Free Text Shortener Tool

Text Compactor

Free online automatic text summarization tool.

Follow these simple steps to create a summary of your text.

Click the Summarize! button.

Read your summarized text. If you would like a different summary, repeat Step 2. When you are happy with the summary, copy and paste the text into a word processor, or text to speech program , or language translation tool

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Would You Provide Me With a Essay Shortener? – All the Answers

Or try service with sample text, don’t hesitate and try a word shortener right here.

Whether you are in need of something to reduce the length of a paper to meet your word count limit our simple to utilize sentence shortener from summarize website may help you. Many times you need to make the narrative shorter or to make writing more concise. Unlike using a text compactor , doing it manually may be hard and take a considerable amount of time.

The machine placed here is an effective one that is capable of taking out many of the unnecessary words from the original version. It is an effective and quick way to rehash text in a way that is going to reduce the length of writing to meet specific requirements. By using it you’d be able to create text of exactly the length which you need in a fraction of the time that it takes to work through and do it manually.

How to Work with the Tool?

Our paragraph shortener could not be any easier to employ. Just highlight the content you wish to have reduced in length and select copy, then past it into the box. Just let the tool know what your final word count should be and complete the simple challenge to show you are a real person and you may run the process. The essay shortener would then work through an article to remove unnecessary words and swap phrases for shorter ones. This process is done quickly and efficiently and provides with an outline in the blink of an eye.

Benefits That You Can’t Miss

If you want to know why you should employ our automatic article shortener over any other just look at these clear benefits:

  • There is no need for you to download any software onto the computer.
  • You don’t have to register or provide the information to make a machine works.
  • It is completely free to employ.
  • You are able to utilize the software an unlimited number of times.
  • It is online and you may utilize when you want to get a shorten paragraph.
  • It takes just a fraction of a second to provide with results.

How to Use the Results From a Paragraph Shortener

Like any piece of word shortener, the output from software needs to be treated with care. The English language is highly complex and software available today simply cannot comprehend the context and the many other peculiarities. It is therefore likely to make mistakes when it creates new rundown. It should be carefully read and edited before submitting. It should not be simply used without careful thought on your part.

We Offer Excellent Manual Service

We provide a full summing up, rehashing and text shortener service through staff who is fully qualified to assist you. Our shorten my essay services have been around for many years and we have successfully provided clients from all around the world with the support which they need at a high standard. Feel free to come to us with any task and ask to “ write a summary for me “, and we will handle it perfectly, be sure!

Contact our specialized services today to reduce your content length quickly and effectively!

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You can always do advanced rewrite for your text from here !

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What's the Shorten Sentence Generator Tool

The Shorten Sentence Generator is an AI sentence-shortening tool that can help you to summarize your sentences and make them more concise. It’s the perfect online tool for daily use and for writers who are pressed for time or want to write in a more short way.

Free Ai Sentence Summarizer Tool

It’s important to keep your sentences short when you write. The longer your sentence, the less likely it is that readers will continue reading it. That’s why many writers use this free sentence summarizer online tool to shorten their sentences and make them more concise.

Convert Long to Short Sentence Generator

This long to short sentence generator is designed for individuals who need help in making their sentences shorter. The tool uses algorithms to break up long sentences into some separate sentences that are easier to read and understand.

Free GPT-4 AI Sentence Shortner

This GPT-4 AI sentence shortner can compress smartly your long text and make it easy to you for understand or write. It's free online tool that is easy to use and doesn't require any registration or sign up process until you need to upgrade. All you need is a web browser and an internet connection, which makes it perfect for writers who are pressed for time or want to write in a more concise way.

Reduce Word Count Generator

Reducing writing word count generator is a free tool that converts long sentences, paragraphs, or essays into short ones. With our tool, instead of writing a lot of unnecessary words, you can put only the ones that are necessary.

You can always rewrite your essays from here !

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AI Essay Exdender

Ai Essay Extender is a free online generator tool that uses AI technology to extend essays. Simply paste your essay and get a longer, more comprehensive version in seconds.

The Ultimate GPT-3 & AI Essay Extender Recommendation- Say Goodbye to Short Essays!

Are you tired of struggling to meet the word count requirement for your essays? Say hello to Essay Extender - the best essay extender bot that uses advanced AI technology to translate your writing into longer, more comprehensive essays.

You can then:

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The Most Advanced Essay Extender AI

Our recommendation Essay Extender's GPT-3 AI algorithms analyze your writing and generate additional relevant content, ensuring that your essays are not only longer but also more informative and engaging. It's like having your own personal essay translator, helping you to write better essays in less time.

Effortless Paragraph & Essay Expansion

With an Essay Extender, expanding your essays is a breeze. Simply paste your writing into the tool and let AI algorithms do the rest. In seconds, you'll have a longer, more comprehensive essay that's ready to submit. It's that simple!

Extended Definition Essay Examples and Topics

Whether you're writing an extended definition essay or need inspiration for extended essay examples, Essay Extender has you covered. AI algorithms are designed to work with all writing styles and topics, so you can focus on writing and let us take care of the expansion.

Freemium and Safe to Use Essay Inflator

Essay Extender recommendation is free and has an optional premium version to upgrade your inflate your essays and paragraphs. The too is also safe to use, and we never store or share your personal information. So, you can use our GPT-3 & AI essay extender tool suggestions with confidence, knowing that your data is secure.

Best Essay Extender Generator

Essay Extender is quickly becoming the go-to essay inflator and expander for thousands of users who want to write better essays in less time. So why wait? Try Essay Extender today and experience the power of AI technology for yourself!

Extend Your Essays with Ease

Want to know the best ways to extend your essay? Look no further than Essay Extender. AI algorithms make it easy to expand your writing and add relevant, engaging content. So, why not try Essay Extender suggestions today and take your writing to the next level?

Get the best of our recommendation tools to generate and write longer essays!

  • Paragraph Shortener
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  • Other Custom Writing Tasks

Can exceeding the required word count be dangerous? Unfortunately, yes. Your academic paper can get rejected from a conference, and your essay's grade may suffer if the text's length goes beyond the limit. Even a blog post can be ineffective when your idea gets lost among thousands of words. But how can you shorten your text without losing its coherence and integrity? How do you dissect each piece of your work without spending the whole evening on this task? That's where our paragraph shortener comes to the rescue!

The size of your summary is: % ( words, characters)

To remove the excess text and hit the word limit can be pretty challenging, especially when you have already shortened the paragraphs as much as possible. Besides, as an author, you may consider every written phase as incredibly important. That's why our shorten paragraph tool will be helpful for you! It will provide you with an outside perspective and cut the text quickly and efficiently. Read the article below to learn more about the information that shouldn't be changed or removed from the paragraph neither by you or our tool.

⭐️ Paragraph & Essay Shortener: the Benefits

✂️ how to shorten a paragraph, 📑 how to shorten my essay.

  • 🔍 References

In actuality, you can shorten any paragraph manually without using an online tool. This process can be longer and more complicated if you have too much to say. Yet, it is achievable.

An appropriate length of a paragraph

With our tips in this section, you will learn how to shorten a paragraph while writing it.

Numerous students are scared of dividing their text into smaller parts while writing. They are afraid that paragraphs of 3-4 sentences will be considered unprofessional by the instructors. However, to make your text more readable, you have to hit “Enter” regularly. Aim to express one single idea in one paragraph with one valid piece of evidence to support it.

Break down several points in a bulleted list if your paper format allows it. This method helps you shorten the paragraph by removing all the transition phrases. Besides, it makes you formulate your arguments and ideas as clearly and concisely as you can.

Cutting sentences and phrases is a great way to improve your text’s clarity and flow. To reduce the “wordiness,” eliminate the filler words and vague statements. These might sound good, but they do not bring anything to the content.

Implementing abbreviations is another excellent way to save space and avoid distracting the reader. Remember that you can use one when the corresponding term is stated more than once in a paragraph. The first mention should be written entirely and indicate an acronym in parenthesis.

A dangling modifier can be challenging to identify at times. For that, read each sentence carefully and locate introductory phrases that come before the main clause. If you found one, consider what noun it must be modifying. If there is none, fix this mistake by inserting a new subject of the sentence.

Passive voice can be too vague and unnecessary. Besides, in many cases, it also sounds wordy and indirect. Therefore, you try to avoid it, using active voice whenever you can.

You probably know the five-paragraph structure if you are writing an essay. According to this standard organization, an academic paper should contain several sections, each serving its own function. Every part should have sentences that shouldn’t be removed or even shortened. Below, we have explored them in detail.

Qualities of a good paragraph

Introduction Paragraph

You cannot shorten most of this paragraph because it briefly introduces the topic you’re examining. It also explains what question you will answer further in the essay. This paragraph is the first one that the reader sees, so it makes sense to focus some effort on writing it well.

  • A hook is the first statement of the paragraph that should grab the reader’s attention. In an essay, it can be a fact, quote, declaration, an interesting question, or a short story. Upon seeing it, people become curious to read more; thus, you can’t avoid it when writing a paper.
  • Essential context also should be included in the introduction. It informs the audience about the historical background, the topic scope, and essay definitions. Mention things that will help your audience to understand the problems you are trying to discuss in the paper.
  • A thesis statement contains its key point of the paper and is located at the end of the paragraph. It states your position and the core message of the essay. Besides, it explains what the reader will encounter in the body below. So, this sentence can be shortened but never cut entirely. Our thesis generator will help you formulate one.

Body Paragraph

A body paragraph is any section in the middle of the paper. Generally, there are three of them in an academic essay. Each of these paragraphs should explore one respective argument and logically relate to one another.

  • A topic sentence tells the idea that the writer will discuss in the paragraph. You can shorten it a bit. Yet, make sure that it sounds clear and conveys the intended message.
  • Supporting evidence is the next step in writing your essay. It can be the facts, the data, and quotations from trustworthy nonfiction sources. List one piece of proof to support one argument you’re discussing, shortening it to your liking.
  • A concluding sentence serves as a wrap-up of the paragraph. The main goal is to reinstate the main idea of the section. Your goal here is to make it concise yet detailed enough to leave an impression of completeness.

It is more than simply a long sentence at the end of the five-paragraph essay. A reasonable conclusion has to have several things:

  • A developed thesis statement should come first in a concluding paragraph. Circle back to the beginning of your paper. See if you have resolved any contradictions and restate the thesis from the introduction accordingly. This sentence, evidently, can’t be cut from an essay but can be shortened to just a few words.
  • A summary of your research should be presented next. Here you provide all the essential points from the body paragraphs in a single sentence. Make sure it lacks filler information like examples or your speculations.
  • A concluding sentence is the last sentence in an essay. It ties together all the things mentioned in your paper. Your aim here is to leave a lasting impression on your reader, so paraphrase it until it sounds just right.

Thank you for reading the article! We hope you found it useful for your studies. If so, consider sharing it and our paragraph shortener with others.

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🔗 References

  • Cut It Down: Readers Skip Long Paragraphs – Ann Wylie, Public Relations Society of America
  • Essay Structure – Elizabeth Abrams, Writing Center at Harvard University
  • 10 Tips for Cutting Your Word Count – The University of Adelaide
  • Organization of a Traditional Academic Paper – Writing Services, University of North Carolina Wilmington

Free Paraphrasing Tool

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What's a paraphrasing tool?

This AI-powered paraphraser lets you rewrite text in your own words. Use it to  paraphrase articles, essays, and other pieces of text. You can also use it to rephrase sentences and find synonyms for individual words. And the best part? It’s all 100% free!

What's paraphrasing

What's paraphrasing?

Paraphrasing involves expressing someone else’s ideas or thoughts in your own words while maintaining the original meaning. Paraphrasing tools can help you quickly reword text by replacing certain words with synonyms or restructuring sentences. They can also make your text more concise, clear, and suitable for a specific audience. Paraphrasing is an essential skill in academic writing and professional communication. 

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Why use this paraphrasing tool?

  • Save time: Gone are the days when you had to reword sentences yourself; now you can rewrite a text or a complete text with one click.
  •  Improve your writing: Your writing will always be clear and easy to understand. Automatically ensure consistent language throughout. 
  • Preserve original meaning: Paraphrase without fear of losing the point of your text.
  • No annoying ads: We care about the user experience, so we don’t run any ads.
  • Accurate: Reliable and grammatically correct paraphrasing.
  • No sign-up required: We don’t need your data for you to use our paraphrasing tool.
  • Super simple to use: A simple interface even your grandma could use.
  • It’s 100% free: No hidden costs, just unlimited use of a free paraphrasing tool.

Features of the paraphrasing tool

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Rephrase individual sentences

With the Scribbr Paraphrasing Tool, you can easily reformulate individual sentences.

  • Write varied headlines
  • Rephrase the subject line of an email
  • Create unique image captions

Paraphrase an whole text

Paraphrase a whole text

Our paraphraser can also help with longer passages (up to 125 words per input). Upload your document or copy your text into the input field.

With one click, you can reformulate the entire text.

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Find synonyms with ease

Simply click on any word to open the interactive thesaurus.

  • Choose from a list of suggested synonyms
  • Find the synonym with the most appropriate meaning
  • Replace the word with a single click

Paraphrase in two ways

Paraphrase in two ways

  • Standard: Offers a compromise between modifying and preserving the meaning of the original text
  • Fluency: Improves language and corrects grammatical mistakes.

Upload any document-to paraphrase tool

Upload different types of documents

Upload any Microsoft Word document, Google Doc, or PDF into the paraphrasing tool.

Download or copy your results

Download or copy your results

After you’re done, you can easily download or copy your text to use somewhere else.

Powered by AI

Powered by AI

The paraphrasing tool uses natural language processing to rewrite any text you give it. This way, you can paraphrase any text within seconds.

How does this paraphrasing tool work?

1. put your text into the paraphraser, 2. select your method of paraphrasing, 3. select the quantity of synonyms you want, 4. edit your text where needed, who can use this paraphrasing tool.


Paraphrasing tools can help students to understand texts and improve the quality of their writing. 


Create original lesson plans, presentations, or other educational materials.



Explain complex concepts or ideas to a wider audience. 



Quickly and easily rephrase text to avoid repetitive language.



By using a paraphrasing tool, you can quickly and easily rework existing content to create something new and unique.


Bloggers can rewrite existing content to make it their own.


Writers who need to rewrite content, such as adapting an article for a different context or writing content for a different audience.


A paraphrasing tool lets you quickly rewrite your original content for each medium, ensuring you reach the right audience on each platform.

The all-purpose paraphrasing tool

The Scribbr Paraphrasing Tool is the perfect assistant in a variety of contexts.



Writer’s block? Use our paraphraser to get some inspiration.


Professional communication

Produce creative headings for your blog posts or PowerPoint slides.


Academic writing

Paraphrase sources smoothly in your thesis or research paper.


Social media

Craft memorable captions and content for your social media posts.

Paraphrase text online, for free

The Scribbr Paraphrasing Tool lets you rewrite as many sentences as you want—for free.

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Frequently asked questions

The act of putting someone else’s ideas or words into your own words is called paraphrasing, rephrasing, or rewording. Even though they are often used interchangeably, the terms can mean slightly different things:

Paraphrasing is restating someone else’s ideas or words in your own words while retaining their meaning. Paraphrasing changes sentence structure, word choice, and sentence length to convey the same meaning.

Rephrasing may involve more substantial changes to the original text, including changing the order of sentences or the overall structure of the text.

Rewording is changing individual words in a text without changing its meaning or structure, often using synonyms.

It can. One of the two methods of paraphrasing is called “Fluency.” This will improve the language and fix grammatical errors in the text you’re paraphrasing.

Paraphrasing and using a paraphrasing tool aren’t cheating. It’s a great tool for saving time and coming up with new ways to express yourself in writing.  However, always be sure to credit your sources. Avoid plagiarism.  

If you don’t properly cite text paraphrased from another source, you’re plagiarizing. If you use someone else’s text and paraphrase it, you need to credit the original source. You can do that by using citations. There are different styles, like APA, MLA, Harvard, and Chicago. Find more information about citing sources here.

Paraphrasing without crediting the original author is a form of plagiarism , because you’re presenting someone else’s ideas as if they were your own.

However, paraphrasing is not plagiarism if you correctly cite the source . This means including an in-text citation and a full reference, formatted according to your required citation style .

As well as citing, make sure that any paraphrased text is completely rewritten in your own words.

Plagiarism means using someone else’s words or ideas and passing them off as your own. Paraphrasing means putting someone else’s ideas in your own words.

So when does paraphrasing count as plagiarism?

  • Paraphrasing is plagiarism if you don’t properly credit the original author.
  • Paraphrasing is plagiarism if your text is too close to the original wording (even if you cite the source). If you directly copy a sentence or phrase, you should quote it instead.
  • Paraphrasing  is not plagiarism if you put the author’s ideas completely in your own words and properly cite the source .

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Paste (Ctrl + V) your content in the input box, then click submit to watch the AI rewriter do the job!

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About Rewrite My Essay

What is an essay rewriter.

Essay rewriter is an online utility used to rewrite paragraphs, essays, and assignments.  It is an online tool used to modify an existing essay or article while retaining its original meaning. It works by taking the original text and changing the words, phrases, sentence structure, and overall content structure to create a new version of the same text.

SEO Magnifier Essay Rewriter

The goal of the SEO Magnifier essay tool is to produce a unique and original version of the original essay while still conveying the same ideas and information.

Why Use An Essay Re-writer?

You can use the essay tool for the following reasons:

Avoid Plagiarism

If you already have an essay, you may need to rewrite it. But rewriting can be a time-consuming process. Moreover, manual rewriting can increase the chances of duplication. Hence you can use an essay rewriting tool to avoid plagiarism.

The article rewriter tool will create a unique essay for you. For your satisfaction, you can check the plagiarism of the rewritten essay using a plagiarism checker.

Provides More Clear Tone

The already-written essay may not have a clear tone. It can create difficulty for readers to understand the true meaning. For more clarity, you can use it in a text rewriting tool. Just paste your content into the content rewriter and it will rewrite the essay in a more clear tone. Rewritten essays will be easy to understand for all.

How To Rewrite My Essay Online Using SEO Magnifier?

Seomagnifier provides different writing tools, including ai paragraph rewriter and text rewriting tool. These tools are easy to use. You can use sentence rewriter by Seomagnifier through the following steps.

  • Open the essay rewriting tool page.

Choose Essay Rewriting tool Step 1

  • Paste the content in the " input box " tool.

Copy and paste your essay step 2

  • Select the " language" in which you want to rewrite the essay.

Select the language step 3

  • Click on the “ rewrite my essay ” box to rewrite the essay.

Press button to rewrite essay step 4

  • The rewritten article will be in front of you within seconds.  You can manage the spin words according to your own needs and then download your essay.

Download your essay step 5

Features of SEO Magnifier Essay Rewriting Tool

There are the following features of our essay tool:

Plagiarism Free Essay

One of the reasons that people use a sentence rewriter is to avoid plagiarism. Our content rewriter can provide unique content within seconds. While rewriting the essay, does not compromise the quality of the content.

If you still find a very low percentage of plagiarism, you can use an online plagiarism remover to remove plagiarism.

100% Free To Use

Seomagnifier is a hub for rewriting tools. It provides an article rewriter as well as a free paraphraser tool. All these tools are free to use, including the rewrite my essay tool. You can use a paragraph rewriter without paying any price.

Secure To Use

SEO Magnifier text rewriter is secure to use. There is no need to worry because our tool doesn't save your data. Your data will be secured and saved.

Smooth Interface

Our sentence rewriter provides a very smooth interface for our users. You can use our tool smoothly. There is no need for any registration before using it. No registration step saves your time as well as effort.  You can rephrase your essay within seconds. Just paste the content and hit the rewrite my essay button. The rewritten essay will be provided in seconds.

Who Can Use SEO Magnifier Essay Rewrite Tool?

Different people belonging to different professions can use essay writing. More specifically, the essay rewrite tool should be used by:

Students may need to reword essays for their assignments. Hence they can use our sentence rewriter to rewrite articles. Using our essay rephraser they will be able to rewrite it within seconds. If the time is short to submit their assignments, then our tool should be the best choice for them. Students can use SEO Magnifier in their daily routine home works.

Bloggers run different blogs and want to publish articles on a daily basis. It may be difficult to write new essays or articles on a daily basis. Sometimes they may need to publish the already written work. Hence they can use our article rewriter tool.

Our tool will provide an essay that will be unique and well-written. Bloggers can also use our long-tail keyword generator to generate long-tail keywords for their blogs.

Content Writers

Content writers can also use our tool. If you are a thesis writer or going to write a research article, you can use our rewriter tool for completing your respective task. Our content rewriter will rewrite the essay and the original meaning of the content does not change. High-quality content written by our tool can be used for different tasks.

SEOMagnifier Frequently Asked Questions

Is there a free website to rewrite essays.

There are many free websites available to edit essays. Some of them require a registration process before use. Some of them can provide you with less quality content. However, a text rewriting tool by Seo magnifier can revise essays free of cost. It is available 24/7. You need not worry about the quality of the content written by the rewriter tool by Seomagnifier.

What is Better Than Quillbot?

Seomagnifier can be considered as better than Quillbot in many ways.

  • One of the reasons is that all the tools available on Seomagnifier are free to use, while Quillbot requires a subscription before use.
  • Even some modes of paraphrasing tools by Quillbot demand charges for use.
  • Seomagnifier is better than Quillbot because it provides a free paraphrasing tool and other free tools.

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Free Ai Paragraph Rewriter

Text Compactor: Online Shorten Essay Tool

It cannot be easier to use our text compactor. Insert any text into the given window, choose the needed settings, and press the button. The results will appear in seconds!

For a person engaged in academic writing, it is crucial to save time wherever possible. There is nothing more crushing than realizing that a source you were using doesn’t fit your topic. This is especially true when it happens halfway through the text. The hours you've spent reading are lost forever, and you still have to look for new sources. This is exactly why we use essay compactors – to avoid situations such as these.

This isn’t the only reason for using summarizers. They can also be useful when you're working on your own texts. The main aims might be a) to create summaries to use as examples and b) to shorten your writing. Below, our team has discussed these points in further detail. We have also offered advice on how to effectively condense an essay on your own.

📈 Why Is a Text Compactor Useful?

👍 tips to make a text compact, 👌 online text compactor: the benefits, 🔗 references.

During your studies, you may encounter a very diverse set of tasks. You may have to write a synopsis , analyze an article, compose an essay, etc. Online tools like paragraph compactors are meant to help you with all kinds of assignments. They are free, quick, and ready to use whenever!

Benefits of an essay compactor.

Besides, a text compactor has the following benefits:

  • Reduces information to key ideas. When composing your papers or evaluating the work of others, you should be able to summarize the presented arguments and conclusions. Online tools automatically select and reveal all the critical elements from the given text.
  • Helps to memorize and understand the data. Remembering hundreds or even thousands of sentences at a time is almost impossible. A single one can go on for an entire paragraph and have complicated jargon. Summarizing tools can shorten your sentences to a manageable length, helping you understand and memorize them better.
  • Saves time. Summaries, in general, cut down the reading time. It is one of the reasons research papers typically include an abstract before the main text. In addition, digital summarizers will save you a lot of time writing and rewriting the summaries yourself.
  • Assists in reviewing materials. When you study for your exams, you have tons of information to go through. If you insert the text of an article or a book chapter into the text compactor, you will immediately see its meaning. This way, you save precious revision time and keep your material organized.
  • Creates abstracts, abridged texts, and more. As mentioned above, you will get many different assignments during your studies. Sometimes, you will have to write an abstract for a project. Or you might need to give a speech based on an academic paper. Online text summarization is an easy solution for these tasks and many others.

You may find it challenging to decide which elements of your work are essential. This becomes particularly worrying when your deadlines are approaching and your paper is still well above the word count. That’s why sentence compactors turn out to be life-saviors for many students.

Shortening a sentence in four steps.

If you insist on doing the work yourself, we have a couple of tips for you. Pay attention to them, and you won’t have any trouble shortening your writing.

Two short sentences are better than a single long one.

Lengthy sentences can be challenging to follow. They are usually packed with numerous prepositions and linking words that can be easily avoided. Breaking up drawn-out sentences into several parts will help reduce text complexity. Just pick a linking phrase or comma that you can replace with a dot and do so. But first, check what punctuation marks you should keep .

Cut down on filler words.

We are familiar with “parasite” words that appear in speech (such as “like,” “kind of,” “you know,” etc.). We may not even notice that we often use them in essay writing. Fillers are words and expressions that don’t contribute to the text’s meaning. For example, phrases like “as a matter of fact” don’t add any new information and only take up space. Try to delete them all from your writing.

Try not to sound redundant.

Like fillers, redundancies are pointless repetitions that can be removed without losing meaning. To illustrate, in the expression “final outcome,” the first word is unnecessary. That’s because both of them mean the same thing. Modifying text to get rid of the redundancies can significantly shorten it.

Stick with the active voice whenever possible.

It may seem that the passive voice sounds more professional and scholarly. However, it can also make sentences longer, more awkward, and harder to understand. Consider switching to the active voice wherever you can. It will improve readability and save space. Remember, you can always use an online sentence shortener. It will provide you with the results in seconds!

We hope that our tool will help you in your work and that you have found our text compactor useful. We have another option if you didn't like the summary you received or expected something different. Try our alternative summary generator , which is just as easy and quick to use!

How to Shorten an Essay

It is critical to make an essay more concise while maintaining its persuasiveness when shortening it. Keeping the vital arguments and evidence in the text is essential, while redundancies and complicated structures can be safely removed.

How to Shorten a Speech

Your presentation may serve various purposes. When you’re shortening it, the most important thing is not to lose the main message. Highlight the key points and use as simple and concise language as possible. This way, you can communicate your ideas effectively in less time.

How to Shorten a Paragraph

According to the rules of academic writing, one paragraph should convey one main idea. This idea is formulated in the topic sentence, and the rest sentences support and confirm it. Your task here is to preserve the meaning of the topic sentence and not lose key evidence and arguments; you can throw away unnecessary details.

  • When to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote – The Writing Center, George Mason University
  • Writing Concisely – The Writing Center, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Eliminating Wordiness – Writing Resources, Hamilton College

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Paraphrase variations in 18 writing modes.

Your words and thoughts matter, and we’ve designed our paraphrase tool to ensure find the best words to match your expression. Just paste or start writing your text in our input box above, and our best in class AI will help you to generate the best paraphrases from your original writing.

Write 10x faster with keywords in Compose mode

Who has time for writer’s block? Our Composer can help you write 10x faster by enabling you to create paragraphs from keywords instantly for articles, cover letters, essays, and more than 500 other types of writing in 100+ Languages. This way you can focus more on your final work rather than your first draft.

Check plagiarism in 50+ languages

None of us wants to accidentally plagiarize, especially when we spend so much time getting our ideas on paper and refining them. Be sure that your text is unique and 100% FREE of plagiarism by using our plagiarism checker for 50+ languages.

Paraphrase Tool uses state-of-the-art AI to paraphrase and compose in more than 100+ languages

Paraphrase Tool uses state-of-the-art AI to produce variations of your text in more than 100+ languages for each of the eighteen (12 free and 6 premium) styles that we offer. By doing this, we are able to offer more value and variety than any other service.

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About Paraphrase Tool

Getting your wording just right.

Paraphrasing is a natural part of the writing process as it helps you clarify your thinking and suit your words to your audience. Using a Paraphrase Tool helps structure and streamline this work, and our paraphrase tool offers 20 modes, many of them free, for accomplishing just this. The 20 modes we offer are diverse, including a summarize tool, a free grammar checker, a mode to simplify text, and a sentence shortener. There are sentence rephrasers and paraphrase rephrase tools, and we pride ourselves on having both, since our reword generator accounts for context at both the sentence and paragraph levels.

When you google paraphrase you will get a variety of results, from a free Paraphrase Tool , to an article spinner, to a general phrase tool, and it can be hard to determine which of these rephrase tools will best help you complete your work. If you simply need to get a word rephrase, that is, reword only small elements within the sentence, many tools will suffice, but there is the risk that you end up with a tool that does not consider context and produces very awkward and ungrammatical sentences. Rephrasing is very much an art, and we’ve built our paraphrase bot to produce the most correct results in 20 modes in over 100 languages, making it the best paraphrasing tool at an exceptionally low cost. So whether you need to paraphrase deutsch, paraphrase greek, or paraphrase bahasa melayu, the next time you think, I need something to paraphrase this for me, you’ll know where to turn.

From keywords to paragraphs

Generating paragraphs with unique ideas can be challenging, and too often writers get stuck at this stage of the writing process. With our paragraph tool, you can enter keywords and let our AI generate paragraphs for you, so that you can have something to work with, refine the output, and become more engaged in your writing.

A paragraph generator creates links between your ideas, such that the output is sensible, unique, and stimulating, very close to what you would expect a thoughtful human paragraph writer to produce.

Paragraph makers are nice, but what about a short story generator? Because our AI is generalized, it serves a story generator, an essay generator, a poem generator, and much more. To generate compelling stories, you should provide the story generator with useful keywords from which it can develop plot elements, including characters, setting details, and any situational information. To generate reasonably good essays, you should likewise provide the essay maker with details around argumentative positions and any other pertinent ideas. If you more specifically want an introduction paragraph generator or conclusion paragraph generator, you can provide starter text and keywords that will best enable our essay creator to produce them.

You may well ask, “is this essay generator free?” Everything on this site is free within a 3-day trial, so you can test and develop confidence in our products. You may also be wondering where this is an essay automatic writer or if it will take a while to get results. All results appear within a matter of seconds, so you can move through your work as quickly as possible.

You may have professional needs for creating paragraphs as well, such as those needed for cover letter. Most of the time a cover letter template includes information that is not relevant to you; by using your own keywords, we can produce cover letter examples that are relevant to your use case and often require very little editing. By using this service, you can also learn how to write a cover letter and achieve the cover letter format you need.

Plagiarism checker free

Like everything else on our site, you can check plagiarism free within a trial, which is a great opportunity for those who want to check a paper for plagiarism without committing to paying before they see results. This free plagiarism checker is great for students and clearly indicates how to check for plagiarism by highlighting areas of similarity between the two texts. Just to be sure you are not accidentally plagiarizing, be sure to check all of your paraphrases as well.

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The most sophisticated AI sentence Shortener in the industry.

AISEO's sentence Shortener simply helps you with rewording & shortening your content while preserving the details. It does this at a blazing speed, using advanced custom paraphrasing engines..

short essay converter

AISEO shorten sentence

The idea of shortening sentences.

Do you know that a possible reason behind losing readers is the way of writing? Tough words and long sentence structure might irritate readers, and they will bounce to other blogs. Unless you are writing a thesis or paper, you must avoid tough sentences and try to make it simpler by shorten sentences. According to many kinds of research, an ideal sentence contains a maximum of up to 25 words. It indicates that no matter what type of writing you are doing, you must shorten sentences to attract more readers.

Paraphrasing modes

What is meant by shorten sentences.

The word "shorten" generally means to reduce in size. Therefore, shorten sentences refers to reducing a sentence in terms of word count. Shorter sentences are more powerful than longer ones. Short sentences can be used to express complex ideas with a minimum of words, and they can be used to emphasize particular parts of the sentence. It is often used for communication because of its brevity. If a sentence is too long, your reader will feel tired and bored.

What is a shorten sentence generator?

Neural networks, artificial intelligence, and machine learning are all now advancing quickly in the digital era. Therefore, it would be strange not to use a shortened sentence online tool to benefit from this progress.

A shortened sentence online tool does exactly what it says: it shortens sentences. It analyzes any given material in just a few sentences, breaks it into smaller sentences, and makes it simple to read. You must enter a text, and the shorten paragraph generator will produce a clear, user-friendly paragraph of the specified length.

The AISEO shorten sentence online tool will do the same for you. It is the #1 sentence shortener to help you make your sentences and paragraphs easy and concise to increase readability . You can also shorten essays for free.

Why do you need a shorten sentence tool?

The AISEO easy-to-use shorten sentence generator may be helpful if you need to shorten a sentence to fit within the word restriction of a paper. You frequently need to reduce the writing or shorten the story to meet the customer and readers' requirements. It could be challenging and take a long time to do it manually. But using a shorten sentence online tool will be helpful and saves your time.

This shorten sentence tool is efficient and can remove most of the extraneous words from the main content. It is a quick and efficient approach to shorten the text to cut down on writing time and adhere to strict guidelines. You may create content using it that is precisely the right length in a short amount of time it takes to go through and finish it manually.

How is the sentence shortener tool works?

It's quite simple to use a shorten sentence tool. You just need to simply pick a copy of the content, then paste the information you want to shorten into the box. The shorten sentence tool would then go through a piece of writing, cut out words that weren't essential, and replace long phrases with shorter ones. This procedure is completed swiftly and effectively, giving an amazing result in a quick time. It doesn't matter if you need to shorten a sentence, a few paragraphs, or a  fully fleshed article ; our AISEO shorten sentence generator is capable of performing it.

What are the languages supported by AISEO's Shorten sentence tool?

English, Bulgarian, Czech, Paraphrase tool Deutsch , Paraphrase tool Greek , Paraphrase tool French , Paraphrase tool Spanish , Paraphrase tool Indonesia , Paraphrase tool Italian , Polish, Paraphrase tool Portuguese , Paraphrase tool Dutch , Japanese, Paraphrase tool Danish , Hungarian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Paraphrase tool Romanian , Slovak, Slovenian, Paraphrase tool Finnish , Russian, Estonian, Swedish, Chinese.

Shorten sentences like never before with the AISEO tool

No matter how complex the material is or how long content you want the shorten, modern internet shorten sentences technologies can produce a respectable output for you. Additionally, these shorten sentence online tools are constantly improving and enhancing day by day. You almost don't need to edit the sentences provided by the shorten paragraph generator tool.

The AISEO paraphrase tool has received constant top user ratings in several writing categories.

It's not only for authors; everyone can use our AI writing to improve academic or professional results. We are recognized as a client favorite in several sectors of content development because of our better outcomes and top-class service.

short essay converter

Inline rewriting tools

How to shorten sentences.

Shortening any sentence requires creative writing and knowledge of rich vocabulary. Then only you can easily remove unnecessary words from the sentence or add any concise words to shorten sentences Instead; you may take assistance from a shorten sentence online tool to reduce a sentence that are long and complex.

Sentence shorteners make your writing more concise and easier to read. They are helpful for people who are writing a lot, such as students and researchers. You can use the AISEO  shorten paragraph generator when you are working on an important project, writing a research paper, or writing a blog. It will amaze you with its fantastic results.

Tips to shorten my sentence manually

Manually summarizing or shortening a sentence is a hectic job. However, if you follow a few important points, you may do it manually without facing any issues. Below are the things you need to follow to shorten sentences manually:

  • Avoid using adverbs. It makes your text bind up. Typically, don't use them until it is necessary.
  • Use the active voice while writing. The passive voice sentence structure is complex and lengthy.
  • Try to include a couple of extremely concise words to shorten sentences. While shortening ensures it conveys the original meaning.
  • In your writing, you should always include a few words in a sentence. Using 25 words is max to a sentence; try to make it even more concise.

Manually shortening vs. shorten sentence online

A shorten sentence online tool uses AI and machine language to read content and identify pertinent sentences and phrases. It then compresses the content and provides a shortened document copy by using pertinent sentences and concise words. These tools are useful for people who want to learn more about a specific subject or receive a quick document overview. It helps you to shorten sentences quickly in less time, saving you time and resources.

On the other hand, in manual shortening, one must go through each sentence carefully, then requires creative thinking, and finally replace the long sentences and words with easy ones. It requires a strong vocabulary and deep knowledge of a particular language. Overall, it needs more time and effort to shorten sentences manually.

Is there any website to shorten sentences?

The internet is filled with various sentence shorteners that claim to provide you with fantastic and accurate results. Here, you need to be smart and find yourself a shorten sentence tool that gives you reliable and accurate results. You may give our tool a try. The AISEO shorten sentence online tool can quickly produce a shorten paragraph or sentence. In a few seconds, you can produce numerous concise versions of any document, and  create a business email  or article.

short essay converter

The AISEO Sentence shortener: The tool you need

You must know that long and short sentences are used in effective writing. The impact of short sentences makes them a powerful way to highlight crucial ideas. In your writing, longer sentences give it rhythm. So, to hold your readers' attention, you must use short and long phrases to bring excitement and interest to your writing.

Ensure that every sentence conveys your original idea. Long phrases frequently hold multiple points; therefore, fragmenting them is an easy method to clarify your message. With the help of the AISEO paraphrasing tool , you may shorten essays and extend your writings.

Supported languages

What are the rules for shorten sentences.

The following measures should be followed when shortening sentences, whether you do it manually or with shorten sentence tool:

  • Be careful to include all the important points in their proper context to keep the original concept.
  • The sentences must be concise and limit themselves to the key ideas. Avoid using unnecessary words.
  • The author's idea should be represented as the same; the initial hypothesis shouldn't be wrong.
  • Never state the same thing more than once. Additionally, you shouldn't include your points inside the content.
  • Ensure the final output is readable and fits the targetted audience to drive you better results.

How is the Shorten sentence tool by AISEO different?

Our AISEO shorten sentence tool employs AI-based algorithms to evaluate your text before choosing the most suited sentences. The algorithms assign a score to each sentence based on its accuracy, word choice, structure, and optimization.

The technology recognizes the significance of these sentences based on their score and ability to locate useful sentences. These pertinent and instructive sentences are later collected to create the content that has been summarised. Afterward, the algorithms proofread the text automatically and identify any errors that need to be fixed.

What are some features of the AISEO sentence shortener?

The AISEO shorten sentences online free tool is packed with numerous features that may benefit you. Below we have enclosed a few of them:

Useful and cost-free: You should test our sentence shortener if you're tired of paying content writers. The AISEO tool can be used for nothing and provide high results. However, there are certain limitations with the free version. Nevertheless, beginners should use it.

Improve the readability: Readability is a big concern when using a shorten sentences online free tool. But our tool uses concise sentences to make them easier to read. It decreases complex sentences into easy ones with AI technology.

Multilingual support: In manual sentence shortening, you can limit up to one or two languages. But with the help of our AISEO shorten sentence generator , you may shorten sentences in more than 25+ languages.

Writes Concisely: The major role of any shortened sentence tool is to make sentences shorter than the original one. Our tool uses concise and impactful words to reduce the word count. It also ensures retaining the original context. 

How to use shorten sentence tool by AISEO?

You might think about employing a sentence shortener if you need to make an article short of matching a particular word count and meeting customers' needs. Our AISEO shorten sentence tool can assist you in formatting an article to meet your demands and compressing it to a specific size. It enables you to create concise and readable content. Our shorten sentences online free tool works on three basic steps:

Step 1: Simply paste text or a paragraph in the given box on our shorten sentence page. You may also import any content via inserting the link.

Step 2: Choose target language (25+) and “Shorten mode.” It also allows you to other modes like Standard, Expand, Creative, etc.

Step 3: Click on “Paraphrase,” and you'll see it will reduce a sentence per your requirements in a few seconds.

At last, if you are not satisfied with the results, you can revert the process again. Our shorten paragraph tool allows you to monitor similar sentences (highlighted) and unique percentages. 

Here are some shorten sentences examples:

Original: The man was bitten by the dog. 

Shortened: The dog bit the man.

Original: Get to the point as quickly as possible.

Shortened: Get to the point.

Original: The government can now better understand the potential location and impact of where the biggest earthquakes will occur within a 1.5 million square kilometer area and is using the information to assess and prioritize seismic upgrades at its facilities. [39 words].

Shortened: The government can now better understand the potential location and impact of where the biggest earthquakes will occur within a 1.5 million square kilometer area. [25 words]

It is using the information to assess and prioritize seismic upgrades at its facilities. [14 words]

We hope these shorten sentences examples have cleared things for you.

Improve your Writing with a sentence shortener

Sentence shorteners help you to write more efficiently and effectively, but they can also help end-users to get an overview of your written content in a shorter time. So, if you have the time to write and you’re looking for something that can help you make your writing more concise and effective, then you should consider using shorten paragraph tool. In the process of shortening a long sentence, you must first find the long sentence. Next, you must divide the long sentence into multiple short sentences.

Who are the users of shorten sentence tool?

Whether you manage a company, a group, or a personal blog, you must provide relatable, engaging material to interact with your audience. You require a vast vocabulary and a solid command of the language while shortening the content. If not, it could be difficult to shorten sentences. We developed the AISEO shorten sentences online free tool to help you accomplish your writing goals. The most widely used languages, including English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, and Turkish, are supported inside our tool.

Advantages of a shorten sentence tool

The following benefits are obvious reasons to use a shorten sentence tool:

  • You don't need to install any software on the computer. You can start right from the website on your browser.
  • No registration or information is required for a shorten sentence tool to function.
  • It is totally free to use. You don't need to pay a single penny.
  • The shorten sentence tool can use an infinite number of times.
  • You can use it online whenever you need to shorten sentences.
  • The time it takes to deliver results is incredibly short.
  • You can shorten a massive amount of content via our tool.

How can I make my sentence better?

A well-written sentence can concisely and effectively convey a thought. One of the most effective strategies for authors to engage and keep the interest of their readers is to change the sentence pattern occasionally. You should limit words in a sentence; ensure words are impactful and relate to your readers.

In the case of business writing, you need to be formal and customer-centric to attract more customers and achieve good sales of your product or service. Some basic points you should mind are: eliminating unnecessary phrases, writing in an active voice, and using clear and straightforward language.

What is a good word per sentence?

The output of the sentence shortener should be the same length as the input. If there are extra and unnecessary words, the shorten paragraph tool will remove them. For example, if an input sentence is 6 sentences long, the sentence shortener should output 6 sentences long with less word count than the original one. In general, the rule, writing a sentence of 30 words or fewer may be acceptable for most types of articles.

Write customer-centric sentences with a sentence shortener

Some people think that writing short sentences makes their writing sound childish. They think that long sentences make them sound clever. But you need to understand that you aim to make understand your writings to everyone; those who are fluent in English and the one who is a basic understanding of the language.

You must use easy and appropriate words. Using only essential words makes your text more readable. Essential words are those that are important to the meaning of a sentence. These are the words that you definitely want to keep in your texts. If you use too many non-essential words, it will be difficult for your reader to understand. However, using the AISEO shorten sentence online tool will help you generate customer-centric sentences . 

How do shorten sentences affect the tone?

The tone and meaning of each sentence are based on the number of words in it. Depending on their writing styles or genres, writers can produce specific impacts. Short phrases are perfect for situations with quick or dramatic action, agitated characters, or time-sensitive circumstances. There’s nothing wrong with writing a long sentence. Just make sure you’re doing it for a reason. If you’re trying to make a point, make sure you’re hitting that point with a short sentence. In case of a long sentence, you make sure to break them into shorten paragraphs and small sentences of at least 20 words each.

What is the effect of shorten sentences in writing?

Sentences with less wordiness are easier to read. Whether you're writing a novel, a short tale, or an academic essay, you can make your work more readable by using short sentences. A short sentence is often used for communication because of its brevity. If a sentence is too long, your reader will feel tired and bored.

What is a good style in writing?

A good style of communication is effective. The reader can navigate the paper easily from one area to the next, moving swiftly from word to word, phrase to sentence, paragraph to paragraph, and so on. Bad style is frequently complex and monotonous. It is also advised to keep your sentence short. When you use complex sentences that are hard to understand, you’ll have to spend more time reading your content. A complex sentence can be difficult to understand because of complexity of the sentence.

Are shorten sentence tools effective and reliable?

Bloggers and online writers know how important it is to keep sentences short and to the point. It’s why you’ll often see blog posts have short sentences and shorten paragraphs. It helps move the eye and can help readers skim through to find the parts they want to read. So, it is clear that you must use short sentences to attract and engage readers. Furthermore, if you use a shorten sentence tool, it will do half of your task easily. The AISEO shorten sentence generator will assist you in shortening any piece of content in a few seconds.

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How to Write a Short Essay, With Examples

Parker Yamasaki

Writing clearly and concisely is one of the best skills you can take from school into professional settings. A great way to practice this kind of writing is with short essays. A short essay is any essay that has a word count of fewer than 1,000 words. While getting assigned a short essay might seem preferable to a ten-page paper, writing short poses its own special challenges. Here, we’ll show you how to write a convincing short essay in five simple steps.

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What is a short essay?

A short essay is any type of essay condensed to its most important elements. There is no universal answer to what a short essay length is, but teachers generally assign short essays in the 250- to 750-word range, and occasionally up to 1,000 words.

Just because the essays are short doesn’t mean the subjects must be simple. One of the greatest challenges of short essays is distilling complex topics into a few telling words. Some examples of short essay topics are:

  • The advantages and disadvantages of social media
  • The pros and cons of online learning
  • The influence of music on human emotions
  • The role of artificial intelligence in modern life
  • The ways that climate change affects daily life

Why write short essays?

Short essays have a number of advantages, including effective communication, critical thinking, and professional communication.

Effective communication: In the short essay, you don’t have the space to wander. Practicing short essays will help you learn how to articulate your message clearly and quickly.

Critical thinking: Writing a short essay demands the ability to think critically and identify key points that support the central thesis. Short essays will help you hone your ability to find the most relevant points and shed irrelevant information.

Professional communication: Whether it’s writing a persuasive email, a project proposal, or a succinct report, the ability to convey information effectively in a brief format is a valuable skill in the professional world.

Developing writing skills: As with all writing practice, short essays provide an excellent platform for you to refine your writing skills, such as grammar, sentence structure , vocabulary, and coherence. The more you practice crafting short essays, the more your overall writing proficiency improves.

How to write a short essay

The tactics you use for longer essays apply to short essays as well. For more in-depth guides on specific types of essays, you can read our posts on persuasive , personal , expository , compare-and-contrast , and argumentative essays. Regardless of the essay type, following these five steps will make writing your short essay much easier.

Don’t be afraid of learning too much about a subject when you have a small word count. The better you understand your subject, the easier it will be to write clearly about it.

2 Generate ideas

Jot down key points, arguments, or examples that you want to include in your essay. Don’t get too wrapped up in the details during this step. Just try to get down all of the big ideas that you want to get across. Your major argument or theme will likely emerge as you contemplate.

Outlines are especially helpful for short essays because you don’t have any room for excess information. Creating an outline will help you stay on topic when it comes time to write.

You have to actually write the essay. Once you’ve done your research, developed your big ideas, and outlined your essay, the writing will come more easily.

Naturally, our favorite part of the process is the editing . The hard part (writing) is done. Now you can go back through and make sure all of your word choices make sense, your grammar is checked, and you have cleaned up any unessential or irrelevant information.

Short essay examples

Why small dogs are better than big dogs (209 words).

Small dogs are beloved companions to many, and their unique qualities make them a perfect fit for some pet owners. In this essay, we explore why a small dog might be the right choice for you.

Firstly, the compact size of small dogs makes them ideal for people living in apartments or homes with limited space. As long as you can get your furry friend to fresh air (and grass) a couple of times per day, you don’t have to worry about having a big yard.

Secondly, small dogs require less food, which can be advantageous for those on a budget.

Small dogs are also easier to handle and control. Walks and outdoor activities become less physically demanding, making them a preferable choice for children, the elderly, or those with limited strength.

If you travel a lot for work or family, small dogs are much easier to bring along than their larger counterparts. Some travel companies make dog carriers that tuck neatly under a bus or plane seat.

In conclusion, small dogs offer a multitude of benefits, from their limited space requirements and economic advantages to their ease of handling and portability. These charming qualities undoubtedly make small dogs a cherished choice for pet owners seeking a new companion.

Why big dogs are better than small dogs (191 words)

Big dogs, with their impressive presence and gentle souls, have captured the hearts of countless pet owners. In this essay, we explore why big dogs are better pets than their smaller counterparts.

Firstly, big dogs exude an aura of protectiveness and security. Their size alone can act as a deterrent to potential intruders, making them excellent guard dogs for families and properties. Their mere presence provides reassurance and safety.

Secondly, big dogs tend to have more energy and strength, making them suitable partners for various outdoor activities and adventures. Hiking, jogging, or simply playing fetch becomes an enjoyable experience, fostering an active and healthy lifestyle for both pet and owner.

Lastly, big dogs often have a gentle and patient demeanor, especially when interacting with children and other pets. Their calm nature can bring a peaceful or grounding presence to otherwise chaotic homes.

In conclusion, big dogs possess a captivating blend of commanding protectiveness, physical capacity, and gentle disposition. These qualities make them exceptional companions, providing both security and emotional fulfillment. Big dogs are a great choice for potential pet owners looking for an animal with majestic appeal and a loving heart.

Short essay FAQs

A short essay is any essay that is shorter than 1,000 words. Teachers often assign short essays to teach students how to write clearly, coherently, and concisely.

When do you write a short essay?

Short essays help students practice effective communication, critical thinking, and persuasive writing. While short essays are often assigned in school, they are also useful in professional settings for things like project proposals or reports.

How do you format a short essay?

Short essays should be formatted according to your teacher’s guidelines or the requirements of your workplace. Check your assignment for the word count and stick to it. Make sure your essay flows logically from one idea to the next by presenting a clear thesis, using strong topic sentences, and providing a concise conclusion.

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Your Guide Towards Writing An Outstanding Short Essay!


Table of Contents

Olla Peeps! 🙂 Writing college essays have always been a challenge. Essays are also of different types. You might have to write long essays or sometimes short essays. In long essays, we can still express ourselves in a broader form and more openly. But, the short or brief essay deals with writing limited and point to point.

You might be facing difficulties in writing a 200-word essay or a 500-word essay, but don’t worry as I am here to help you. You can also visit to get quick online essay help.

This article will cover the following points:

  • Short Essay Definition
  • How long is a short essay?
  • Short essay format
  • How to Write a Short Essay?
  • Short essay examples

So, let’s get started with our article.

1) Short Essay Definition

Before moving on to know about an essay of short length, let’s learn a bit about “what is an essay?” It will help you to understand better.

What is an essay?


So, an essay is a piece of writing which highlights the author’s own argument. Essays are mainly classified as formal or informal and are generally used as a silent weapon to express thoughts on various themes and topics.

Essays might be used as arguments, favour or criticism, daily life-based observations, etc. Formal essays deal with topics related to serious purposes, dignity, organization, etc. Informal essays are defined by self-revelation, humour, graceful style, etc.

Essays can be written long, fully expressing your thoughts on a topic. But, when it comes to writing down a short essay, you need to be very clear with your points. It is crucial to write down the information in a compact manner. Usage of limited words with maximum details.

Read also: How to Write a Top-Class 500-Word Essay

What qualifies as a short length essay?

The name itself says it all. A short length essay means an essay that is written in short. The guidelines for writing short length essays are almost similar to that of writing a normal long essay. The main difference is the length.

A short or brief essay is defined by its length and the depth of ideas that are presented in it. There is a limited word count for this type of essay, so you need to make sure that you put in the right words and ideas.

Your ideas should be very clear from the beginning itself. Short essays cover catchy topics. Your essay should need to respond to an argument or a question. You can even present your individual opinion or view. In a short length or limited words essay, the ideas are predicted shallowly as the essay length is limited.

2) Short Essay Length- How long is a Short Essay?

Well, this is the most asked question of all. A short essay should be a minimum of half-page & a maximum of 1 page if we work single-spaced. It can go up to max 2 pages if we work double-spaced. Short essays should consist of a maximum of 400 words. You can go up to 500 but, if only it’s the need for the topic.

The topics of your short essays should be very catchy. It helps in catching the attention of the reader. If you have an issue deciding the topic of your essay, then just prepare an outline of all the topics which you have, and it will help you to find out the best topic. If you already have a topic, then you need to prepare an outline for its content. Let’s now discuss the Guidelines on Writing Short Essays.

Short Essay Guidelines:


Following are the 4 crucial guidelines for writing a short essay:

  • A short essay should be of approximately 400-500 words and 1 page to 2 pages. Page no. depends on the spacing between the lines.
  • The essay needs to answer the question or, you can say the topic assigned to you. You can put in your views if required.
  • You need to be very Precise when you write a short essay. So, you need to understand the topic really well.
  • The main parts that build up a short essay are introduction, body and a conclusion. Introduction and conclusion should not be more than one paragraph, and the body can be about 3 paragraphs. The body depends on the topic of the essay.

Read: An Essay on Action Speaks Louder than Words

3) Short Essay Format

The major feature of a short essay is that you have to limit the words of your arguments and ideas. You need to follow the structure. Short essays have a specific structure to be followed. It is basically a 5 paragraphs structure. 1 paragraph Introduction, 3 paragraphs body, and 1 paragraph conclusion.


It is the most important part of a short essay. It should be of one paragraph and not more. The first impression is crucial. Your introduction should build up the interest of the audience, and it should be clear what is the topic. It should be concise, catchy and informative.

The first sentence itself should claim the urgency of the topic which becomes worth reading. End the sentence with a precise statement. It should focus on the main problem. The statement can be debatable so that opponents will want to argue on your issue.

3 paragraphs out of 5, should be of the main body. This part contains your main ideas and supporting evidence or facts. You need to put the strongest argument in the first paragraph and then later support it with appropriate facts.

Make sure that your evidence contains quotations and cite them according to the requirements of the format. Use linking words and conjunctions to make your text cohesive. It will bring flow to your narration.

This paragraph is for the final results. It should be 1 paragraph long. In this paragraph, you need to show how your ideas from the body support the statement in the first paragraph. It is not a summary, but this part will close the question raised in the introduction part.

The main aim is to provide the reader with a new view of the subject. The last sentence of the conclusion part should satisfy the reader. The reader should be satisfied with what he read in the first place in the introduction. For more best essays visit

4) How to write a short essay?


A short essay is very different from a long essay. While writing long essays, you have full freedom to express your ideas in a much bigger space. But, in a short essay, you may feel that you don’t have much space to make an argument, as you need to be precise with your words. Below are the components of a short essay.

Components of a brief essay

  • Length: The length of a short essay is very important. You can’t write too much on it. If you write too much, then it will become a long essay. It is therefore important to first prepare an outline and then work on it. Identify a few points on which you need to write and which will support the argument much better.
  • Thesis Statement: Your short essay is guided by thesis statements. The length of an essay will define the placement of the thesis statement. If the essay is very short, then the thesis statement will come just after the introductory line. In some cases, the thesis statement is used as an introductory statement. The main of using a thesis statement is to tell the user directly that what he is about to read. Thesis statements are words which can be both explanatory or argumentative.
  • Sections/Parts: It is important that you keep in mind the section in which the essay has to be divided. There are 3 parts; an Introductory paragraph, body and conclusion paragraphs. The introduction and conclusion, both are equally important. One paragraph each is enough for the intro and conclusion. The body part can be of 2 to 3 paragraphs depending on the topic on which you are working.

Summary of the above components

As a short essay is determined by its length, it should have a maximum of 3 body paragraphs. Each paragraph can represent one point but, there should be a flow between those paragraphs. The introductory paragraph must introduce the idea which will be discussed in the essay.

A short essay should have about five paragraphs. The intro should be very catchy as it will attract the readers and then they can easily get your point. A thesis statement should be placed in the introductory paragraph of your essay.

The three paragraphs in the body part should support the thesis statement. As for the conclusion part, it should not only sum up the argument, but it should also lift up the idea presented in the essay. Ideas which you will present in the essay should be logical, and there should be an easy flow. At last, you should always proofread your essay. It is to check for any grammatical or other logical errors.

Read also: Tips to Write the Five-Paragraph Essay

5) Short essay examples

Well, I hope, that the above sections cleared it all. What is a short essay? How to write a short essay? All these questions have been answered above. To make it more clear for you, here are a few examples which you can refer to understand more. Click here , to read those examples. These are short essay examples that you will easily understand.

Tips to follow while writing a short essay


Essay writing is quite a common task for students of high school and college. But essay writing got more challenging when you have given a task to write a short essay. A short essay demands more skills and practice. There are different types of short essays such as college application essays , 200-word essays, 500-word essays etc. When a student sits to write a short essay, he/she may have a number of ideas. But, the catch is you have to select the best idea and use it in a short essay.  Here you can see some tips that will help you in writing a short essay. 

Identify your topic carefully

The first thing before you initiate the writing process is reading. Read your essay prompt carefully. You can underline important information or encircle the main question. You have to make sure what the question wants you to write. Students sometimes in a hurry fail to understand the topic and end up writing on something else. 

If you have any queries regarding the question or do not understand it, ask your instructor. 

Narrow down your argument

You have got the task to write a short essay, right? So you cannot discuss everything in the essay. You have to cling to one single topic. So choose one topic and work on it. For instance, “Tragedy in Shakespeare’s plays” this topic is too vast. Here you have to research different plays of Shakespeare to bring out the tragic elements. Discussing all the tragedies of Shakespeare would make your essay a long one. Therefore, you can focus on a single tragedy by him. So, your topic should be, “Discuss Hamlet as a tragedy”. Such a topic will help you to write a short essay easily.

Always use reliable sources for collecting information

If your information is from reliable sources, your chances of getting excellence will get high. Try to go for the websites that end with .edu or .gov. Such websites usually have unbiased information. For example, if you are writing on any journalism topic, then go for BBC or other well-known news websites. Always avoid the least reliable sources, such as blogs or random articles.

Be careful about the essay words

Words are the soul of an essay. If your words are not expressive enough, you might fail to get the desired grade. Students, especially those who are from non-English speaking backgrounds need to be careful about words. While writing the essay focus on words, use transition words in your essays. These words act as a bridge between sentences and ideas. Read more about linking words:  Mega linking words for essay

Along with linking words, your focus should be on vocabulary as well. Use words that express the idea clearly. Students often in a hush forget about words. Make sure that you are using correct proverbs, words etc. in your essay.

Remove verbiage from your essay

You have a limit over the word count, therefore, using excessively long speech doesn’t make sense in a short essay. Remove all lengthy verb phrases, adjectives etc. Keep your sentences short and should explain the meaning perfectly. 

Try to be more active than passive

To make your essay succinct, make your sentences in the active voice. Active voice will convey to the point meaning in a crisp and clear manner. Write sentences that can help in explaining the meaning in a direct way. This will cut short the words from your essay.

Keep the relevant arguments only

A passionate essay writer always wants to add multiple arguments in his/her essay. But in a short essay, you have to control yourself. Only put useful arguments and weed out irrelevant ones. But, be alert, never remove the most convincing points or else your essay will lose its purpose. 

Following these 7 tips while composing a short essay, you may end up with an excellent piece of writing. If still finding issues in writing a short essay, read: Effective ways of writing a short essay .

So, guys, this article was all about a short essay. I hope, it answered all your questions. If you have any other questions, or you want me to add something to this article, then kindly comment down below and let me know. For any other queries, or for any online essay assignment help , you can contact us on the id given on our website. We would love to help you. Thank you for reading. 🙂


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The beige innards of a catalytic converter, with a square honeycomb structure, against a bright orange background.

So Thieves Nabbed Your Catalytic Converter. Here’s Where It Ended Up.

The pollution control devices contain valuable metals, making them a hot commodity for recycling. Some beneficiaries of the thefts look the other way.

The innards of a catalytic converter are coated in some of the rarest, most expensive metals on the planet. Credit... Janie Osborne for The New York Times

Supported by

By Walt Bogdanich ,  Isak Hüllert and Eli Tan

Walt Bogdanich reported from Columbus, Mont.; Nassau County, N.Y.; and Orlando, Fla. Isak Hüllert and Eli Tan interviewed officials from three continents with ties to the catalytic converter industry.

  • Nov. 15, 2023 Updated 7:55 p.m. ET

One morning in September, a truck disgorged its load of pulverized rock with a resounding bang inside Stillwater Mining’s metallurgical plant north of Yellowstone National Park.

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Open this article in the New York Times Audio app on iOS.

The mined ore contains platinum, palladium and rhodium, three of the earth’s rarest, most expensive metals — and vital components in the millions of catalytic converters that reduce polluting emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles.

At the opposite end of the plant was another batch of metal, not from the mine but from used catalytic converters ground into powder for recycling. The new and the old metals would later be blended under intense heat, then shipped to a refinery.

Recycling catalytic converters costs less than mining the ore. But it carries a risk, as Stillwater discovered after paying more than $170 million for used ones, many of them stolen, according to an indictment handed up this spring on Long Island that implicated the mine. Stillwater was not charged and denied knowing the devices were stolen.

The indictment is an outgrowth of a billion-dollar epidemic of catalytic converter thefts that has not only disabled vehicles but also involved dozens of shootings, truck hijackings and other violence. Replacement devices are often hard to get and can cost $1,000 or more.

Despite public attention on the thefts, little has been known about where the stolen metal goes, who benefits or why stopping the thievery has proved so difficult.

A person in a hard hat stands inside a warehouse, atop a large pile of dark, powdery mine material just unloaded from a truck.

An examination of business records and social media posts, as well as interviews with more than 80 officials on three continents who have ties to the industry, showed that the stolen devices pass through middlemen, smelters and refineries in the United States and overseas. Along the way, their provenance becomes opaque, leaving beneficiaries of the thefts with plausible deniability and little incentive to stop them.

During processing, the metal is blended with legitimate supplies from mines and scrapyards, The New York Times found, before being sold primarily to companies that make catalytic converters for automakers, as well as pharmaceutical companies for cancer and other drugs, military contractors for weapons production, and banks for their precious-metals trading desks, among others.

By then, it is nearly impossible to separate what’s legal from what’s not.

short essay converter

The metals come

from mines and used

catalytic converters

The metals are processed

and sold to auto suppliers,

drug companies,

banks and others

Stolen and legally recycled

are commingled

and sold to refiners

Catalytic converters

are stolen from vehicles

and sold to recyclers

short essay converter

The metals come from mines

and used catalytic converters

Catalytic converters are stolen

from vehicles and sold to recyclers

Banks provide short-term financing to process the metals, while other lightly regulated lenders, sometimes called “shadow bankers,” step in when the big banks won’t, Mark Williams, a former Federal Reserve Bank examiner, said in an interview.

Quantifying the thefts is difficult, and estimates vary widely. About 6 percent of the 12 million catalytic converters recycled each year are believed to have been stolen, with the rest coming from scrapyards and other legitimate sources, according to Howard Nusbaum, administrator of the National Salvage Vehicle Reporting Program, a nonprofit group that works closely with law enforcement.

That low percentage is little comfort to the owners of the roughly 600,000 cars whose devices, sometimes known as cats or autocats, were swiped last year. The commercial appetite for the three metals, called platinum group metals or PGMs, has been insatiable.

In an indictment last year involving an auto shop in New Jersey, the shop was accused of selling stolen converters to an unnamed, unindicted co-conspirator, which people with knowledge of the indictment identified as Dowa Metals and Mining America, a Japanese-owned smelter that calls itself “a gateway into the world of PGM metal recycling for North and South America.”

A Dowa spokesman said in a statement that the company “has done nothing wrong and that any allegation to the contrary is false.”

A cottage industry of enablers has grown up around the market. To help thieves assess where and when to strike, the New Jersey auto shop sold access to apps that transmitted up-to-the-minute prices of the metals along with the estimated value of catalytic converters from different vehicles.

“That made it easier for thieves who otherwise would just be slinging dope on a corner to just pull out their phone and be like, ‘Oh, look, there’s a Prius parked across the street — I wonder how much I can get for that?’” said the lead federal prosecutor on a recent indictment.

The thieves have cast a wide net. A Bimbo Bakery delivery truck was hit in New Castle, Del., as were a Mr. Ding-A-Ling Ice Cream truck in Latham, N.Y., and 36 school buses over a single weekend in one Connecticut community. Amy Foote, an opera singer in the San Francisco Bay Area, said 11 of the devices had been stolen from her Toyota Prius. She called the car “a vending machine for catalytic converters.”

Authorities have dismantled several nationwide criminal rings trafficking in the devices and many states have introduced new laws. But the thefts continue, even as prices for the metal have dipped.

The subject arose repeatedly at a recent conference of the International Precious Metals Institute in Orlando. Lee Hockey, a consultant formerly with Johnson Matthey, a specialty chemical company, addressed culpability head on.

“Most people in this room will see petty thefts and say, ‘Oh, we’re not involved in that,’” Mr. Hockey said. “But everybody is. If you’re a refiner, even if you are dealing with a smelter, you are getting the metal, so you are liable. If you are an insurance company and you are insuring people on the site, you are liable. If you are doing an analysis of the sample, you are liable.” He added, “You are along the supply chain, and you are involved.”

Greg Roset, a former manager of Stillwater’s recycling program in Montana, answered unequivocally when asked in an interview if he ever worried about stolen metal entering the supply.

“Yes,” he said, “always.”

How It All Began

The frenzy over grimy metal casings underneath cars traces back to a barren strip of rocky land in South Africa’s so-called Platinum Belt.

For more than 100 years, gold reigned supreme in that country but by 2005, a confluence of events, set off partly by the auto industry, had deposed gold in favor of PGMs.

In the 1960s, as concern in the United States mounted over worsening air quality, environmentalists pointed to millions of cars belching toxic fumes from their tailpipes. Smog blanketed many major American cities.

In response, Congress passed the Clean Air Act of 1970, which included a provision requiring all vehicles manufactured after 1975 to sharply reduce pollutants. Automakers objected, saying it was not technologically possible.

But researchers at Engelhard Corporation, a metals processing company in New Jersey, found that platinum group metals could catalyze, or convert, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides into less harmful forms. To be effective, the catalysts had to be durable, have a high melting point and resist corrosion.

Engelhard coated a ceramic honeycomb screen with a thin layer of PGMs and placed it inside a metal container through which the engine exhaust passed.

“It stands as one of the greatest technological interventions to protect the environment in history,” said Ken Cook, president of the Environmental Working Group, an advocacy organization.

As an added benefit, the precious metals are recyclable. A single converter contains only a small amount, but with millions of cars on the road, all that rare metal being recycled only from scrapyards struck some people as a lost opportunity.

And so, a thriving underground network of thieves took root.

Follow the Metals

On a cold day in March 2022, DG Auto issued an urgent phone alert: “Palladium breaks $2,900, reaching its highest price since June 2021.” Noting that prices on average had risen 15 percent the week before, the company suggested downloading its app “to make sure you’re getting the best price for your converter.”

DG Auto also showed an interest in international affairs. “Metal prices are moving as China’s lockdowns ease up,” the company texted customers. “Shanghai is slowly reopening and Beijing lockdown is not likely.”

In an industrial park in Freehold, N.J., less than a half-mile from a state vehicle inspection station, DG Auto became one of the nation’s biggest buyers and sellers of stolen catalytic converters, according to the authorities.

Customers who paid $29 a month for its “platinum package” could submit pictures of the devices for estimates, along with other services.

In the indictment last year, a federal grand jury accused DG Auto of selling stolen converters to the unindicted co-conspirator, identified to The Times as Dowa Metals and Mining America.

“Our strength is in our ability to collect spent catalysts by ourselves, which enables us to obtain market information with relative ease,” Akira Sekiguchi, Dowa’s president, told investors last year.

At the time, Dowa was part owner of a metal-testing company, Nippon PGM America, along with Tanaka and Toyota Tsusho America, a unit of Toyota Motors, according to Nippon’s website. Neither Tanaka nor Toyota were mentioned in the indictment or accused of wrongdoing. In a statement, Tanaka said there was “no direct contractual relationship” between it and Dowa.

Last month, three people pleaded guilty to their role in the nationwide conspiracy to ship $600 million of stolen catalytic converters from California to DG Auto. Five co-defendants have pleaded not guilty.

Best practices for the industry emphasize buying autocats from known, reputable suppliers that can trace the devices’ origins. Even so, stolen converters enter the supply chain.

Experienced auto theft investigators prefer to focus on companies buying the metals. Joseph Boche, a former director of the International Association of Auto Theft Investigators, said the thefts would mostly stop if basic rules were followed nationally: identify the person selling the device and the vehicle from which it was removed, require traceable payment, prohibit cash transactions, and maintain sales records.

But support has been uneven, he said. In the spring of 2021, a group of smelters and refiners contacted him to combat the thefts. “But they didn’t like any of my suggestions,” he said, “and stopped inviting me to any of their meetings.”

The Montana Mine

Montana is one of the few places in the world where the metals used in catalytic converters are mined. Extracting the deposits is costly, requiring twin tunnels dug 3.5 miles underground.

To augment its supply, Stillwater began buying catalytic converters for recycling, a cheaper method and less harmful to the environment.

“Blending materials from two different sources gives us a competitive advantage over other recycling facilities,” the company website states. “Our Montana mines contain quantities of nickel and copper which facilitate extraction of the PGMs from the recycled material.”

Over the past decade, the Stillwater plant processed more PGMs from the used devices than from its Montana mines, Heather McDowell, a company official, said during a recent tour. To keep the pipeline of recycled devices flowing, she said, Stillwater relies on 28 suppliers.

All of the PGMs are sent for final refining to Johnson Matthey for use in, among other things, “the vital compounds — known as active pharmaceutical ingredients,” it said in its 2021 annual report.

Pfizer, for example, uses platinum for chemotherapy treatments. “Pfizer has a diverse supply chain network and has not relied on a sole supplier,” the company said in an email response to questions from The Times about Stillwater. The company declined to say whether Stillwater is one of those suppliers.

When Stillwater needed to prime the pump, it advanced cash to “third-party brokers and suppliers to support the purchase and collection of spent autocatalytic materials,” the company wrote in a regulatory filing.

In the past, those payments totaled in the tens of millions of dollars, court records show.

For other companies, lenders step in with short-term financing, according to industry documents and interviews with five precious-metals experts. Some loans are used to buy catalytic converters to “keep the wheels spinning” on the recycling business, one precious-metals executive said.

JP Morgan, Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs provide short-term financing for metal processors, according to Ruth Crowell, chief executive of the London Bullion Market Association, a trade group that sets standards for the precious-metals industry. JP Morgan and Goldman Sachs did not respond to requests for comment; a spokesman for Morgan Stanley declined to discuss lending practices.

In an 81-count indictment in Nassau County, N.Y., this spring, prosecutors said Stillwater had paid an accused criminal operation more than $170 million for catalytic converters, many of them stolen. The indictment charged two brothers, Alan and Andrew Pawelsky, with orchestrating the thefts and using the proceeds of their Stillwater sales to buy more stolen devices.

The brothers deny the accusations, and court records show that Stillwater cut ties with them last December when their alleged criminal activity became public. Stillwater denied knowing the devices were stolen and said it was now setting the industry standard by requiring vendors to “undergo a robust diligence review.”

In court papers, Alan Pawelsky acknowledged that his company, Ace Auto Recycling, had a “lucrative contract” with Stillwater, which allowed it to “become a broker in the industry for others that had large volumes of cats.”

In a statement, Gerald M. Cohen, a lawyer for Mr. Pawelsky, described him as “a hard-working American success story who went out of his way to comply with the law, avoided buying stolen materials and was always willing to assist law enforcement.”

Stillwater has also been a business partner with Global Refining Group, a family of companies that includes Alpha Recycling in the Bronx and Alpha Shredding Group in New Jersey, according to Global’s website. Both firms were implicated in other investigations related to the purchase of stolen material, according to court records.

Justin Mercer, a lawyer representing Global Refining, said in an interview that his client sourced material only from responsible suppliers and in recent years had “doubled down on compliance.” But, he acknowledged, such steps only “reduce the likelihood” of taking in stolen goods.

The former Stillwater recycling manager, Mr. Roset, said it would be “naïve to believe that nothing ever sneaks into the system,” because the network is so large. For companies like Stillwater, he said, “There’s no way to determine the origin of the metal. But the collectors — it’s on them to have integrity.”

Shootings and Stabbings

Darren Almendarez, a sheriff’s deputy in Harris County, Texas, had recently begun investigating catalytic converter thefts in the Houston area in March 2022 when he spotted three men attempting to steal the one from his own Toyota Tundra.

Though off duty, he confronted the men in a grocery parking lot. A gun battle ensued, and Mr. Almendarez was killed.

The thefts have brought about a wave of violence that speaks to the value of the metals inside the devices. Since 2021, there have been almost four dozen shootouts, in addition to stabbings and countless fistfights.

Victims of the thefts cut across social and economic lines.

In the summer of 2021, thieves snatched seven from Silver Key Senior Services, which provides transportation for elderly and developmentally disabled people in Colorado Springs, Colo. In May, more devices were stolen from their vehicles and from two partner organizations. Replacements cost roughly $40,000.

Ms. Foote, the Bay Area opera singer who had 11 stolen from her Prius, said that for a while it happened at least once a month.

She had a protective plate installed, but thieves cut around it. Other solutions suggested by the police included getting the device engraved, which seemed pointless to her.

“The people selling the cats don’t care,” Ms. Foote said.

The Prius is a popular target because of its high PGM content. With so many Prius owners seeking replacements, wait times in some parts of the country have stretched up to a year.

All told, about 24 percent of all PGMs come through the recycling of catalytic converters, according to Braeton J. Smith, an economist at the Department of Energy.

An International Problem

Some countries are experiencing a different kind of criminality: the hijacking of entire truckloads of new catalytic converters. In February, robbers nabbed a truck in southern Germany with a load worth $1.5 million.

South Africa, in particular, has experienced escalating violence, Julian Kohle, government affairs manager with the International Platinum Group Metals Association, wrote in a recent article for the group.

He cited an incident in which gangs had shot a guard and taken about $2.5 million in precious metals from a truck in Port Elizabeth. A South African business group blamed international organized crime syndicates that jam security and tracking devices, he wrote.

Experts say the first step to stopping precious-metal thefts is to demonstrate the true scale of the crime.

American news reports often cite claims data from the National Insurance Crime Bureau, which recorded 64,000 catalytic converter thefts last year. But that number does not include thefts reported to the police, devices stolen from uninsured vehicles, or even all insurance claims, according to the National Salvage Vehicle Reporting Program.

“Lots of people don’t file claims because there’s a $500 deductible,” said Mr. Nusbaum, the group’s administrator. He added that many insurers don’t have a separate reporting category for this crime. His organization estimates that there are more than 10 times as many thefts annually as the insurance group’s tally.

The insurance bureau’s president, David Glawe, acknowledged in a statement that his most recent data was “just a snapshot of an underreported crime.”

Tate Hewitt contributed reporting, and Julie Tate contributed research. Reporting was supported in part by the Global Reporting Centre at the University of British Columbia.

Audio produced by Adrienne Hurst .

Walt Bogdanich joined The Times in 2001 as investigative editor for the Business desk. Since 2003, he has worked as an investigative reporter. He has won three Pulitzer Prizes. More about Walt Bogdanich


The librarian who couldn’t take it anymore

She loved books. and in a time of spreading book bans in public schools, that’s why this florida librarian had to quit..

short essay converter

Photographs by Thomas Simonetti

Deep Reads features The Washington Post’s best immersive reporting and narrative writing.

KISSIMMEE, Fla. — It was her last Monday morning in the library, and when Tania Galiñanes walked into her office and saw another box, she told herself that this would be the last one.

Inside were books. She didn’t know how many, or what they were, only that she would need to review each one by hand for age-appropriate material and sexual content as defined by Florida law, just as she’d been doing for months now with the 11,600 books on the shelves outside her door at Tohopekaliga High School.

Last box, and then after this week, she would no longer be a librarian at all.

She heard the first-period bell ring, 7:15 a.m. She’d wanted to get to the box right away, but now she saw one of the school administrators at her door, asking whether she’d heard about the latest education mandate in Florida.

“What’s the name of this thing?” he said. “Freedom Week?”

She exhaled loudly. “Freedom Week.”

“Oh, good,” he said. “You know about this.”

Yes, Tania knew about it. It was one more thing the state had asked of them, a mandatory recitation of parts of the Declaration of Independence “to reaffirm the American ideals of individual liberty,” along with something else she had heard from the district. “They asked us to please not celebrate Banned Books Week,” Tania said.

She was tired. Her husband was always reminding her: Tania, you have no sense of self-preservation. She had thought about pushing back against the district, had imagined putting up posters all over the walls from the American Library Association celebrating “freedom to read,” a final act before her last day on Friday. But even if she did put up the posters, who would be there to see them once she left? The library would be closed after this week, until they found someone to take her place.

short essay converter

Tania had planned to spend the rest of her career in the Osceola County School District. She was 51. She could have stayed for years at Tohopekaliga, a school she loved that had only just opened in 2018. The library was clean and new. The shelves were organized. The chairs had wheels that moved soundlessly across the carpet. The floor plan was open, designed by architects who had promised “the 21st century media center.”

That was before the school board meeting on April 5, 2022, when Tania watched parents read aloud from books they described as a danger to kids. It was before she received a phone call from the district, the day after that, instructing her to remove four books from her shelves. It was before a member of the conservative group Moms for Liberty told her on Facebook, a few days later, that she shouldn’t be allowed anywhere near students. It had been 18 months since then. Nine months since she had taken Florida’s new training for librarians, a mandatory hour-long video, and heard the state say that books in the library must not contain sexual content that could be “harmful to minors” and that violating this statute would result in a third-degree felony. “A crime,” the training had said. “Districts should err on the side of caution.” It had been seven months since she began collecting Florida’s laws and statutes in a purple folder on her desk, highlighting the sections that made her mad, and also the ones that could get her fired. Six months since she broke out in hives, since eczema crept up the side of her face, since she started having trouble sleeping and got a prescription for an anti-anxiety medication. Five months since she stood in her house crying and her husband said it wasn’t worth it anymore. He could work two jobs if he had to. “You need to quit,” he’d told her. Six weeks since the start of another school year. Five weeks since she had given her notice.

And sometime in the middle of all that, as she showed up every weekday at 7 a.m. and tried to focus on the job she had signed up for, which was, she thought, to help students discover a book to love, Tania could feel something shifting inside her 21st-century media center. The relationships between students and books, and parents and libraries, and teachers and the books they taught, and librarians and the job they did — all of it was changing in a place she thought had been designed to stay the same.

A library was a room with shelves and books. A library was a place to read.

Now the library, or at least this library, was a place where a librarian was about to leave. Tania took the first book out of the box. It had been sent over by a teacher who, like teachers throughout the school, was concerned that the books inside her classroom might be in violation of the law. She looked at the title: “Music for Sight Singing.” She took out another. “30 Songs for Voice and Piano.” She took out another. “Star Wars: A Musical Journey, Easy Piano.”

There was no sexual content to review here. Barely any content at all. She was looking at sheet music.

It should have been absurd, kneeling over a box of music she couldn’t read, sent over by a music teacher who wasn’t sure what she was allowed to have in her classroom. But now the library was a place where things like this happened.

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The books went back in the box. The box went on a cart. Tania asked one of her student assistants to return it to the teacher’s classroom, and then she walked to her desk and to the purple folder.

Inside, there were printouts of 79 pages of Florida law and statute that told her how to think about what students should and should not read. One law made it easier for people to challenge books they believed contained sexual conduct or age-inappropriate material. Another defined that term, “sexual conduct,” in layer upon layer of clinical specificity.

When she had decided to become a librarian almost 10 years ago, it was for a simple reason: She loved to read. Now she watched as the work she did at a high school in Central Florida became part of a national debate. There were fights going on over democracy and fascism. There were parents and school board members arguing on social media and in meetings. Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis (R) wasn’t just passing laws but using them to run for president. To Tania, the pure act of reading was becoming more and more political, and as a result, she had to spend much of her time reviewing the books on her shelves — not to suggest one to a student but to ask herself whether the content was too mature for the teenagers at her school. Then she had moved on to the books in each teacher’s classroom, because as of this year, the state considered those books to be part of the library, too.

All of this took time. The librarian’s job was expanding even as she felt it was shrinking to a series of rote tasks: She would copy a book’s ISBN number into a peer-review database. She would decide whether to mark it with the thumb-size red sticker, provided to her by the district, that read “M” for “mature.” If a book wasn’t listed in a database, she would review it by hand, and then she would start again with the next book. In those hours, the job became a series of keystrokes, and she began to feel more like a censor than a librarian.

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It wasn’t just Tania doing this. It was more than 1,400 librarians in all of Florida’s 67 counties, each district interpreting the law in its own way. In the panhandle, Escambia County had instructed its schools to close parts of their libraries entirely until every book on every shelf had been reviewed for sexual content. In Charlotte County, near Fort Myers, schools were told to remove any books with LGBTQ characters from elementary and middle school libraries.

Tania saw the headlines in other states, too: A new law in Iowa to prohibit library materials that include “depictions of a sex act.” A new plan in Houston to convert parts of some public school libraries into discipline centers for misbehaving students. Meanwhile, in Tania’s county, the public library had just eliminated late fees, as a means of attracting more readers. That was the whole idea, Tania had thought. But in schools, the whole idea was getting lost somewhere. Or at least that’s what she wanted to convey in January, when she wrote an email to the Florida Department of Education. She had just taken its mandatory library training. “Have we forgotten that students should be reading for pleasure?” she wrote.

It was about a month later that Tania started talking to another librarian, Erin Decker, about leaving the profession. Erin worked at a middle school and had an idea to open an independent bookstore. They didn’t know much about running a business. But then a crystal shop in downtown Kissimmee was closing, and they were putting in an application on the lease. And now, slowly, Tania was telling people at school about her decision.

“You’re leaving?” one of her favorite students asked her, dropping by between classes.

Tania put her hands on his shoulders. “Listen. Listen, my darling.”

He started to speak again, but Tania stopped him.

“This a good thing, all right?”

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The first library Tania ever saw was the one at Academia Menonita, her school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. It wasn’t a big library, more of a room on the second floor, above the kindergarten classroom, up a steep set of stairs, where the librarian sat at her desk against the back wall, positioned where she could see everybody, anywhere in the room.

The school was Mennonite, and conservative. There was no dancing. The Mennonite parents didn’t drink. But there was never censorship. The library had an aspect of calm, an expanse that opened itself up to Tania every time she entered. She saw books in English and Spanish and shelves of novels. “This is what the world is like,” she remembered thinking.

In fourth grade, she discovered Judy Blume. “Are You There God? It’s Me, Margaret” taught her about menstruation. In sixth grade, she read “Deenie” and learned about masturbation. In seventh grade, she read “Tiger Eyes” and learned about physical intimacy. In high school, the books became more mature. She read “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” and began to understand mental illness. She read a book about the serial killer Ted Bundy, “The Stranger Beside Me,” and imagined the dangers that might await her once she left home for college. On the cover, a picture of Bundy’s eyes, seeming to glow in the dark, scared her so much that when she finished the book, she threw it away.

Twenty years later, she was married, a mother of two daughters, and decisions about reading became personal in a new way. Her kids were in middle school, reading “Twilight,” and Tania asked them to hold off on the last book in the series, the one with a wedding-night scene, until they got to high school. A few years later, she became a librarian in a middle school, her first library job, and began making decisions about what was appropriate not just for her daughters but also for hundreds of students. She ordered a book for the library called “The Summer of Owen Todd,” a young-adult novel about an 11-year-old boy who is sexually assaulted by an older man, and she started having reservations. Would she want her kids to read it? There had to be a different way of thinking about it. What if there was a student here, right now, who was sexually assaulted by an adult they were told to trust? What if this book could help them? The book went back on the shelf.

“This is what the world is like,” she had thought as a student at Academia Menonita, and sometimes, when she asked herself what a library was, she wondered how she could give her students the feeling that she had been given, climbing the stairs to the second floor.

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Now, 19 10th-graders at Tohopekaliga High School walked through the doors. “Okay, everybody, we’re here because you’re going to learn some very important things about the library,” said their teacher, Carmen Lorente.

Tania pointed to the left side of the room. Classics, dystopian, fantasy, historical fiction, horror, humor. She pointed to the right. Mystery, realistic fiction, romance, sci-fi, sports, supernatural. And over there — far corner of the room — 153 graphic novels. She kept going. Nonfiction, careers. 11,600 books, 6,000 e-books.

A boy yawned. Another slumped in his chair, forehead on his laptop, eyes shut. “I’m gonna let you guys explore now,” Tania said, but no one moved. At a table in the back, a girl held up a compact mirror and applied lip gloss. Slowly, four kids walked to the graphic novels. Alone, a girl walked to the romance shelf. At Lorente’s urging, a group of students walked to the careers section and stood in silence until one of them took a cookbook from the shelf.

“Miss,” one of the 10th-grade boys told his teacher, “I can’t read.”

“You can read.”

“It gives me a headache.”

“You can read,” Lorente said. “It’s just the mind-set.”

“Any questions on how to find a book?” Tania asked.

“Guys, get up. Walk around,” Lorente said. “Look at books. It’s not a chitchat session. You need to be up and actively looking at books.”

She saw a girl leaning against a table and pointed to the shelf at hip level behind her. “I challenge you to pick up a book,” Lorente said. “Any book. And read it and see what happens.”

“Oh, I can pick up a book,” the girl replied. She walked to the realistic fiction section, put her index finger on the spine of a novel, pulled it halfway from the shelf, then released it back into place. “See? I picked up a book.”

“No, pick it up and read it,” Lorente said. “What kind of things do you like? Fantasy? Historical fiction?”

“Nothing. I like nothing.”

The bell rang. The conversation about reading was over.

“They’re good kids,” Lorente told Tania, but Tania didn’t need to be told. She thought of the other students who were already past the tour she had just given: The girl who had read and returned three books already this week. The boy who had pointed to the cover of “Dear Martin,” a young-adult book about police profiling, and had said to Tania, “This kid looks like me.”

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Now the library was quiet again. Somewhere else in the school, interviews were going on for her replacement. Three candidates were coming in. The principal had asked Tania to send him interview questions. She emailed her district supervisor for ideas and received a document in her inbox, the list of questions they kept on file.

“What do you see as the role of the librarian in the school setting?”

“What kind of library attracts students, staff and parents?”

Nothing about the laws, nothing about reviewing books, nothing about book bans at all. Tania scrolled through the questions and added one more. “What is your stance on Censorship?” she wrote, though she had no way of knowing whether it would be asked, or how the next librarian might answer.

She returned to her desk and called Erin, whose last day was also on Friday.

“I was just thinking about you,” Erin said. She told Tania what her day had been like — sick teachers, being called on to supervise sixth-grade lunch. “And sixth-graders, oh my God. I’m just gonna put this out there: It was corn dog and banana day. Sixth-grade boys. But I was thinking, I’m going to miss these kids, even though I hate lunch duty.”

Tania laughed.

“And I was like, ‘I wonder if Tania is feeling all the emotions like I am this week?’” Erin said.

“Actually, yes,” Tania said, “I am.”

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“Hey, sweetie,” she said as the students walked past her.

It was her last day.

“Hi, guys. Remember — no electronics.”

“Hi, guys. Remember — no food, no open containers, no cellphones.”

They nodded. They smiled. They walked past her.

Did they know she was leaving?

Now the room was full, and Tania said, loud enough for everyone to hear, “Today’s my last day, so check out everything you need.”

“If you’re going to check out a book, do it today and do it in the next five minutes,” she said again.

“Do you want to check out more than one book?” she asked a student carrying a graphic novel to the circulation desk. “This is my last day, and my replacement won’t start for a while.” He turned around and came back with five more.

“Are you really leaving?” another boy asked.

“Yes,” Tania said.

She tried to think of a simple answer.

“I’m opening a bookstore,” she said.

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So they knew she was leaving, but did they know why? Did they know what was happening in Florida? Some of the students may have, because their parents had asked the school to restrict their access to the library. There were three students at Tohopekaliga who had no library access at all. Last year, there were 45 students with restricted access. They weren’t allowed to check out any of the books Tania had labeled “M” for mature. This year, the number was higher: 84 kids.

Now she recognized one of them walking toward the circulation desk, a girl with a graphic novel tucked under her arm.

She scanned the student’s ID. “Limited Access,” she saw on the screen. Tania checked the front cover of the book, then the back, then the spine. No “M” sticker.

“Okay, sweetie,” she said, and the girl walked to a couch and began to read.

It was the last book she checked out. The bell rang. Tania watched as the girl walked out of the library, the book still in her hand, one finger holding her place.

A few hours from now, she would have a conversation with Erin about this strange day.

“I didn’t cry until I turned my keys in,” Erin would say.

“They gave me a card and flowers, and that’s when I cried,” Tania would say.

They would tell each other about the gifts people had made for them, the cards, the flowers, the cake, the lemon meringue pie. Last first period, last lunch period. Erin would tell Tania that her assistant principal asked her three times whether she had changed her mind about leaving. Tania would say her assistant principal asked her to say something on the systemwide radio, and what she said was “Mrs. G signing off. Media center closed until further notice.” They would sit in the store they had just leased, the crystal shop in Kissimmee that was becoming a bookstore. There were no books yet on the shelves, but there would be soon. Every book they could afford. Any book at all.

“So, how do you feel?” Tania would ask Erin, because it had been hard to pin down, the feeling that she had as she left Tohopekaliga High School for the last time.

She had wanted to leave on her own terms. But as she walked out, she wasn’t sure that was what she had done.

Lights out. Doors locked.

This 21st-century media center was now closed and would remain so until a new librarian walked in and saw what awaited: 11,600 books on the shelves, and, on the desk, one purple folder containing 79 pages of Florida laws and a short note from the previous librarian.

“You might find this helpful,” it read.

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