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Historical antecedents of science and technology.
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History Of Science And Technology
Science and Technology has been around from the beginning of time. It evolved from the everyday efforts of people trying to improve their way of life. Throughout history, humankind has developed and utilized tools, machines, and techniques without understanding how or why they worked or comprehending their physical or chemical composition. Before we go any further a definition has to be given for both Science and Technology because they are both different in their own right even though the two are almost indistinguishable. According to the Oxford Dictionary Technology can be defined as the knowledge or use of the mechanical arts and applied sciences, while Science can be defined as the branch of knowledge involving systematized observation and experiment. Science can be further divided into three separate categories; Pure, Applied and Natural Sciences. In addition technology is often defined as applied science, it is simply the application of scientific knowledge to achieve a specific human purpose, however, historical evidence suggests technology is a product of science. Today there are many technological advancement to enhance our daily activities, whether it be as simple as an Ipod for entertainment purposes or as vital as an artificial heart for the survival of a human live, science and technology is the reason for its existence. Science and Technology can be traced from the origin of human life 2 million years ago and each era has significant advancement. The earliest known form of S&T were human artefacts found during prehistoric time about 2.3 million years ago, they were roughly shaped stones used for chopping and scraping, found primarily in eastern Africa. Some of the earliest record of science came from Mesopotamian cultures around 400 BC, disease symptoms, chemical substances and astronomical observations were some of the evidence of emerging science. During the same period in the Nile Valley of Egypt information on the treatment of wounds and diseases and even some the mathematical calculations you are currently doing now in fifth form such as angles, rectangles, triangles and the volume of a portion of a pyramid have been around for thousands of years. From 300-400 BC there was a rise in philosophers who wrote topics on psychology, biology, psychology and a host of others. There was Euclid the founder of modern geometry, Archimedes the founder of engineering mechanics who calculated a value for pi which we still use up to this very day and he also invented the first water pump.
In this essay, the author
- Explains that science and technology evolved from the everyday efforts of people trying to improve their way of life.
- Opines that science and technology is the reason for its existence, whether it be an ipod for entertainment purposes or an artificial heart for survival.
- Explains that science and technology can be traced from the origin of human life 2 million years ago and each era has significant advancements.
- Explains the rise of philosophers who wrote topics on psychology, biology, psychology and a host of others. early forms of technology were the control of fire, the creation of wheel and the discovery of metal.
- Explains how the bronze age gave rise to the invention of two-wheeled carts in mesopotamia and egypt.
- Explains that the middle ages gave birth to many scientific and technological developments in many countries ranging from africa to meso-america.
- Explains that mathematical equations are still influenced by things invented hundreds of years ago and will still be used in years to come.
- Explains how warfare improved tremendously during the middle ages and the introduction of gunpowder by the chinese revolutionized warfare forever.
- Explains that spring carriage was designed to transport people and goods to longer distances at a faster rate, and the first horse shoe was developed in this era.
- Describes the renaissance era in europe that began in 1450 and lasted until 1600 ad. gutenberg developed the printing press which resulted in books being printed instead of huge volume of texts being hand written. leonardo da vinci stressed the importance of experiment.
- Explains that galileo was the first to use modern scientific methods based on experiment and testable observations. in 1608, spectacle makers from flanders came to the republic of venice with a spyglass for identifying ships.
- Explains that isaac newton and albert einstein are considered to be the greatest scientists of the 20th century.
- Explains that the industrial revolution brought about factories being built to produce goods at massive quantities. the twentieth century gave birth to the radio, the first car to run with engine power, and a host of inventions.
- Urges the new generation to carry the torch of those great scientists and technologists who came before them and continue to pave the way with innovative inventions to make our way of life easier.
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