. “ The Solution to Juvenile Delinquency is Simple ”. Public.asu.edu . 2010.
Saminsky, Alina. “ Preventing Juvenile Delinquency : Early Intervention and Comprehensiveness as Critical Factors”. Studentpulse.com . 2011.
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Children and youth crime is a growing concern in the world today. There are many young offenders who and this calls for the need to balance justice models and welfare. There is a lack of sufficient workforce on the area of justice especially on growing delinquency area. Most high-income countries have made interventions to deal with juvenile delinquency through the introduction of children and adolescence forensic psychiatry. There is need to come with better responses to reduce children and youth crime in the world. The paper will feature an analysis of juvenile delinquency and justice in the whole world.
Juvenile delinquency is a term used to refer to a child who has committed a crime. The definition varies depending on specific local jurisdiction due to lack of generally agreed meaning of the word. ‘A juvenile’ is a person who is legally able to commit a crime being of a minimum description of age. The age of criminal responsibility varies from six to eighteen with most countries settling at eighteen years. In other cases, people above the age of eighteen may be handled as a juvenile since the United Nations defines a youth with a period of fifteen to twenty-four years. Clear definition of a child and a youth varies from one country to the other.
In recent years the issue of criminality and mental health has been given much attention with more emphasis being on the antisocial behavior of the adolescent. The problem of crime among youths have provoked attention from the government agent and the media all over the world. There is calls for improved rehabilitation mechanisms and supporting juvenile offenders while some advocates for more punitive approaches on the same. There are studies to determine the needs of the children that come into conflict with the law. Studies show significant overlap between biomedical research, social and criminology as to the understanding of delinquency behavior. Studies show that juvenile offenders suffer remarkably from mental disorders and elevated prevalence. The challenge and issue can only get to be understood by meeting the needs of young people.
A delinquent is a child who has committed a crime. The behavior may vary depending on local jurisdiction and may change from time to time. Among the behavior considered delinquent are theft, interpersonal violence, consumption of alcohol, and sexual behavior among others. The response may be as a result of historical, traditional beliefs and cultural factors. There arises a lack of clarity in the jurisdiction in which a young offender may be processed through a welfare system rather than in a youth justice system. Countries with a high minimum age of criminal responsibility may not be able to punish young people for behaviors that are mostly prosecuted.
There are some principles of juvenile justice, and the first principle is the welfare versus justice model. Three factors drive the sentencing of a criminal. The first one is retribution or punishment, rehabilitation, and deterrence. In the case of juvenile delinquency, the principle of restoration receives much attention. The special consideration for children is different from that of other people, and this is common in many countries. For example in Roman Law doli incapax is a principle which protects the interest of children by arguing that children lack the capacity and understanding that may make them guilty.
Each country has special treatment for children who gets caught in conflict with the law, and the punishment varies from one state to the other. Some states put more emphasis on diagnosis, treatment and the needs of the children while others emphasize discipline, procedural accountability, and formalities. An excellent example of a country with a robust welfare process in Belgium due to the high minimum age set by the judiciary. France, on the other hand, put a welfare reputation by putting education and rehabilitation center as a center of youth justice. USA and UK gets regarded as having a low age of criminal responsibility. Under the welfare and justice model, a child may be deprived of liberty through detention under official authorities. The arrest may take place in a private or public location in which the juvenile is not supposed to leave. Examples of such sites include juvenile prisons, police stations, adult prisons, detention centers, locked specialized schools, boot camps, secured youth hostels, military camps, military prisons, rehabilitation establishments, and immigration detention centers among others.
UN campaigns for the development of a specialized system in dealing in conflict with the law. The first children court in the USA was set in 1930’s, and the country was praised for serving the interests of the children. In 1960 concerns on the protection of the minors arose. The subsequent establishment of children courts proceeded due to the rehabilitation of young people. Between 1980 and 1990s statistics showed a peak in juvenile cases and the public and political opinion was the use of a more punitive direction in solving juvenile cases. The peak made jurisdiction to have more legal reforms and also increased the punishment given to children. The age of criminal responsibility was also reduced. Reports show that 19 juvenile offenders faced tried in the USA from 1990 to 2005. The statistics only represent a small number of children who suffered a birth penalty, and this practice was highly criticized by international bodies.
One of the major causes of criminal acts among children is the emergence of criminal acts among youths. The groups are formed based on ethnic groups and geographical location. Youth gangs arise as a result of globalization, economic migration, peer pressure, lack of extended family gatherings and less supervision of children, especially by their parents. Most members of youth gangs have mental health problems. The mental disorders by most of the members include antisocial personality, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders. Gang membership also increases suicidal rates among the youths.
Research shows that social, individual and community conditions influence the behavior of any person. Delinquency behavior gets developed through the interplay of environmental and genetic factors which may come from the time the children grows. Although genetic factors are the significant factors contributing to juvenile behavior, it is worth to note that they need to intertwine with the environmental factors. Studies show that most adult criminals grew up in delinquent behavior, but most young criminals change as they grow and age. There are some individual-level factors including substance use, age, gender, aggressiveness, and complications during pregnancy among others. Other key factors that influence juvenile behavior is individual capabilities, competencies, and characteristics. Social factors such as relationship among the peers and the child upbringing also affect the actions of young people. Family structure and family influence also play a crucial role in influencing the behavior of most children.
Preventing juvenile delinquency helps to improve the quality of life to the children and the youths, boosts the economy and also make communities better and safer. One way to prevent juvenile delinquency is by identifying the kids who are at high risk. One way to identify kids at high risk of the behavior is through considering the history of abuse. Children who faced physical and mental abuse at an early age may make people develop delinquency behavior. The other way is by looking at any inhibited or antisocial behavior. A child who rarely interact with other children or rarely want to be associated with his/her family then it should imply that the child may engage in juvenile delinquency behavior in the future. Children with hyperactivity behavior then they may develop the behavior. Kids living in high crime areas as well as in poverty are likely to create the practice compared to those from stable backgrounds. Another critical thing to consider is the friends that one relates with especially if they have been engaged in juvenile delinquency behavior.
With the knowledge of the possible risk factors then it would be easy to determine preventive mechanism. The first one would be to encourage children to talk to their parents. Children should also be invited to make shared activities among children and parents. In case a child is identified to have the behavior then one should look for a supportive family member to talk to the child. The final way would be to ensure that children join a mentoring program.
In conclusions, there is a need to have a collective responsibility to stop juvenile delinquency behavior. People should be encouraged to establish community activities for the children and also help children participate in school activities.
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Juvenile Delinquency Essay
Juvenile And Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile delinquency is a social issue in the United States today. Juvenile delinquency, is when “a violation of the law is committed by a juvenile and is not punishable by death or life imprisonment” (Juvenile Delinquency). The juvenile system is different from the adult system in many way and most juvenile delinquents are from the age of ten to the age of seventeen (Juvenile Delinquent). Once the delinquent or anyone is at the age of eighteen, they are considered to be an adult. Therefore, in the
Juvenile Delinquency 1 Juvenile Delinquency: Features, Causes and Solutions Shen Cheng Class: 110 Teacher: Stephanie February 29, 2012 Juvenile Delinquency 2 Outline I. Introduction Thesis statement: Nowadays, there is no denying that Juvenile Delinquency has become one of the hottest social issues. The features, causes, and solutions of Juvenile Delinquency will be discussed about in this research. II. The features of Juvenile Delinquency A. The average age of juveniles who commit
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(Tappan, 2003) This is not to say that children did not commit criminal activity during the Middle Ages, but rather that the concept of juvenile delinquent was not part of the vocabulary during this period of time. If a transgression occurred, then punishment was meted out regardless of child or adult status. (Bradshaw, 1995) In early American life, children were not so different from that
Opener: B. Thesis statement: This term paper explores how family issues attribute to juvenile delinquency and how to overcome it. II. First and foremost, an unstable family structure is one of the contributing factors to juvenile delinquency. A. Single-parent household vs. two-parent household B. Child maltreatment 1. emotional neglect 2. physical abuse III. Secondly, studies have shown that juvenile delinquency is conclusively related to the family environment. A. Family cohesion B. Increasing number
Juvenile delinquency is the habitual committing of criminal acts or offenses by a young person, especially one below the age at which ordinary criminal prosecution is possible. Up until recently juvenile delinquency only accounted for males. However, girls are now the fastest growing segment of the juvenile justice system, even though the rates of juvenile offending are declining. Due to the increase of the female juvenile population, some female juveniles are being held in adult prisons. Because
Juvenile Delinquency is the participation of illegal behavior by a minor who falls under a statutory age limit. A delinquent is a minor who commits a crime or a status offense. A status offense is conduct that is illegal only because the child is under age i.e. smoking cigarettes (Senna 10, 20). The cases of Eric Smith, Lionel Tate, and an unidentified NJ child are similar only because, they are guilty of killing another child, but the Criminal Justice System treated and punished them very differently
Juvenile Crime And Juvenile Delinquency
Version). Juvenile crime, in law, term denoting various offense committed by children or youth under the age of 18. U.S. official crime reported that in the mid-1900’s “about one-fifth of all persons arrested for crimes were under the age of 18” (Funk & Wagnalls, 2014). Such acts are sometimes referred to as juvenile delinquency (Funk & Wagnalls, 2014. Offering constructive programs reduces juvenile delinquency and reduces recidivism. “From the beginning, the principal consideration of the juvenile courts
The Causes Of Juvenile Delinquency
Theft, vandalism, disorderly conduct, and possession of marijuana are common crimes, offenses and violations of juvenile delinquency. Delinquency is the wrongdoing or minor crime, especially committed by young people – young people refers to term ‘juvenile’. Delinquency may be committed by any individual regardless of the age group, but with younger population it is handled differently in court system compared to adults. Most states implement community based programs and school-related activities
Theories Of Juvenile Delinquency
The most frequently asked question of criminologists is, what causes delinquency? There are many explanations and theories of delinquency, especially in specific regards juvenile delinquency. For the simplicity and length, this paper will be focusing on the strain theory, social learning theory, control theory, labeling theory, and life course theory. First the theories will be explained and defined. After the theories have been defined, a comparison of the five will be made. Next, some contrasts
Juvenile Delinquency Is A Problem
Juvenile Delinquency When looking into the history of United States and elsewhere juvenile delinquency is a problem and has been one for over a century. Like other systems in place, the system involving juvenile delinquents has gone through many stages. In the case of the juvenile delinquency, it has gone through four stages, with us presently in the fourth. The causes behind juvenile delinquency are still unknown even today. Some blame it on the current culture, the over-exposure to violence
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Essay, Paragraph or Speech on “Juvenile Delinquency” Complete English Essay, Speech for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.
Juvenile delinquency, is also known as, juvenile offending’. It involves participation in illegal behaviour by minors. Most legal systems such as juvenile detention centers and courts suggest specific procedures for dealing with juveniles.
Juvenile delinquency refers to disruptive, or illegal behaviour by children or teenagers. A young person who is yet not an adult and who is guilty of committing a crime is called a juvenile delinquent’. A social crime committed by a person below 18 years of age is known as juvenile delinquency. Juvenile children are not punished like adult criminals as they do not come under the penal section. Such lawbreakers are sent to rehabilitative homes.
Juvenile crimes can range from offenses such as underage smoking, to property and violent crimes. Many children have a tendency to cross the limits set by their parents and elders. They find it adventurous. Delinquent activities include killing someone, attempting suicide, betting, stealing, begging, involving in sexual activities, causing damage to someone’s property, etc. Eve teasing done in schools, colleges and on streets is another form of delinquent activity.
Sometimes family plays a significant role in delinquency among children. Lack of parental love contributes to delinquency. The level of parental control and discipline, too much firmness, family disputes, parental separation and family members belonging to criminal background affect the tender minds of children. Those children who are brought up by a single parent are more likely to show delinquent tendency. Children are more likely to miss their school to pass time with delinquent friends when parents are unaware about their daily activities. Step-parenthood can also contribute to it.
Children with weak physical and mental abilities also show delinquent behaviour. Such children think that by engaging in delinquent actions they will succeed in dealing with their inferiorities and weaknesses. It is also found that mentally retarded children are often used by others to commit crime.
Stopping children from involving in criminal or antisocial activities is the main objective Mille preventive measures. As family is the first school of child, healthy behaviour among children must be encouraged within the family. It is not always easy for the Government alone to provide financial assistance for preventive measures. Thus, along with the Government, private establishments and groups of people come together to prevent juvenile delinquency. Preventive measures also include activities such as counselling and guiding the youth, educating parents and providing shelter to delinquent children.
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