Visual impairment Essays

Visual impairment and blindness essay.

Visual impairment and blindness caused by various diseases has been hugely reduced, but there are many people who are at risk of age-related visual impairment. Visual information is most important for any navigational tasks, so visually impaired people are at disadvantage because necessary information about the surrounding environment is not available. With the wide development in inclusive technology it is possible to extend the support given to people with visual impairment during their mobility

Visual Impairment Outline

Kelcy Shackelford Visual Impairment Media Rough Draft Visual Impairment Outline I. Intro- Visual impairment is when a person has sight loss that cannot be fully corrected using glasses or contact lenses. Many people will have some type of visual problem at some point in their lives. For example some may not be able to see objects far away or others may have problems reading small print. A. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) believe visual impairment is the functional limitation of

Visual Impairment: An Introduction To The Blindness

the blind people in every possible way so that they feel the same confidence, ease and comfort in exploring the whole world as a sighted people. Visual impairment or blindness is a condition which affects most of the people in the world. This condition harms the sense of vision. Worldwide there are 285 million people who have some level of visual impairment in which 37 million are blind and more than 160 million people are visually impaired. Hence, the need for this type of navigating devices was and

Visual Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease

Visual Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease The documentation of a severe form of dementia by Alois Alzheimer in 1907 began a massive investigation of the cause of this disorder. Some of the common symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease consist of memory loss, impaired language ability, impaired judgement, and learning (M. Wong, et al. , 1997). Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is mainly a disease of the cerebral cortex. Alzheimer's is marked structurally by the senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and severe

Blind Faith and False Belief: An Examination of the Development of Theory of Mind in Children with Congenital Profound Visual Impairment

The purpose of this paper is to closely examine the effects of children with congenital profound visual impairment (CPVI) and a possible correlation to the delay in the development of theory of mind (ToM). Specifically, this paper will compare a study that investigated how visual cues affect the development of ToM to a similarly themed episode from the popular television show Xena: Warrior Princess. On the surface these two groups may appear to be an odd comparison, for children with CPVI and Xena

The Visually Impaired Student

A large percentage of students with visual impairments learn in the general education classroom. General education teachers do not have to work alone; they can collaborate with TVIs and other experts trained to work with students who have visual impairments. Teachers can also use accommodations and modifications to alter their lessons to meet the needs of these students. General education teachers are presented with the unique opportunity to provide state required education while teaching daily living

Low Vision Rehabilitation

Sensory problems are common experiences with the older generations of the United States population today (Crews & Campbell, 2004, p. 823, Vol. 94 No. 5). Surprisingly, 18% of people report blindness in one or both eyes or other eye impairments (Crews & Campbell, 2004, p. 823, Vol. 94 No. 5). Two-thirds of these low vision patients are 65 years of age (National Institutes of Health, 2000). There are many reasons why a person may suffer from vision loss. Low vision is one of the ten most prevalent

Assistive Technology Vs Assistive Technology

NS149 Assignment 1: Caitriona Walsh (13416572) According to Cook and Hussey (2002, p.5) Assistive Technology refers to “a broad range of devices, services, strategies and practices that are conceived and applied to ameliorate the problems faced by individuals who have disabilities”. The main focus of Assistive Technology is to enable people with disabilities and illnesses to carry out everyday activities that, without this technology they would be unable to do. It involves carefully choosing an

Disability In Rwanda Case Study

Child (1989) in its article 24 addresses the... ... middle of paper ... and three years of general cycle of secondary education without paying school fees (Republic of Rwanda, 2008b). 1.9 Conclusion Education of children with visual impairment in Rwanda dates back in 1960s. Since then, the country has undertaken different initiatives through enforcement of laws and establishment of policies and strategies to provide quality education to these learners. Nevertheless there is a remarkable

Public Awareness of Visually Impaired Persons Communication Skills

Empowering visually impaired people to access their environment. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness,45, 247-249. Crudden, Adele & McBrown ,Lynn W.(1999). Barriers to employment: a survey of employed persons who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness,91, 190-195. Elliott, J.L. & Kuyk,T.K. (1994). Self-reported functional and psychosocial outcomes of blind rehabilitation. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness,68, 206-212. Farish, J. & Wen,S.S. (1994). Effectiveness

Assistive technology for the blind and visually impaired

10 to 11 million blind and visually impaired people in North America, and their visual abilities vary almost as much as their ethnic, racial, and personal characteristics do. The term "visual impairment" covers a wide range and variety of vision, from blindness and lack of usable sight; to low vision, which cannot be corrected to normal vision with standard eyeglasses or contact lenses; to moderate visual impairment and an inability to read the fine print in a daily newspaper. People who are visually

Communication & Interpersonal Skills in Nursing

am going to review four cases, which will require a number of different communication skills focusing primarily on; developing a therapeutic relationship, communicating assertively, communicating effectively with an individual with a disability/impairment and communicating with individuals from another culture. I will discuss building a therapeutic relationship and effective communication with each patient. Part 1: Developing a Therapeutic Relationship A therapeutic relationship is a professional

How Do Computers Affect The Physically Challenged

read the newspaper on-line. Without the Internet and computers the physically challenged would have to depend on other people to help them do their shopping or reading. This paper will discuss speech and language impairments, hearing impairments, visual impairments, and mobility impairments and how computers have positively impacted

Functional Activities Limited by People with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

low vision patient, even a very simple task will be a challenge. Low vision refers to impairment of vision which cannot be corrected by surgical or medical means or by standard refractive correction. Low vision patients should have the distance acuity of 6/18 or even poorer to light perception, or with significant visual field loss. With such a poor visual acuity or visual field, patients with visual impairment may find difficulties in daily activities. This article will show different types of functional

Social Perception Of Children With Visual Impairments

participants shared their experiences of being bullied and excluded during lunch and recess, and also being picked on because of their looks (Schipper, Liberman, & Moody, 2017). Social Perception of Children with Visual Impairments Understanding why children with visual impairments behave the way they do socially is another important factor in understanding how they can be helped. Hill and Blasch explain that “85% of social learning is accomplished through vision,” (as cited in Salleh & Zainal

The Pros And Cons Of Cataract Surgery

refers to central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with the best possible correction, or a visual field of 20 degrees or less (Gretchyn 1). African-Americans and Hispanics are at higher risks for blindness and vision impairment than Caucasians because they are at higher risk for developing diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma (Gardner 2) . There are aids for hearing disabilities and physical disabilities but what about aids for visual disabilities?Visual Impairment aids can protect

E Esight Research Paper

Over the past few years, many success stories have emerged as a result of assistive technology. ESight proves to help thousands of visually impaired individuals “see clearly” for the first time. From seeing a mother for the first time, to watching a favorite sports team or meeting the Easter bunny, eSight has changed the lives of thousands of people ranging from ages four to 101 years old. This includes Gary Foster, who lost all central vision in both of his eyes as a result of macular degeneration

Life with Vision Loss Due to MS

Life with Vision Loss Due to MS Joyce Bohen recently wrote a book about her experience with multiple sclerosis. She told about her battle with multiple sclerosis and one of her major symptoms, optic neuritis. In this book, she told each individual to imagine life from one day being able to see bright colors and distinct pictures to only realize that as each day goes by the world is beginning to look darker and darker until you can see nothing but black. Not only did she experience blindness

Title IX: A Social Justice Issue

paper ... ...y a recipient of Federal financial assistance for any education program or activity; but nothing herein shall be construed to require any such institution to provide any special services to such person because of his blindness or visual impairment. (Title IX section 1684) This section of Title IX affects both men and women; visually impaired individuals were not only limited by their vision, but also by the stigma that society placed on them. Title IX removes much of this stigma by

University Of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum

TITLE All-Season Fun At The University Of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum LEAD PARAGRAPH The University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum is a large park with numerous fun activities that can be enjoyed by all ages and budgets. This beautiful natural space offers visitors a wide variety of sites of both natural and cultural relevance including horticultural collections, effigy mounds, research sites, and 20 miles (32 km) of hiking trails. There is so much more to do and learn at the arboretum, so keep reading

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Essay On Visually Impaired

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Light , Vision , Students , Family , Development , Education , Children , Disabilities

Words: 3500

Published: 02/07/2020


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Visually Impaired

A visual impaired individual is one who looses the function of vision, which occurs when a part of the eye or the brain that processes images becomes diseased or damaged. Visual impairment is a situation where a person has sight problem that cannot be rectified by the use of glasses or contact lenses. The human eye has an iris that regulates the amount of light passing through the pupil. It also has a cornea that focuses light, and a retina that changes the light signals into nerve signals that form an image when sent to the brain. When the retina or the optic nerve that sends the light signals to the brain is affected, it can make vision impossible. Some babies can be visually impaired at birth, a condition known as congenital blindness.

Some of the symptoms that can indicate visual impairment in children may include:

- Eyes moving differently when following an object or a face - Pupils being unequal in size or appearing white instead of black - Unusual degree of clumsiness like bumping frequently into things - Loss of attention and concentration - Blurring when and/or after reading - Frequent squinting, blinking, eye-rubbing, or face crunching, especially when there is no enough light - Poor handwriting and avoidance of activities that require good vision. Children who suffer from visual impairment may face many challenges in class because most of the learning activities that take place, especially during early childhood development, are in the form of images. Instead of sight, the visually impaired are forced to learn everything through their hands, nose, and ears-sensory learning.

The challenges include:

Delayed social use of language- communication and developing relationships Delay in the child area of development Reaching key developmental milestones- it becomes a problem to for instance understand abstract ideas or acquire communication, social mobility, and life skills.

The children may also feel inferior to the normal kids thus lowering their self-esteem and delaying development.

Putting together information and processing it from previous hearing, and other senses. It is difficult to catch up with other students after missing many classes in order to go for checkups. Legislations of the visually impaired Educating visual impaired students in the United Arab Emirates is relatively new and aims at integrating people with disabilities into the mainstream system. It was not until recently that the UAE started focusing on the needs of visually impaired students. On June 1994, representatives held a world conference in Salamanca from 92 governments and 25international organizations. They agreed that normal schools should accommodate all students regardless of the conditions. The main principle was education for all thus recognizing the necessity and urgency of providing education to all without discrimination. The conference called out for governments to allocate a budget for the purposes of improving educational services. They went even further to call out on the World Bank, UNESCO, UNDP, UNICEF support the development of special need schools as an important part of educational programme.

How to include the visually impaired in a classroom

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the least restrictive environment is the requirement of educating children with disabilities. Teachers dealing with visually impaired students must be knowledgeable visual impairments and the effect it has on students.

The following are some of the factors that could improve the performance:

- Lighting Good lighting leads to effective use of vision, improved concentration, less eye fatigue, greater neatness, accuracy, and achievement. Avoiding/minimizing glare from shiny surfaces such as floors and glossy paper, or covering surfaces with dark clothing aids one to obtain better lighting. Tutors should allow students to change their sitting positions to obtain the suitable light. - Environmental The teacher can provide a bigger working space to the students and familiarize the students to the layout of the classroom by taking them around the class when the rest of the students are not present. - Materials - Techniques Each student has different needs making it necessary for the teacher to identify the needs of every student. A voice that is audible to every student should verbalize the writings on the board. Enough rest periods for students and giving them extra time for the completion of the assignment could improve the student’s performance. Rather than abstract objects, tutors should use concrete ones and allow students to handle the demonstrated materials. The assignment should be given in advance

Professionals who deal with the visually impaired

Ophthalmologist is a medically trained doctor who treats, examines, and diagnoses injuries and diseases around the eye. Optometrists examine the eye, advices on visual problem, and prescribes eyeglasses or contact lenses Orthoptists are able to diagnose and treat vision defects and eye movement abnormalities. Visually impaired technology Technology is invaluable for people with visual disabilities both in terms of improving their learning, visual stimulation and communication. There is a range of special electronic equipment specifically designed for the visually impaired such as portable braille, braille input and braille output devices. Computer aid in speech synthesis by reading texts and screening the contents. Some students find it easier to read from computers than from papers where one can select the text size and colour. Voice recorders enable easy and quick revision by the visually impaired

Sensory integration

This theory helps to emphasize and explain in details the role of all-human’s sensory system. This theory is significant to the visually impaired since they rely on hearing, touching, body position, smelling, tasting and movement sensations directed by visions for everyday activities. Touch and movement are integral to the development of gross and fine skills of motor, providing encouragement to young children to reach out and to explore the world around them The effects of infant massage on at-risk infant or infants with blindness or visual impairment may be profound.. Infant massage provides a platform where the child and the caregiver interact and creates a bond.

Education Plan

Information about the Student: Child x has no function of vision, which occurs when a part of the eye or the brain that processes images becomes diseased or damaged. The child has sight loss that cannot be rectified by the use of glasses or contact lenses

Professionals involved:

1. Ophthalmologist 2. Optometrists 3. Orthoptists 4. Educational Specialists

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Visual Impairment Essay

  • Author: arsalan
  • Posted on: 28 Oct 2019
  • Paper Type: Free Essay
  • Subject: English
  • Wordcount: 1378 words
  • Published: 28th Oct 2019

Visual impairment is a condition that results from various causes. The causes include injury, congenital condition, brain trauma, eye diseases and other illnesses such as multiple sclerosis and individual is regarded blind when the corrected vision is not better than 20 out of 200. This means that this person cannot see at 20 feet the things other people see at 200 feet or they have a side vision that is not more than a diameter of twenty degrees or a radius of ten degrees. An individual is regarded as visual impairment when the corrected vision is not recovered to more than 20 out of 70 (Kim et al., 2016).

In 80% to 90% of the legal bling individuals, they have the certain light perception or measurable vision. A legally blind student may have retained an amount of vision. Some students who are legally blind have 2o out of 20 vision. Even though these students contain a faultless central vision they have the side vision or narrow field, as a result, they see objects as if they are looking through straws or a tube (Ahmed et al., 2015). This student often uses guide canes or dogs when walking. The student who has the side vision only do not need the guide cane or dog. This is because these students have the ability to see large things but they cannot read and thread a needle. The word blind refers to people who have lost their sight completely whereas vision impairment refers to people who have different vision gradation.

In this paper, I will discuss a critical analysis of the challenges that visually impaired students, teachers and the school face as well as inclusive practices that meet the needs of the visually impaired students.

Challenges that Visually Impaired Students Face

Students who are partially sighted face the challenge of accessing printed information. These students use readers, taped texts, the line drawing that are raised, computer terminations that are talking, among other devices as the blind students (Tungaraza, 2018). Also, they use material that has large letters or printed work, the Closed Circuit magnifier with various magnifying equipment and telescopic lenses or computer terminals that have large terminals. This student may as well use paper elements with large patterns typing. Some of them are able to take class notes using pens with felt-tip that print large letters.

The partial students face difficulties that are more than the ones the blind students face. For example, the classmates, as well as other faculty members at times, view this student as faking their eyesight situations. Some members of the faculty may have a problem understanding that these students need large print resources for their study (Hasper et al., 2015). Most of them see it be unrealistic because they walk and do other things well without using guiding canes or dogs. Depending on their sight condition some may not have the ability to understand the visual clues of other individuals (Jeter et al., 2015). Therefore, they may seem to have no interest of expressionless when the opposite may be true. For example, one student said that after carefully observing how the instructor was playing Frisbee, he was not able to see other Frisbees expect the red this student explained, it is clear that she had more side vision (Dell et al., 2016). Therefore, using any other colour, she would not be able to play. It is very hard for the full-sighted individuals to understand that reading any colour in print is quite different from playing Frisbee (McLinden and McCall, 2016).

Another challenge that the visually impaired students face is the psychological responses which the large print provoke in the reader’s sight (van der Aa et al., 2015). Such handwritings give a negative attitude to the reader (Kim et al., 2016). For instance, the reader may conclude that the handwriting belongs to children thus this student is more of a child and cannot be bright. These issues arise again in cases where the large letters make the work look too long than the expected or a mechanism of defending less work in class (Hasper et al., 2015). Therefore this may affect the student psychologically is not solved.

Main Challenges that Faced Practitioners, and the Schools

Lack of teaching material.

Visually impaired student need special teaching materials. These materials include braille machine, largely printed textbooks among other resources that the bling people require. In a research conducted in 2017 in the United Kingdom, most of the school and teachers lacked the trailing materials. 95 percent schools said that they lacked materials for teaching this student. 30 percent schools had the necessary equipment (Wearmouth, 2009). However, this equipment was not enough for teaching other subjects like sciences, math and drawing. Effective learning is essential for every student. However, lack of the necessary teaching material hinders teachers from doing effective work and at times forces them to implement resources that can aid this student (Khairallah et al., 2015).

Lack of classrooms and poor environment

Most of the visually impaired schools do not have enough classrooms and have poor learning surroundings or environment. Most visually impaired schools are the developing schools. Most of them lack enough classrooms as well as a good environment for effective teaching and learning. For instance, the classrooms lack ceiling boards as well as desks. At the same time the environment is not student friendly (Ahmed et al., 2015). Special education for the blind does not only include the general learning from a textbook but also skills such as walking, communicating with other social education skill. The lack of classrooms subjects both the teachers and students into conditions that are hard to learn and teach.

Lack of visually impaired teachers

The teachers for the visually impaired schools are less in both secondary and primary schools. The number of teachers in special educations particularly visually impaired overall in every country are less. In the United Kingdom, most schools have around three to four teachers. This has forced most schools to employ teachers who are not trained in any special education. At the same time, there are very few colleges provide the special education for teachers. For instance, currently, there are less than one hundred universities that offer high education in the United Kingdom (Florian, 2007).

Lack of motivation as well as poor salaries

Most teachers are not motivated due to poor salaries. Teachers for visually impaired student teach more than the class work. For instance, as a class one student is admitted to the school, this student needs to learn how to adapt to his situation in social work as well as class work. The workload that this teacher does need motivation. Lack of salaries result in strikes and the morale of the teachers is demotivated. Similarly, most schools lack financial funds for development. In a reach that was conducted in 2013, most teachers insisted that the Government needs to act and ensure that all teachers were well paid (Lalvani, (2013).

Expectations from the Guardians and teachers

Most parents, as well as guardians, have the anxiety to see immediate change as soon as their children start schooling. Most of the parents understand that the teachers will impact the life of their child immediately. For instance, many teachers complain that the parents start complaining they are not working immediately after their child reports school. Most teachers are even expected to solve the eye problem that the child is an experience. Most of the time, teachers have difficulties explaining to parents or guarding that learning of these children is gradual. This is more evident in primary schools when the children join the school. Therefore, this is a challenge that teachers for the visually impaired face.

Analysis of inclusive practices

History of inclusion.

In the 1980s and 1990s, the special schools for various needs were developed. They were developed to meet the needs of the students that the mainstream school would not meet. The thing however changed with time and various education champions resolved that best learning needs are met in the inclusive setting. As a result, mainstream schools developed varies strategies to aid in coping with the needs of all students including the visually impaired students (Frederickson and Cline, 2009).

Definition of inclusive education

According to the Study Centre, inclusive schools is a society based; does not reject or exclude, it is barrier-free it is accessible to every member in terms of physically and curricular as well as collaborates with other schools and the individual involved in the welfare of a child (Frederickson and Cline, 2009).

Inclusive practice discussion in both primary and secondary schools to meet the needs of the visually impaired students

So far this paper has identified the various challenges that the visually impaired students, teachers and schools experience. This section will illustrate various ways inclusive practices may be used in an effective way in primary and secondary education using particular recorded case studied as an example.

A conference that involved various stakeholders including students and parents resolved that there are around six critical interconnecting themes that are important in the development of many other inclusive practices within district schools. These themes include funding strategies, policy development, partnership, structure and process, external influence, as well as the change management this key holders supported that the policies that are to be used in future for various inclusive practices need to be applicable, having the future into consideration as well as clear in spite of the various arguments of the stakeholders. The government as well supported this view (Knowles, 2011).

Funding is an important factor in forming more inclusive practices. Across the various schools, there is a great difference according to the funds that they received. In order to meet all the needs of the visually impaired, the various funding policies need to facilitate policies that ensure inclusive practices and lead to the development of permanent funding strategies in these schools (Nutbrown, and Clough, 2006).

In relation to structure and process, it is important to prevent various inclusive practices. An interim arrangement instead should be made to work with the students. Inclusive practices result in segregation of the school. For instance, various LEAs have come up with various seminars for assistants as well as for teachers (McLinden, 2016).

Reviewing of management is important. Various studies revealed that there was regular dilemmas in decision-making within advisers, officers, parents as well as educational psychologists. This is because every side has it is own interpretation of the inclusive policies (McLinden, 2016).

The evaluation of the significance of partnership revealed that teachers-parents communication is important. For the schools to meet the needs of a visually impaired child, it is important for the parents and teachers to have a partnership (Cameron, (2013). Most schools that teachers and parents communicated showed a 90 percent improvement of the students unlike were parents were not included.

At the level of the classroom, there are numerous conditions that form inclusive education foundation for a visually impaired pupil or student. These conditions include a positive attitude, the capability for the student to actively participate in class, the knowledge of the teacher concerning the need of the student or pupil, the teacher and parent support as well as skilful usage of particular instrumental techniques (Nutbrown, and Clough, 2006).

However, positive attitude is not enough it its own to attain inclusive education. The teacher requires skills that enable him to provide all the education for a visually impaired student. Implementation of the skills needs to consider the ability of a student such as an ability to see large objects.

Successive teachers’ pay attention to some crucial factors of the classroom life and national curriculum. The begging of the lesson is important. The student needs to be included at the start of any lesson. Therefore, pupils or students should be regularly fostered to thing aloud with the entire class or as a response to the teacher’s question. Example of successive school is Hill bank (Nutbrown, and Clough, 2006).

To sum, a critical inclusive practice discussion for students with visual impairment in mainstream secondary and primary school has revealed various strategies that can be used in classroom teaching exercise as well as policy level that can result in effective inclusive schooling (Hodkinson, 2012). They include improved management processes as well as a funding mechanism, better partnership and communication between parents and teachers, appropriate skills and positive attitude held by the teacher, full curriculum subject involvement, as well as improved formal and informal assessment. The teachers as well complain about various challenges that affect them, the financing policy can aid in solving it from external funding.

Cameron, D.L. (2013) ‘An examination of teacher-student interactions in inclusive classrooms: teacher interviews and classroom observations’, Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs ,

Florian, L. (Ed) (2007). The Sage Handbook of Special Education . London: Sage

Frederickson, N, and Cline, T (2009). Special Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity (2nd edition). Berkshire: Open University Press.

Glazzard, J. (2011) ‘Perceptions of the barriers to effective inclusion in one primary school: the voice of teachers and teaching assistants’. Support for Learning , Vol. 26 (2), pp 56-63

Glazzard, J. (2013) ‘A critical interrogation of the contemporary discourses associated with inclusive education in England’, Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs , Vol. 13 (3), pp 182-188.

Hodkinson, A. (2012) ‘Illusionary inclusion – what went wrong with New Labour’s landmark educational policy?’ British Journal of Special Education , Vol.39 (1), pp 4-11

Journal Articles:

Knowles, G. (Ed) (2011) Supporting Inclusive Practice (2 nd Edition), London: Routledge

Lalvani, P. (2013) ‘Privilege, compromise, or social justice: teachers’ conceptualizations of inclusive education’, Disability and Society, Vol. 28 (1), pp14-27.

Nutbrown, C. and Clough, P. (2006) Inclusion in the Early Years, London: Sage

Peer, L, and Reid, G. (Eds) (2012) Special Educational Needs – A guide for Inclusive Practice, London: Sage

Terzi, L. (2010) Justice and equality in education: A capability perspective on disability and special educational needs . London: Continuum.

UNESCO Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education (2009), UNESCO, Paris

Wall, K. (2011) Special Needs and Early Years – A Practitioners Guide , London: Sage

Warnock, M., Norwich, B., and Terzi, L (Eds) (2010) Special educational needs: a new look. London: Continuum.

Wearmouth, J. (2009) A Beginning Teacher’s Guide to Special Educational Needs, Maidenhead: Open University Press

Wearmouth, J. (2012) Special Educational Needs – the basics, Abingdon: Routledge

Ahmed, T., Hoyle, R., Connelly, K., Crandall, D., Kapadia, A., 2015. Privacy concerns and behaviours of people with visual impairments, in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, pp. 3523–3532.

Dell, A.G., Newton, D.A., Petroff, J.G., 2016. Assistive technology in the classroom: Enhancing the school experiences of students with disabilities. Pearson.

Hasper, E., Windhorst, R.A., Hedgpeth, T., Van Tuyl, L., Gonzales, A., Martinez, B., Yu, H., Farkas, Z., Baluch, D.P., 2015. Methods for creating and evaluating 3D tactile images to teach STEM courses to the visually impaired. J. Coll. Sci. Teach. 44, 92–99.

Jeter, P.E., Moonaz, S.H., Bittner, A.K., Dagnelie, G., 2015. Ashtanga-based yoga therapy increases the sensory contribution to postural stability in visually-impaired persons at risk for falls as measured by the Wii balance board: a pilot randomized controlled trial. PloS One 10, e0129646.

Khairallah, M., Kahloun, R., Bourne, R., Limburg, H., Flaxman, S.R., Jonas, J.B., Keeffe, J., Leasher, J., Naidoo, K., Pesudovs, K., 2015. A number of people blind or visually impaired by cataract worldwide and in world regions, 1990 to 2010. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 6762–6769.

Kim, J.-E., Bessho, M., Kobayashi, S., Koshizuka, N., Sakamura, K., 2016. Navigating visually impaired travellers in a large train station using a smartphone and Bluetooth low energy, in Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. ACM, pp. 604–611.

McLinden, M., McCall, S., 2016. Learning through touch: Supporting children with visual impairments and additional difficulties. Routledge.

Tungaraza, F., 2018. Accomplishments and challenges facing students with disabilities at the University of Dar es Salaam: Thirty years of navigating the hill. Pap. Educ. Dev.

van der Aa, H.P., Comijs, H.C., Penninx, B.W., van Rens, G.H., van Nispen, R.M., 2015. Major depressive and anxiety disorders in visually impaired older adults. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 849–854.

Nind, M., and Wearmouth, J. (2006) ‘Including children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms: implications for pedagogy from a systematic review’. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, Vol. 6 (3), pp 116-124.

Ross-Hill, R. (2009) ‘Teacher attitude towards inclusion practices and special needs students’. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs , Vol. 9 (3), pp188-198.

Thomas, G. (2013) ‘A review of thinking and research about inclusive education policy, with suggestions for a new kind of inclusive thinking’. British Educational Research Journal , Vol. 39 (3), pp473-490


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There are 285 million people that are visually impaired in the world (WHO). Of those people, 248 million have low vision and thirty-nine million are blind (WHO). The causes of blindness fall into two categories: natural causes and environmental causes. Some natural causes of blindness are cataracts, (Landau 20), glaucoma (16), and macular degeneration (22). Environmental causes of blindness can occur from exposure to chemicals (30) and sharp objects puncturing the eye (29).…

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Blepharophimosis is a congenital condition caused because of a genetic disorder and affects the eyelid development. This malformation of the eyelid is characterised by three main conditions namely Blepharophimosis, Ptosis, and Epicanthus Inversus Syndrme (BPES). The treatment is started at an early age to reduce the aftermaths of these conditions since vision problems usually occur because of blepharophimosis. As per many studies conducted over the years, this condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern in which the mutated gene from either or both of the parents gives rise to this problem.…

Personal Statement: How Sight Will Control Their Lives

When a child is born, one of the first things they do is open their eyes, little do they know how sight will control their lives. Children's eyesight develops from focusing on toys, following parents and being attracted to lights and colours. Eye conditions also develop in the early stages of childhood. From a young age, I grew up with an eye condition known as strabismus, only now do I know how my sight has been affected. Being slightly myopic, I became more intrigued in optics after being advised to wear glasses and realised when tiredness took over; when the spectacles were neglected, the intermittent exotropia misalignment (previously esotropia) in my left eye becomes more apparent.…

Essay On Assistive Technology In Education

(Donnelly). In the classroom, assistive technologies can be used to help in the areas of written expression, reading, mathematics, spelling, organization skills, and social acceptance. Assistive technologies can be compared to a pair of glasses that help people with visual impairments see just as well as someone without those impairments. The assistive technology, like the glasses, does not create something, but can improve something that exists (Adebisi et al. 15). These assistive technologies level the playing field for students with disabilities.…

Essay On Teaching Students With Disabilities

Doris Chevis EDUC 6315 American Educational Reform Research Paper Teaching Students’ with Disabilities Teaching student’s with disabilities is a research-based field that is dedicated to educators who believe in the growth and the well being of special kids. This topic discussed will introduce: what a disability is, how are kids referred to special education, how can we accommodate these kids, and what benefits can the kids have after high school. Teaching students’ with disabilities is a special task; a person has to have the knowledge, skill and patience to work in the environment. I have worked with students’ with disabilities for three years now and have studied their disabilities and how to accommodate them for 5 years. Defining what a disability is What is a disability?…

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visual impairment 3 Pages 698 Words

             " People catergorized as visually impaired range from individuals with mild visual losses to those with low vision to those who are totally blind" (Winzer,370). Vision impairments does not necessarily mean a total loss of sight. Some visually impaired person can detect light, others can see shapes and forms, and others can see nothing at all. Generally, many different problems that interfere the retina to form image or the transmission of retinal images to the brain can cause blindness or vision impairment. It can be heredity or caused by disease or damage after birth. In some cases a specific reason cannot be determined.              There are four major types of vision impairments. The first type are refractive errors. It is cause by the change of shape or size of the eyeball, conera or the lens. Myopia (short-sighted) and hyperopia (long-sighted) are two common examples. People with myopia or hyperopia cannot focus image accurately on the retina. Another example is astigmatism, it is caused by the abnormal curve shape of the cornera or the lens. And it can cause distorted or blurred vision.              The second type are ocular motor problems. It is caused by irregular movement of the ocular muscles that control the movement of the eyeballs. It leads to the inability for the eyes to control focusing objects. Strasbismus is an example. This condition effects about 2 percent (2 out of 100) of all young children. Strabismus is a lack of coordinated muscle movement or focusing ability between the eyes, causing the eyes to point in different directions. One or both eyes may turn inward (crossed eyes) or outward ("walleye"). The eyes, the brain area that controls vision, and the muscles attached to the eyeball are involved. It result in the child that looks in certain directions, double vision (sometimes), vision in one eye only, with loss of depth perception. Strabismus can affect both sexes, all ages, but it usually begins during ear              ...

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